PENGANTAR PATOLOGI

dr. Rizki Isnaeni, SpOG

Kuliah Program Ilmu Keperawatan FKIK Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta

keadaan abnormal akibat penyakit atau kondisi yang belum dapat dikategorikan penyakit . fisiologis maupun biokimiawi  Penyebabnya dapat berupa penyakit.Definisi  Patofisiologi  Ilmu yang mempelajari gangguan fungsi tubuh baik secara mekanik.

jaringan.Definisi  Patologi adalah ilmu yang mempelajari dan mendiagnosis penyakit  Melalui pemeriksaan organ. sel dan cairan tubuh  Suatu penyakit dapat dilihat dari sudut: Sains (Sciences) Medis (Medical) .

kerusakan genetis dsb . autoimun. keracunan. infeksi.Patologi Sains  Sains menerangkan mekanisme terjadinya kerusakan pada sel dan jaringan serta mekanisme tubuh dalam memperbaiki dan mengatasinya  Proses terjadinya penyakit melibatkan faktor eksternal dan internal seperti trauma.

tissue repair dan neoplasia  Hal tersebut membantu proses analisa dan pemahaman akan suatu penyakit manusia . inflamasi. Kemampuan tubuh merespons penyakit maupun cedera (injury) ditelaah melalui proses patologis seperti adaptasi jaringanthd cedera. kematian sel.

Cell death  Necrosis is the irreversible destruction of cells as a result of severe injury in a setting where the cell is unable to activate the needed metabolic pathways for survival or orderly degeneration. Inflammation  A transmission electron microscope image of an immune cell crossing from the bone marrow into the circulation  Inflammation is a particularly important and complex reaction to tissue injury. is a regulated. orderly degeneration of the cell which occurs in the settings of both injury and normal physiological processes. in contrast. . and is particularly important in fighting infection. Apoptosis.Adaptation to injury  Cells and tissues may respond to injury and stress by specific mechanisms. which may vary according to the cell types and nature of the injury.

ectopic tissue. or "new growth." is a proliferation of cells which is independent of any physiological process.Tissue repair  Tissue repair. Choristoma  Choristoma. Neoplasia  Neoplasia. is a mass of histologically normal tissue that is present in an abnormal location. as seen in wound healing. . is triggered by inflammation.

Patologi medis Patologi anatomi  Patologist anatomi mendiagnosis penyakit dan informasi klinis lain melalui pameriksaan jaringan dan sel  Pemeriksaan dilakukan secara makro dan mikroskopis  Pemeriksaan dilakukan juga dengan cara pemeriksaan immunohistokimia dan biologi molekuler .

such as in-situ hybridization. and nucleic acid microarrays for specialised diagnostic studies of disease in tissues and cells.  Autopsies  Forensic pathology receive specialized training in determining the cause of death and other legally relevant information from the bodies of persons who died in a non-medical or potentially criminal circumstances. reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. .Termasuk di dalamnya antara lain:  Surgical pathology Cytopathology  Molecular pathology refers to the use of nucleic acid-based techniques.

urine.  Patologi klinis berpusat pada laboratorium klinis. seperti : plasma. inflammatory exudates. stool. respiratory or mucosal secretions. cerebrospinal fluid dsb.Patologi Klinis  Dikenal juga sebagai laboratorium medis  Diagnosis penyakit berdasarkan analisa cairan tubuh. .

Patologi Klinis Sub spesialisasi diantaranya:  chemical pathology  Hematology and Flow cytometry Medical microbiology (Medical cytogenetics  Immunology  Molecular genetic pathology .

.  MORPHOLOGY: The structural alterations induced in cell and tissues.Pathology focuses on 4 aspects of diseases  ETIOLOGY: Cause of disease. as observed clinically.  PATHOGENESIS: Mechanisms of development of disease.  FUNCTIONAL CONSEQUENCES: Functional consequences of the morphologic changes. Knowledge of etiology remains the backbone: Disease diagnoses Understanding the nature of diseases Treatment of diseases.

The primary goal of pathology is the study of the four main aspects of a disease:  Etiology: what causes the disease  Pathogenesis: the mechanism by which a certain etiological factor causes disease  Morphologic changes: the structural changes induced in the cells. tissues and organs  Clinical significance: the functional consequences of the morphologic changes .

Rencana perkuliahan POKOK BAHASAN  Kuliah pengantar Patologi umum  Patologi Sistim Patologi Sistim Syaraf Pusat (SSP)  Patologi Sistim Muskulo-Skeletal  Patologi Sistim Kardio vaskuler  Patologi sistim Pernafasan  Patologi Sistim Pencernaan  Patologi Sistim Saluran kemih  UJIAN TENGAH SEMESTER .

penyakit genetik dan gangguan perkembanganTumor dan kanker  Patologi Sistim Reproduksi Pria dan wanita  Patologi penyakit infeksi dan penyakit imunologis  UJIAN AKHIR SEMESTER . Patologi sistim indera  Patologi Sistim Endokrin  Penyakit .

I forget I see. I remember I do.I hear. I understand .

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