Production of Ethanol from Cellulosic material

By, C.V.Chandramouli(10904063) & S.Nivejeetha(10904182) Under Guidance of Mr M.Venkatesh Prabhu

02/11/08

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Introduction

The use of ethanol as an alternative fuel has been steadily increasing around the world for various purposes. Production of ethanol for fuel can decrease the dependent on fossil fuels, reduce trade deficits, reduce air pollution, and reduce global climatic change carbon-di-oxide build up. Badger ,(2002) reported that unlike gasoline, ethanol is an oxygenated fuel that contains 35% oxygen, which reduces particulate NOX emission of combustion. Ethanol can be made synthetically from petroleum or microbial conversion of bio mass material through fermentation

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Cellulosic resources are in general very wide spread abundance and outside the human food chain. Hence Cellulosic and hemicellulosic are inexpensive agricultural substrates available and can be easily hydrolyzed to fermentable sugar using enzymatic or chemical pre treatment method. It is reported that production of ethanol can be carried out by these feed stocks also . Such as 1) Sucrose containing crop like, sugarcane, beet molasses. 2) Starchy materials like corn and wheat 3) Lignocellulosic biomass

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Cellulose and Hemicellulose molecules consist of high percentage of sugar molecules, hence the ability to recover and ferment into ethanol is important for the efficiency and economics of the process Cellulose and Hemicellulose molecules consist of long chains of glucose molecules, in addition to glucose (6 carbon or Hexose Sugar), it contains pentose (5 carbon Sugar ).Since 5 carbon sugars comprised of high percentage of the available sugars, the ability to recover and ferment into ethanol is important for the efficiency and economics of the process. Rice husk, which are available as agricultural waste, having Cellulosic contents have the potential for ethanol production.
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REVIEW

FEED STOCK SELECTION

TRADITIONAL TECHNOLOGY
Sugar Feed Stocks : Sugar materials are in human food chains these materials are too expensive to use for the ethanol production.

CURRENT TECHNOLOGY
Starch Feed Stocks : Requires a reaction of starch with water to breakdown starch into fermentable sugars to produce ethanol.

FUTURE TECHNOLOGY
Cellulose Feed Stocks: Like sugar molecules, Starch materials are also in human food chain and are too expensive fortunately, a third alternative exists – Cellulosic materials.
Badger,P.C.2002.Ethanol from cellulose :Ageneral review.p.17-21.In:J.Janick and A.Whipkey(eds.),Trends in new crops and new uses.ASHS Press,Alexandria,VA.
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Energy, especially from fossil fuels, is a key ingredient for all sectors of a modern economy and plays a fundamental role in improving the quality of life in less developed economies. In 2001, India was ranked sixth in the world in terms of energy demand; accounting for 3.5% of total energy consumed, and is expected to grow at 4.8% in the future. India imports 70% of the oil it uses, and the country has been hit hard by the increasing price of oil, uncertainty and environmental hazards that are concerned with the consumption of fossil fuels. In such context, bioenergy constitute a suitable alternative source of energy for India, as large amounts of raw material are available to be harnessed
Dr. Jyoti Parikh and Dr. Amit Walia Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC), India.

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Various feed stocks

Sucrose Containing feed stocks –
Sugar beet, Sugar cane, Sweet sorghum and fruits

Starchy materials Cereals, grains, Potatoes, Cassava etc.,

Lignocellulosic biomass Wood, Agricultural waste, Fibrous plant material etc.,

Carlos A. Cardona.,Oscar j.Sanchez,2007 , Fuel ethanol production: Process design trends and integration opportunities. Bioresourse technology ,2415-2457
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Scope of The Project

To identify the high yielding substrate. To study the kinetics of ethanol production. New process integration to produce ethanol economically

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