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Understanding Integrated Authentication in IIS

Chris Adams IIS Supportability Lead Microsoft Corp.


Introduction to Integrated Authentication Dynamics of NTLM Authentication Dynamics of Negotiate Authentication

Demonstration One

Best Practices for Integrated Authentication References

Introduction to Integrated Authentication

Introduced in Windows 2000 Commonly referred to as Windows Integrated Authentication Secure: It is considered secure because it does not transmit password on the wire Internet Explorer preferred

IF Basic and Integrated are both enabled, IE will use Integrated for security reasons

Introduction: Lets review

How authentication works in IIS

Anonymous Basic
1. 2. Request enters server core Server core forwards to anonymous provider. IIS builds path (w3svc/1/root) and verifies if anonymous is enabled. Yes: Provide path and Anon. users token to authorization manager No: IIS passes the path to each provider to determine if path has that provider enabled.

NTLM Digest Passport

Server Core

Each provider that is enabled returns to Server core the appropriate header.




Introduction to Integrated Authentication

Platform information for Windows Integrated
Windows NT 4:

Supports only NTLM (Not known as Windows Integrated)

Windows 2000:

Supports Negotiate and NTLM

Windows 2003:

Supports Negotiate and NTLM

Introduction to Integrated Authentication

Introduction to Integrated Authentication

How the appropriate integrated authentication is determined?

Yes NO


Access Denied



Dynamics of NTLM

Connection Oriented

Same Connection always used per request HTTP Keep-Alives Required NTLM, by default, doesnt prompt NTLM may prompt if original request fails with 401.1 Domain and Username are always shared over the wire between client and server Password is never Always uses Hash of password Authentication Header includes:

Understanding Auth Dialog Boxes

NTLMs use of Domain\Username\Password


Dynamics of NTLM: Security

Why is NTLM authentication secure?

Hash Algorithm of password is unknown when hackers monitor the HTTP requests on the wire If connections are broke, manipulated (by proxies), then NTLM fails

NTLM @ Work
Get /Default.HTM

Get /Default.HTM w/ AuthNTLM

Get /Default.HTM w/ AuthNTLM Hashed

401 Access Denied 401 WWW Auth: NTLM

200 - OK

Dynamics of NTLM

NTLM at work (previous slide)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.


IE Client requests a IIS resource (Anon) IIS returns 401 with WWWAuthenticate Header saying NTLM IE submits new request for a IIS resource with NTLM Authentication header (username) IIS uses NT Authentication Header to build secret key and sends 401 with key back to client IE submits new request for a IIS resource with NTLM Authentication header (username\password\hash of password) IIS checks username\password\hash and matches, return 200 OK or- 401.1 Login failed (IE prompts)

Dynamics of Negotiate

Why create another authentication protocol?

NTLM limitations

NTLM Tokens cannot be delegated NTLM is proprietary and only supported by Windows platform

Is Negotiate a new protocol?

No, it is just a wrapper that allows either Kerberos or NTLM authentication based on client request

Dynamics of Negotiate
Key Terms of Negotiate Client: Internet Explorer Server: IIS Server that is member of Active Directory Domain Active Directory:

Key Distribution Center (KDC) for all clients Ticket Granting Service: Issues all tickets (aka tokens)

Dynamics of Negotiate

IIS Server

Active Directory
The IIS server is started and when the server authenticates to domain (aka KDC) it receives it ticket. Ticket Granting Services


Dynamics of Negotiate
Active Directory (KDC)
Registered ServicePrincipalNames for CN=CAWEBCAST-IIS,OU=Domain Controllers,DC= ca-webcast,DC=local: GC/ HOST/ HOST/CA-WEBCAST-IIS HOST/ HOST/ E3514235-4B06-11D1-AB0400C04FC2DCD2/84bbfa08-5854-4729-80aa56117bc4ecb6/ca -webcast.local ldap/ ldap/ ldap/CA-WEBCAST-IIS ldap/ ldap/ NtFrs-88f5d2bd-b646-11d2-a6d3-00c04fc9b232/

Setspn %computername%

Negotiate @ Work
Initial Client request for IIS resource anonymously
The Server esponse is 401 WWWAuth Header for Negotiate I need a ticket for The following service (aka HTTP\HOST) If Service located in KDC, Secret Key shared with Client Using key provided, Client creates hash (key) and sends IIS IIS uses secret key and verifies that password matches

KDC (Active Directory)


IIS Server

Demonstration One
Configuring a Process to use a Domain Account and Kerberos
The purpose of this demonstration is to show how a worker process identity set on a application pool affects authentication when the authenticated user uses the Negotiate protocol and Kerberos


IIS 6 Help Documentation ault.asp?url=/technet/prodtechnol/windowsser ver2003/proddocs/standard/sec_auth_intwinau th.aspIIS 6 Deployment Guide ault.asp?url=/technet/prodtechnol/windowsser ver2003/maintain/security/nlbsecbp.asp

Load Balancing and Kerberos