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# BY MANJUNATH G.

N 1DA07ME047

CONTENT
INTRODUCTION PRINCIPLE OF MAGLEV

MAGLEV FUNCTIONS
GUIDE WAYS SYSTEM PARAMETERS & PERFORMANCE

CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION

## Maglev allows vehicles to levitate above a guide way and be

propelled and braked by magnetic forces, allowing greater rates of acceleration and braking. The term "maglev" refers not only to the vehicles, but to the railway system as well, specifically designed for magnetic levitation and propulsion.

PRINCIPLE

## Magnetic levitation is the phenomenon in which two magnetic

objects are repelled from each other in a vertical direction. The phenomenon, also known as MAGLEV The principle of a Maglev train is that it floats on a magnetic field which is created either by flow of electric current through a coil or due to the effect of superconducting materials.

MAGLEV FUNCTIONS
Levitation or suspension Propulsion Guidance

In most current designs, magnetic forces are used to perform all three functions, although a nonmagnetic source of propulsion could be used.

SUSPENSION SYSTEM
Electromagnetic suspension
EMS is an attractive force levitation system whereby electromagnets on the vehicle interact with and are attracted to ferromagnetic rails on the guide way. There are mainly two types of magnets used in this case. 1. Support magnet: Support magnets draw the vehicle towards the guide way from below. 2. Guidance magnet: Guidance magnets hold the vehicle laterally on track.

Electrodynamics suspension
EDS employs magnets on the moving vehicle to induce currents in the guide way. Resulting repulsive force produces inherently stable vehicle support and guidance because the magnetic repulsion increases as the vehicle/guide way gap decreases. The vehicle must be equipped with wheels or other forms of support for "takeoff" and "landing The EDS will not levitate at speeds below approximately 25 mph. EDS has progressed with advances in cryogenics and superconducting magnet technology

PROPULSION SYSTEMS
The maglev train is propelled and

braked by a synchronous long stator linear motor. This stator is not located on the vehicle, but rather in the guide way. It functions on the same principle of a traditional electric motor whose stator has been cut open, unrolled and placed along both sides of guide way. Rotating magnetic field is replaced by a travelling magnetic field. This pulls the vehicle along the guide way without any contact

GUIDANCE SYSTEM
Guidance or steering refers to

the sideward forces that are required to make the vehicle follow the guide way. The necessary forces are supplied in an exactly analogous fashion to the suspension forces, either attractive or repulsive. The same magnets on board the vehicle, which supply lift, can be used concurrently for guidance or separate guidance magnets can be used.

GUIDE WAY
The guide way is the physical

structure along which maglev vehicles are levitated. It can run at ground level or elevated which allows it to be allows it to be flexibly adjustable to individual operating conditions. Various guide way configurations Beam Method Panel Method Direct-Attachment Method

1. Beam type
In

the beam method, the sidewall portion will be made of concrete beams. The entire process from beam manufacturing to installation of the ground coils take place at the on-site factory. A finished beam is transported to the work site within the guide way, to be placed on two concrete beds set up in advance there.
1. 2. 3. 4.

2. Panel type

## In a factory set up on-site the concrete panel is produced and

attached with ground coils. The finished assembly is carried to the work site, where it is fixed, with 10 bolts, to the concrete sidewall erected in advance there.

3. Direct-Attachment type

## At the work site in the tunnels or on the bridges a concrete sidewall

portion is produced. At the same site the finished sidewall is directly fitted with the ground coils. With no need for the factory or transport vehicle, this method is economically superior to the other two. Its drawback lies in that it allows only slight adjustments of individual ground coils to correct the irregularities.

SYSTEM PARAMETERS
Levitation occurs at about 135 km/h and the train levitates by

100mm. The vehicles are fitted with Retractable landing gear. Magnetic shields are needed on the train to protect passengers from the large magnetic fields produced by the superconducting magnets. The train is also fitted with a gas turbine auxiliary power unit to provide on train power. Three different braking systems are used: an electric brake, an air brake and a friction brake on the landing wheels.

PERFORMANCE
The performance of maglev is superior to conventional rail because: It does not rely on friction between wheel and rail There are no limitations on installed power; this is determined by trackside power systems Maglev trains are lighter per seat than conventional trains. For these reasons maglev trains can accelerate and brake at much higher rates. For example, the Transrapid train can reach 300km/h in 120s and 5km. A conventional train would require about 30km to reach the same speed. In terms of braking, a conventional train can brake at a rate of 10 per cent g from 300km/h whereas the limit on braking for a maglev train is defined by the capacity of the linear motor and passenger comfort.

## CIVIL ENGINEERING ASPECTS

GEOTECHNICAL STUDY BASE MAPPING

UTILITIES
FOUNDATION DESIGN STRUCTURE DESIGN ANALYSIS

GUIDEWAY BEAMS
The guide way beam serves three important system

functions: 1. Supports the weight of the vehicle and transfers the corresponding loads to the ground. 2. Guides the vehicle along its route 3. Provides the apparatus for the mounting of the functional components, which are the guide way portion of the longstator linear motor and provides the reference for the vehicle locations.

## TYPES OF GUIDEWAY BEAMS

Type I Guide way Concrete Beam: This single-span beam is designed for a standard length of up to 100 and a height of 6-6. Type 1 guide way beams are used along aerial guide way segments with a maximum span length between support columns of 100.
Type II Concrete Guide way Beam:
This beam is typically used in at-grade applications. This single-span beam is design for a standard length of 20 and a height of 1-4. The beam is mounted on a pedestal that is fixed to a continuous concrete slab foundation or bridge deck. The pedestal height can vary to allow for a minimum height of 4-1 to a maximum of 11-6 from its base to the top of the guide way beam

TYPE 1 TYPE 2

TYPE 3 TYPE 4

## GUIDE WAY STRUCTURE SUPPORT TYPES

TYPE 5 TYPE 6

TYPE 7

OTHER ASPECTS
SAFETY: Use of raised guide ways and vehicles captive to the
guide way reduces the risk of events such as trespassing, suicide, vandalism and derailments. Also, the systems are fully automatic in their operation. Raised guide ways, however, do increase the risk of road vehicle strikes, which may damage the structure.

## NOISE: Maglev systems are quieter than conventional rail at high

speeds. Indeed both the Japanese and German systems are quieter at 400km/h than conventional rail at 300km/h. This improved performance is as a consequence of better aerodynamics and no wheel rail noise.

## MAINTAINENCE: The guide ways will have reduced

maintenance costs compared with conventional permanent way.

High Speed
Save oil Low Energy Consumption High Capacity Low Wear and Maintenance Safety Environmental issues Low Noise Levels

The Maglev's track is much more

expensive than railroad tracks. Whole new sets of tracks would have to be built for the Maglev to run. Although Maglev are pretty quiet, noise caused by air disturbance still occurs. The Super Conducting Magnet creates a strong magnetic force that may cause problem for some passengers.

CONCLUSION
Maglev trains use magnets to levitate and propel the trains forward.

It is a clean and efficient technology. Since there is no friction these trains can reach high speeds. It is a safe and efficient way to travel. Maintenance and operational costs should be considerably lower for maglev than high-speed rail owing to the non-contact nature of the support and propulsion sub-systems, and fully automatic operation of the system. Any decision to build a maglev system will almost certainly be political, underwritten by public money and taken in the national interest. The benefits of high-speed travel are skewed towards more affluent members of society; it brings few benefits to poorer, less privileged members of society.

REFERENCE