This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
“There is now a good deal of hesitancy over the value of word culture. I don‟t know how many times,” Raymond Williams once said, “ I‟ve wished that I‟ve never heard the damned word”.
Cambridge professor who never forgot the Welsh village where he was born in 1921 His research was extremely important for the developlment of the (BCCCS) Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies at Birmingham Raymond Williams, E. P. Thompson, and Richard Hoggart, the three founding figures of the Centre, were also recognized influential members of the New Left. This most prolific writer on the topic of culture died in 1988 Culture and Society (1958), The Keywords (1976), The Long Revolution(1961)
KEYWORDS: A VOCABULARY OF CULTURE AND SOCIETY (1976) Williams traces the historical roots of the word „culture‟ in several European and Scandinavian countries. .
spiritual and moral progress of humanity From the 19th cent. protect and honour with worship‟ By 15th cent. cultivate.THE WORD CULTURE Initially. the word derived from cultura ‘inhabit. the French word culture had passed into English and was associated with the tending of natural growth in either crops or animals From early 16th cent. culture (noun) associated with civility. this concept was extended to human beings In late 18th cent. culture is talked about in pluralCULTURES .
DEFINITION/S OF “CULTURE” In the early 20th century anthropology was established as an academic discipline. with cultural anthropology as its subbranch. It is very complicated to make one firm and closed definition of culture so we will look at Raymond Williams‟ three broad categories of definition. in which culture is defined as a whole way of life of a particular society. .
GROUP OR HUMANITY IN GENERAL THE WORKS AND PRACTICES OF INTELLECTUAL ESPECIALLY ARTISTIC ACTIVITY CULTURE . PERIOD.THREE BROAD CATEGORIES OF DEFINITION A GENERAL PROCESS OF SPIRITUAL AND AESTHETIC DEVELOPMENT A PARTICULAR WAY OF LIFE. WHETHER OF THE PEOPLE.
joining culture and democracy. . and cultural.THE LONG REVOLUTION (1961) After these definitions of culture Williams came up with his famous social definition of culture in his book The Long Revolution (1961) This publication made a substantial contribution to the production of modern cultural studies in general and advanced his politics. The Long Revolution looks forward to the next decade and suggests that we are living through a long revolution that is simultaneously economic. political.
Williams) “We use the word culture in two senses: to mean the whole way of life.” .the special processes of discovery and creative effort.”(“Culture is Ordinary”. but also in institutions and ordinary behaviour“. in every mind.SOCIAL DEFINITION OF CULTURE “Culture is a description of a particular way of life which expresses certain values and meanings not only in art and learning.the common meanings. the mean the arts and learning. “Culture is ORDINARY in every society.
Culture would therefore always be fragmented.CULTURE AND SOCIETY (1968) The publication of this book portrays his influence over the development of Cultural Studies. partly unknown and partly unrealized. Williams here argued that in the modern world culture would be so complex that no individual could ever grasp its in it entirety. .
law. including the key elements of language. custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society‟ – Cultural Studies „A dynamic set of socially acquired behaviour patterns and meanings common to members of a particular society or human group. artefacts. morals. art. belief. beliefs and values‟ .DEFINITIONS ACROSS ACADEMIC DISCIPLINES In archeology and cultural antrophology „material production‟ In history and cultural studies „signifying or symbolic systems‟ „Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge.
the sacred and society‟ Occupation. social class. space.CULTURAL CATEGORIES Cultural categories „define and organize time. nature. caste. Social categories families Temporal categories the distinction between work and leisure Natural and sacred categories delineate between what is considered cleanliness and filth in different cultures . gender. and age. ethnicity.
“ C. ranked and interrelated‟. means and ends of action.“A value is a conception explicit or implicit. Kluckhohn .CULTURAL PRINCIPLES Cultural principles „allow things to be grouped into cultural categories. of the desirable which influences the selection from available moulds. Ideals Norms Beliefs and Values . distinctive of an individual or characteristic of a group.
logical. . independent. a sense of accomplishment.CULTURAL VALUES ( ROKEACH) Instrumental values Terminal values “Shared beliefs about how people should behave. capable. intellectual. obedient. a world at peace etc. family security. loving etc. “Desirable life goals or the so-called idealized endstates” comfortable life. they are the idealized modes of behavior used to attain end-stats” ambitious.
He discusses the concept of national cultures which according to him differ at the deeper level. level of values. .CULTURAL VALUES Cultural values are especially important when it comes to crosss-cultural research because every culture is essentially different and thus values different things. Geert Hofstede is an influential Dutch social psychologist who conducted a pioneering study of culture across modern nations and cultural values are of great importance in research work.
including their interconnectedness’ . thus no culture is due to the authorship of one group of people.NATIONAL CULTURES National cultures distinguish similar people. This way of thinking about culture is relatively recent in origin. institutions and organizations in different countries. ‘Cultures need to be studied in all their plurality and particular historicity. Cultures are interconnected and exchange materials. Assigning to the nation a particular culture is not universally shared.
treated as ‘destiny’ of the group – or at least of its core constituents. a conception of the equality of all members of the group organized as a civil society. a density of linguistic or cultural ties enabling a higher degree of social communication within the group than beyond it. .NATIONAL CULTURES Three central features to building national cultures according to Miroslav Hroch are: a ‘memory’ of some common past.
States in the precapitalist period were multinational. . Egypt. yet it can hardly be said to have had nations. China and ancient Chaldea were in no way nations.NATIONAL CULTURES “The notion of a static national culture that can be easily measured is flawed. confederations of local republics and empires. Classical antiquity had republics.” Nation and Narration. municipal kingdoms. and the boundaries were dictated by dynastic marriages. Bhabha (1990) Antiquity was unfamiliar with them. wars. and geographic convenience. since much of what constitutes the nation is at the level of discourse rather than practice.
and territory. .NATIONAL CULTURES The advent of capitalism fostered notions of individual citizenship and distinctions between different social classes. Hobsbawm (1990) suggests that as a consequence of this process NATIONS are „invented‟ or „imagined‟ (Anderson 1983). ancestry. The ruling classes were pressed to legitimate their position of power and did so by inventing symbols that represented the common culture of the people in the form of a common language.
We are born into relationships which are typically settled in a place. . draw on a range of theoretical and conceptual ideas relating to globalization and multiculturalism and are serving to undermine the notion of cohesive. homogeneous. Cultures are having shifting nature and are becoming interconnected.NATIONAL CULTURES Nation VS National Nation‟ as a term is radically connected with „native‟. The concept of culture has necessarily become more complex. National as a term is associated with something that is a „product‟ of a certain nation. Alternative accounts of nation and the national. national cultures. Nation and national are highly contested concepts.
prosthetic culture. sports culture. The strong association that has been established between the concept of culture and the notion of lifestyles has generated another range of extentions . whether at the subnational or supranational levels. Body culture. material culture. mass culture and popular culture with reference to context. (Williams. and transitional cultures relating to forms of difference that operate both within nations and across the relations between them. lesbian culture. folk culture.64) . black culture. Gay culture. ethnic cultures. 2005: 63.from subcultures and countercultures to club. consumer culture. street and drug cultures. media culture and visual culture similarly point to the proliferation of usage. diasporic cultures. References to national and regional cultures.CLASSIFICATION AND TYPOLOGY High culture.
LOW CONTEXT CULTURE (TWITCHELL) .HIGH VS.
French Japanese (m+p) .see time as a whole unit elements -American . POLYCHRONIC CULTURES (TWITCHELL) This concept refers to the way how people perceive time. and how they succeed in accomplishing tasks over some period of time. Polychronic -only one thing at a time -more things at the same time -plan everything thoroughly -do not organize everything -time divided into fixed .MONOCHRONIC VS. Monochronic VS. their attitude to it.
controlling ones emotions in a professional way or showing them and becoming involved Specific vs. controlling and directing ones environment or being influenced by it and coordinating it. Diffuse Specific cultures stick to facts and data relating to the case while diffuse cultures use general feelings.SEVEN DIMENSIONS OF CULTURE ACCORDING TO TROMPENAARS Universalism vs. . Synchronic -doing things one by one. Collectivism . Internal vs. step by step or doing things all at the same time.functioninng in groups or as an individual Neutral vs. Ascription -what you do is important and brings status or who you are and what your contacts are. Particularism . Affective . External control.following rules or creating relationships and believing in particular cases and excptions Individualism vs. Sequential vs. Achievement vs.
THEORIES OF CULTURE Functional Scientific Evolutionary theory of culture .
that is. culture.SCIENTIFIC THEORY The meeting ground of all branches of antropology which are prehistory. with refernce to the method of observation in the field and to the menaing of culture as a process and product. folklore. Anthropology can contribute towards a more scinetific outlook on its legitimate subject matter. Anthroplogists. prehistorians. and it renders an indespensable service to other humanities . ethnologists all use sound scientific data in their research connected to culture. The scientific quota in all anthropological work consists in the theory of culture. physical anthropology and cultural anthropology is the scientific study of culture.
The linguistics of future.SCIENTIFIC THEORY Culture. will become the study of language in the context of culture. moving in the complex. as a means of exchange and production. Economics. especially as regarding the science of meannig. manydimensional medium of cultural interests. historian and the linguist. social student. as the widest context of human behaviour. is important to the psychologist. may in the future base its principles and arguments on the study on man as he really is. .
a medium through which he achieves his ends: .living .FUNCTIONAL THEORY Culture can be understood instrumentally and functionally. It is a handiwork of man.a standard of safety.power . comfort and prosperity .possibility to create goods and values beyond his animal. organic endowment .
artifacts. consumers‟ goods) There is a constant interaction between the organism and the secondary milieu in which it exists. . motive in folk tales and dogmatic conceptions in the analysis of magic or religion).FUNCTIONAL THEORY Every differential phase in any human activity occurs with the incidence of elements of material culture (material objects. culture. and where neither form nor function is very evident. that is. – form of culture Culture includes elements which remain intangible. (ideas and values about interests and beliefs. inaccessible to direct observation.
clothes fashions. catch-phrases. Human behaviour is considered to be the consequence of the interaction of evolved physiological and psychological variables with the natural environment. Human culture is biologically determined by the evolutionary history of the species. analogous to the gene. Tunes. called meme. and the mechanism by which they produce copies of themselves is imitation. ways of making pots or arches are examples of memes. Memes are replicators. ideas. .EVOLUTIONARY THEORY Evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins postulated the existence of a unit of cultural transmission.
. differing from mainstream coevolutionism in its insistence on replication as the mechanism of cultural inheritance. Culture constitutes a continuum so any units within it are arbitrary constructs of observers.EVOLUTIONARY THEORY The cultural selectionism approach (gene-cultural coevolution) tempers these claims. Cultural selectionism posits an unspecified inheritance mechanism. Replication is the exception rather than the rule in processes of cultural transmission -. Memetics is a subcategory within cultural selectionism. Mutation is the default case in processes of cultural diffusion.the rule being almost always transformation (example: varying versions of rumours).
FUNCTION AND PURPOSE OF CULTURE “The main purpose of culture is to serve human biological. we learn the behaviours. psychological and social needs. social rules. As we grow up in our culture. biological production. shelter. protection. security. maintenance of health. self-expression and sense of belonging. Psychological and social: need for love and affection. . values.Malinowski Biological : nutrition. and ways of perceiving the world that guide our actions and our thoughts.”.
Culture also creates needs for humans to meet. Social and economic conditions under which people live make them need some things that people of other places and times did not need. . functions to raise and socialize new generations of group members (educational practices and family life) encourages people to adhere to group values and rules that make cooperation possible (religious beliefs and practices and creative arts).FUNCTION AND PURPOSE OF CULTURE Culture: meets individual needs directly .knowledge of how to acquire food or make shelter.
control (legitimation of the structure of authority and organization that control certain activities) .FUNCTION AND PURPOSE OF CULTURE Functions of culture: -integrartion (shared interpretations / meanings) -commitment (emotional "reasons") .
It is an understanding that individuals are unique and different.CULTURAL DIVERSITY The concept of diversity is based on individual acceptance and respect. .
.CULTURAL DIVERSITY Cultural diversity includes (but is not limited to): Language gender sexual orientation race ethnicity dress values socio-economic status religion and religious practices social and community responsibilities family and family responsibilities political views.
21 May The Day provides us with an opportunity to deepen our understanding of the values of cultural diversity and to learn to “live together” better. UNESCO continues to promote greater awareness of the crucial relationship between culture and development and the important role of information and communication technologies in this relationship.GOOD TO KNOW World Day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue and Development . .
From its beginning the Festival has set out to showcase the value and potential of a multicultural society. the Festival has contributed greatly to the cultural and economic life and has brought a celebrated and acclaimed programme of music. arts events.GOOD TO KNOW Festival of World Cultures in Ireland Over the past decade. and this summer it celebrated ten years of challenging and exciting ambition. . family events and theatre to Dún Laoghaire each summer since its inception in 2001.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.