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Processing of Satellite Image using Digital Image Processing

Presenters:
Sana Ullah (4849) Zabeehullah (4893) Sohail Ahmad (4895)

Contents
Image Processing Purpose of Image Processing Satellite Image Digital Image Color Composition
False Color True Color

Image Rectification and Restoration


Ground Control Points (GCP) Bit Error Resampling Striping

Image Enhancement

Information Extraction

Contrast Enhancement Spatial Filtering Image Classification Unsupervised Classification Supervised Classification Accuracy and Error

Conclusion

Image Processing
Analyzing and manipulating images with a computer for information extraction is known as image processing. Image processing generally involves three steps:
o Import an image with an optical scanner or directly through digital photography. o Manipulate or analyze the image in some way. This stage can include image enhancement and data compression, or the image may be analyzed to find patterns that aren't visible by the human eye. For example, meteorologists use image processing to analyze satellite photographs. o Output the result. The result might be the image altered in some way or it might be a report based on analysis of the image.

Purpose of Image Processing


The purpose of image processing is divided into 5 groups. They are:
o o o o o Visualization - Observe the objects that are not visible. Image sharpening and restoration - To create a better image. Image retrieval - Seek for the image of interest. Measurement of pattern Measures various objects in an image. Image Recognition Distinguish the objects in an image.

Satellite Image
Satellite images are images captured by satellites at regular intervals (usually hourly) and used by meteorologists to forecast the weather. The three types of satellite imagery
o Weather zone are infrared images o visible images o water vapor images.

Digital Image
Digital imaging is the art of making digital images photographs, printed texts, or artwork - through the use of a digital camera or image machine, or by scanning them as a document. Each image is compiled of a certain amount of pixels, which are then mapped onto a grid and stored in a sequence by a computer. Every pixel in an image is given a total value to determine its hue or color.

Color Composition
There are two types of color composition : False Color True Color False color refers to a group of color rendering methods used to display images in color which were recorded in the visual or non-visual parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. A false-color image is an image that depicts an object in colors that differ from those a photograph (a "true-color" image) would show.

Color Composition
An image is called a "true-color" image when it offers a natural color rendition, or when it comes close to it. This means that the colors of an object in an image appear to a human observer the same way as if this observer were to directly view the object:
o A green tree appears green in the image, a red apple red, a blue sky blue, and so on. o When applied to black-and-white images, true-color means that the perceived lightness of a subject is preserved in its depiction.

Image Rectification and Restoration


Ground Control Points (GCP)
Features with known locations on a map (X,Y coordinates). These are the ground control points The same features can be accurately located on the images as well (column, row numbers). The features must be well distributed on the map and the image. Highway intersections are commonly used ground control points.

Bit Error
Salt and pepper effect due to random error Use 3x3 or 5x5 moving window average to remove the noise

Image Rectification and Restoration


Resampling
The purpose is to assign pixel values to the empty pixels in the rectified matrix output. Superimpose the rectified output matrix to the distorted image. The digital number (DN) of a pixel in the output matrix is assigned based on the DN of its surrounding pixels in the distorted image.

Striping
Malfunction of a detector Use gray scale adjustment to correct the strips

Resampling

Bit Error

Striping

Image Enhancement
Contrast Enhancement
Contrast generally refers to the difference in luminance or grey level values in an image and is an important characteristic. It can be defined as the ratio of the maximum intensity to the minimum intensity over an image. Contrast ratio has a strong bearing on the resolving power and detects ability of an image.

Image Enhancement
Spatial Filtering
Techniques are based on direct manipulation of pixels in an image. Used for filtering basics, smoothing filters, sharpening filters, unsharp masking and laplacian.

Information Extraction
Image Classification
Categorize all pixels in image. Spectral data. Combinations of DNs. Two approaches for image classification: Unsupervised classification. Supervised Classification.

Information Extraction
Unsupervised Classification
Examine unknown pixels in image. Comparing data with reference data. Common form of cluster K-means. Applied on sub-areas of image. Determine spectral separable class. More preferable than supervised.

Information Extraction
Supervised Classification
Examine known pixels in image. Comparing data with reference data. Information classified.

Basic Steps in supervised procedure


Training stage. Feature selection. Appropriate algorithm. Post classification smoothening. Accuracy assessment.

Information Extraction

Information Extraction
Accuracy and Error
The comparison of a classification with ground-truth data to evaluate how well the classification represents the real world. Observations per class. May take fewer samples of low variability classes like water/forest. Problems in classification Ground Data Sampling. Reliable ground data. Distribution.

Image Classifier

Information Extraction

Conclusion
Digital image processing of satellite data can be primarily grouped into three categories: Image Rectification and Restoration, Enhancement and Information extraction. Image rectification is the pre-processing of satellite data for geometric and radiometric connections. Enhancement is applied to image data in order to effectively display data for subsequent visual interpretation. Information extraction is based on digital classification and is used for generating digital thematic map.

References
Digital Image Processing by Rafael C. Gonzalez. www.wikipedia.org. www.earthobservatory.nasa.org. IRSA Remote Sensing Image Processing System 5.2,6.0,2003. Remote Sensing study based on IRSA Remote sensing Processing System IEEE Xplore no 0-7803-8742-2/04 (c)2004 IEEE.