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Managing Employee Motivation and Performance

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At the end of this chapter you will learn:


What

is Motivation? What Motivates Employees? Why People choose certain behavioral options? How to reinforce behavior?
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WHAT is Motivation

An

internal force that lead people to behave in certain ways


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Why

motivation is important for organizations?


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Environment
Ability
Motivation

P E R F O R M A N C E
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Managing Employee Motivation and Performance

What Motivates Employees?

Content

How to motivate employees? How to reinforce behavior?

Process
Reinforcement
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Historical Perspective on Motivation

Traditional Approach Human Relations Approach Human Perspective Approach

Taylor Economic Gain

Social Process Illusion of involvement and participation

Peoples contribution are valuable Encourage real participation


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Content Perspectives of Motivation


What Motivates People?

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

Existence-Relatedness Growth (ERG)


Herzberg Two Factors Theory Achievement, Affiliation, Power (AAP)
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Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


SelfActualization Esteem Needs (Self + Others) Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs
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Satisfied

Use Maslows Hierarchy of Needs to categories the following general needs


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Sleep, Eat The need to have a safe environment Respect and recognition for self Respect and recognition from others Relationship and communication with others The need to continue to grow, develop, and expand our capabilities

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Use Maslows Hierarchy of Needs to categories the following general needs


A.

Changing job titles of Batelcos employees from General Managers to Vice President UoB is providing partial health insurance for its employees The Labor Law in Bahrain states that all employees must have a pension Choosing a new employees to be part of a team that is responsible to arrange for the graduation ceremony in UoB UOB arranged a trip to the Italian Circus for all UOB employees and their families A General Manager who participated in the marathon The Labor Law in Bahrain states that the minimum wage for Bahrainis is BD200
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B. C.

D.

E.

F. G.

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


New Challenges Job title, Assignments Team Work, Gathering Job Continuity, Pension Salary, Benefits
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Satisfied

Shortcomings..
Is

it Five Levels?

Do
Is

you agree on the ordering?

it different by culture?

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Existence-RelatednessGrowth
Growth
Relatedness
SelfActualization
Esteem Others Esteem Self

Social
Security Physiological
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Existence

ERG

Existence =

Physiological

Security

Relatedness =

Belongings

(Social)+ Esteem from Others Esteem + Self Actualization


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Growth =
Self

ERG
Hierarchy
Overlap Frustration-Regression

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Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory

Job-Related Factors and Job Environment Factors Are they the same?
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Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory


Job-Related Job Environment

Achievement Recognition Work Itself Growth/Advancement Responsibility

Working Conditions Policy/Admin. Supervision Pay and security

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Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory


Satisfaction
& No dissatisfaction

Are they the same?


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Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory


Satisfaction Job Related

No dissatisfaction

Job Environment Factors

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Job Related - Motivating Factors


Satisfaction

No Satisfaction

Achievement Recognition Work Itself Responsibility Advancement

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Job Enviro. - Hygiene Factors


No Dissatisfaction

Dissatisfaction

Working Conditions Work itself Supervision Pay and security

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Answer the following


1.

Which factors must be present to lead to employee motivation


a) b)

Job Related factors Environment related factors

2.

Which factors must be present to lead to a hygienic working environment


a)
b)

Job Related factors Environment related factors

3.

The existence of environment related factors will lead to employees satisfaction and hence motivation (T/F) According to Herzberg, if a manager wants to motivate employees, she/he must provide job10-23 related factors (T/F)

4.

Shortcoming of Two-Factor Theory

Interview results subject to different interpretation

Sample not representative of general population (Accountants)


Pay Is it a hygiene or motivating factor?
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AAP
Prioritize the following statements according to their importance to your

I set difficult goals for my self, I get preoccupied with my work and I like to have quick feedback I like to interact and socialize with others I have the desire to be influential in a group and to control ones environment

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How to Motivate
Achiever
Affiliater Power-centred

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Achievement

What is the % Americans who are classified as Achievers? What is the % Japanese who are classified as Achievers?

How

to motivate a person with high Achievement need? 10% Americans


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Achievement
10%

Americans 25% Japanese


How

to motivate a person with high Achievement need?

Goal-accomplishment
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Affiliation

How to motivate a person with high Affiliation need?

Acceptance & Companionship


Increase the human interaction and companionship Customer interaction
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Power
How

to motivate a person with high Power need? and Influence

Control

Supervisory Team

Leader Leader
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Committee

Content Perspectives of Motivation

What Motivates People? Two-Factors Maslow Theory Physiological Needs


Security Needs Belongings Esteem Self actualization

Job-related factors

Achievement Responsibility Work Itself Advancement Growth

ERG Need for Existence Need for Relatedness Need for Growth (ERG)

AAP Achievement Affiliation Power

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Content

Motivation theories suggest that motivation process should begin with identification of --------------

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PROCESS Perspectives on Motivation


Why

people choose certain behavioral options to satisfy their needs?


they evaluate their satisfaction after goalattainment?
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How

PROCESS Perspectives on Motivation

Expectancy
Equity

Theory

Theory

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Expectancy Theory
Environment Motivation Effort Ability Performance Outcome Outcome Outcome
Valence

Valence

Valence

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Motivation
How

depends on

much we want something

Valence

Positive (if we want something) Negative (if we dont want something) Zero (indifference)
How

likely we think we will get it

Effort-to

Performance Expectancy 10-36 Performance-to-outcome Expectancy

Expectancy Theory
Valence

Motivation

Effort

Performance

Outcome

Effort-toPerformance Expectancy

Performance-toOutcome Expectancy

How Much we want Something? 10-37

Employee Questions About Expectancy Theory

What is the probability that I can perform at the required level if I try? What is the likelihood my performance will lead to the desired outcomes?

What value do I place on the outcome?


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Conditions For Motivational behavior


Greater than Zero Effort-to-performance Performance -toOutcome Valence

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Equity Theory - Adam Stacey

Social equity in the rewards they receive for performance.

SELF OTHER

Outcome: Input Outcome : Input

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Under rewarded

Reward Inputs

Equitable rewards

Over rewarded

Input

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Good Behavior
Good

behavior if rewarded will increase the probability of it being repeated. This type of reinforcement is called positive reinforcement. Some time good behavior is repeated to avoid punishment. This type of reinforcement is called Avoidance.

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Bad Behavior

Punishment of bad behavior, will reduce its repeation. This type of reinforcement is called Punishment. Ignorance of bad behavior might eventually lead extinction. This type of reinforcement is called extinction.
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Types (Arrangements) of Reinforcement

POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT Good behavior reward to strengthen to be repeated

PUNISHEMENT

Bad behavior punishment to weaken not repeated

AVOIDANCE Good Behavior To avoid punishment

Bad behavior Ignore 10-44 eventually extinct

EXTINCTION

Extinction, Positive Reinforcement, Punishment, Avoidance

-------- strengthen behavior by providing a desirable consequences. ------- strengthen behavior by allowing escape from an undesirable consequences. ------------ weakness behavior by providing an undesirable consequence. ------- weakens behavior by ignoring it.

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Schedule for Applying Reinforcement


Time (Interval)

Behavior (Ratio)

Fixed-Internal Reinforcement is applied at fixed intervals, regardless of behavior Variable-Internal Reinforcements applied at variable time interval.

Fixed-Ratio Reinforcement is applied after a fixed number of behaviors, regardless of time. Variable-Ratio Reinforcements applied after a variable number of10-46 behaviors.