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# Expansion & Exhaust

Expansion Process
Expansion process starts when
and it ends when the exhaust process
has begun. During the process of
expansion the heat energy liberated
due to combustion of fuel is partly
converted into mechanical work.
In the initial phase of combustion the
temperature of the mixture increases and
consequently the pressure increases at a high
rate. This produces a pressure difference on two
sides of the piston. As soon as the piston crosses
the T.D.C. the net force on the piston pushes it
down. The combustion process continues with
high intensity and both the pressure and
temperature of products continues to rise.
The temperature of the products
increases even after the moment
when the pressure reaches its
maximum value and then starts
decreasing. The force on the piston
continues to increase up to the
point of maximum pressure and
then begins to decrease.
The polytropic index of expansion
n
exp
is less unity during the initial
phase of expansion (due to internal
heat liberation rate being higher
than the heat transfer rate to the
enclosing surface)
value of unity and then continues
to increase above unity after the
products reach the maximum
temperature.
The polytropic index of expansion n
exp

is influenced by a number of factors,
therefore theoretical analysis is quite
difficult. The value of n
exp
is generally
determined from experimental data.
Considering the expansion process
to be polytropic with mean index
n
exp
the temperature and pressure
at the end of expansion ( usually
referred to as point 4) can be
calculated
For Diesel Engines

1
4
3
3 4
4
3
3 4
exp
exp

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
n
n
v
v
T T
v
v
p p
For Spark Ignition Engines

( )
( )
1
3
4
3
4
exp
exp

=
=
n
V
n
V
r
T
T
r
p
p
Commonly accepted value for n
exp

for both spark and compression
ignition engines vary between 1.2
to 1.3
The index depends to an
appreciable extent on
* Speed
An increase in engine speed reduces
leakage and also the total time for heat
transfer. The rate of combustion
increases with increase in speed and
heat transfer also increases. The
combined effect of the above factors, in
general is increase of heat transfer and
consequent decrease in n
exp

In compression ignition engine increase in load increases
the amount of fuel burnt and reduces the air coefficient .
This results in an increase in heat transfer and reduction of
n
exp
. Effects of change in load in spark ignition engine, on the
value of is not appreciable except at small load range. In
this range the heat transfer is reduced due to reduction in
temperature and pressure at the end of compression
process, therefore n
exp
is increased. Combustion chambers
with low heat transfer surface per unit charge volume
decreases heat transfer and increases n
exp

Exhaust
Process
During expansion process heat energy is
converted to mechanical power. At a
certain point in the expansion process it
becomes uneconomical to produce more
power by expansion. Therefore, the
products of combustion are driven out to
atmosphere and the cycle is repeated so
that more power can be produced.
This process of driving out
the combustion gases at
the end of the useful
expansion is called the
exhaust process
Exhaust Process in
Four Stroke Engine
The exhaust valve opens ahead of the
b.d.c. when the expansion is still
continuing. The pressure of the
products at this moment (p
prod
) is
much higher than the exhaust pressure
p
ex
, ( (p
prod
/p
ex
)reach a critical value)
burnt products flow through the
exhaust at sonic velocity (~500 m/sec
for products of combustion)
The gas velocity remains the same until
(p
prod
/p
ex
) become less than critical
due to discharge of burnt gases. After
the piston crosses the b.d.c. the burnt
gases whose pressure has dropped to
p
ex
are forced out of the cylinder by
the upward motion of the piston
The gas velocity during that period is much lower
(~100-200m/sec) depending on the speed of the
engine. During the first phase of exhaust (sonic
gas velocity) some work of expansion is lost, and
during the second phase work is lost in expelling
the gases. Too early or too late opening of the
exhaust valve increases the work lost during
exhaust. The optimum moment is determined
experimentally.
Note that the sonic gas flow during the first phase
produces a high intensity noise, which can be
reduced by placing a suitable noise damper,
known as silencer, in the flow passage. The
silencer reduces the flow velocity to subsonic
levels and thereby the noise level is reduced. The
total flow resistance of the exhaust system and
the silencer should be kept at a low value so that
it does not seriously affect the output of the
engine.
During the last phase of exhaust both the
exhaust and the inlet valve remain open for a
small period. When the pressure of the fresh
charge exceeds the burnt gas pressure, the
fresh charge pushes the burnt gases out,
thereby help in scavenging of burnt gases. In
case of supercharged four stroke engines
better scavenging is achieved due to higher
fresh charge pressure.