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Mooring of ships - forces

Kapt. K. De Baere

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Purpose of mooring configuration


To bring the ship alongside To keep the ship alongside To assist the ship when un-mooring

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Design criteria of mooring configurations

Based on the forces acting upon the ship


Wind Current Waves Swell Other ships passing by (suction effect) Location of the berth Protected or sea berth Types of ship size, displacement, draught etc.
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Protected berths

Design criteria limiting values Cross wind up till 15m/sec (6-7 Beaufort) Tidal current of 3 knots in longitudinal direction Cross current of 1 knot Cargo- and container ship are normally moored along well protected berths => Mooring winches are designed to pull the ship alongside with 1 headline and 1 stern line against a cross wind of 5 Beaufort
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Sea berths designed for >wind

Design criteria limiting values Cross winds up till 20m/sec or 8 Beaufort and gust of winds up till 10 Beaufort Tidal current of 3 knots in longitudinal direction Cross current of 1 knot Waves and swell Waves and swell with a short period have a limited influence
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Fetch

The size of a wave depends on its fetch. The fetch is the distance a wave travels (see next slide). The greater the fetch, the larger the wave. If the wind is blowing for a longer period of time in the same direction => long fetch with a high wave height and a longer period => important dynamic effect on the ship
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Fetch Definition Growth rate of wind generated waves

The distance that wind and seas (waves) can travel toward land without being blocked. In areas without obstructions the wind and seas can build to great strength, but in areas such as sheltered coves and harbours the wind and seas will be calmer.
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Mooring of VLCCs

Often moored outside the harbours along sea berths Forces are so great that no winch is capable of bringing the ship alongside Tugs are always used when mooring and leaving berth The only criteria is the holding force of the winches The ship must be maintained in position related to the shore manifold (chiksans)
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Relation maximum pulling power Displacement ()


Figures are used to design shore facilities (bollards, bits .. Etc.) 25% safety margin to be added

8000 ton 100 kN 20.000 ton 600 kN 10.000 ton 300 kN 50.000 ton 600 kN

100.000 ton 1000 kN 200.000 ton 1500 kN


1 kN = 1 ton pulling power (not scientific)
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Mooring winch with undivided drum

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Mooring winches Divided drum-polyprop octopus

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Chicksan

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Chicksan

One of the biggest problems with the fixed loading/discharging systems is the restricted liberty of movement of the ship If one of the limits is breached => ESDsystem activated
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Assessing the forces


1.

2.

Forces due to wind and current are proportional to the square of their speeds. f.i. the force caused by a wind of 40 knots is 4 times the influence of a wind of 20 knots The wind speed increases with the height above the ground. A wind of 10 knots at 2 meters increases till 60 knots at 40 meters => importance of the freeboard (height of the structure). To obtain comparable figures all winds are recalculated to a standard height of 10 meters
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Maximum wind limits (400.000 dwt ship) in function of the breaking power of the winches

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Wind limits

1.

2.

The previous pictures learns us that; The wind limit is determined by the holding power (breaking power) of the winches The wind limit is determined by the material of the mooring lines
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Assessing the forces


3.

Influence of a cross current is inverse proportional with the keel clearance. In case of a small keel clearance the current is obstructed by the ships hull and searches way out via the stem and the stern. A Suction effect is created trying the move the ship away from the berth.

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Theoretical example of the influence of the keel clearance

A ULCC with a draft of 15 meters is moored alongside a berth with 16.5 meters of water => relation water depth/draft = 1.1 Relative resistance factor in case of cross current = 5.6 In case of unlimited water depth a cross current of 1 knot produces a force of 60 tons
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Theoretical example of the influence of the keel clearance

In case of a limited water depth (example) this force is increased till 5.6 x 60 ton = 336 ton This equals 9 steel mooring ropes of 40mm diameter
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Theoretical example of the influence of the keel clearance


The relative proportion of the different elements has to be considered Ballasting decreases the keel clearance but also reduces the lateral wind surface. The wind effect is of greater importance than the the clearance effect (see next slide).

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Example of cross and longitudinal forces

18.000 & 70.000 SDWT: Wind 60 knots (30m/s), current 5 knots longitudinal and 1 knot cross current 200.000 SDWT: Wind 60 knots, current 3 knots longitudinal and 1 knot cross current
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Conclusions

In ballast condition the most important forces are wind generated In loaded condition the most important forces are current generated The total force on the ship (alongships + athwartships) is greater in ballast condition than in loaded condition => influence of the wind is of greater importance
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Different materials

3 different configurations
All steel wire ropes (equipped or not equipped with tails) All ropes are synthetic Mixed systems (synthetic + steel wire rope) New materials

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Steel wire rope + tail (ralonge de la touline)


Purpose of the tail is to add elasticity to account for change in tidal heights Always use 8 strands nylon with an MBL 25% > steel wire rope To protect against chafing cover splice of the tail with leather or plastic The tail is connected to the steel wire rope by means of a Tonsberg shackle or a Mandal shackle In case of frequent use tails are changed every 18 months
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Steel wire rope + tail


Steel wire rope have a high MBL and are not elastic. Steel wire rope are stored on winch drums with a manual brake Steel wire rope are relatively easy to handle up to 40mm ???? Steel wire ropes last longer than synthetic ropes Price steel wire = synthetic
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Tonsberg shackles

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Mandal Shackle

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Full synthetic mooring configuration


Biggest problem is elasticity This elasticity can give an important sway (balancer) to the ship (breaking out) 3 mooring ropes different materials same length (50 m), MBL and load

Steel wire Polyprop Nylon

0.3m elongation 5m elongation 8 m elongation


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Breaking out

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Effect of the hawser elasticity on the restraint capacity


1.

2. 3.

Materials with the smallest elasticity take the biggest load Short rope = big load Relation - is not linear

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Full synthetic mooring configuration

Synthetic fibres loose tensile strength (force de traction) if submitted to cyclic tensions attaining 30 to 50% of their MBL. Those cyclic tensions are not constant, due to resonance high tensions occure during short periods of time
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Full synthetic mooring configuration

Because of;

Cyclic tensions Internal friction Exposure to the marine environment

Tensile strength of synthetic ropes will diminish after 1 year Tensile strength of steel wire rope will diminish after 5 years => more durable
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Full synthetic mooring configuration

Another side effect is sagging (affaissement) The sag is function of;


m-n Weight of the mooring line Tension in the line Water depth (suction effect)
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Full synthetic mooring configuration

Consequence of the sagging is that a synthetic rope can never be pulled as stiff as a wire rope. A wire rope will react faster on a breaking out of the ship. A synthetic rope will compensate the the sag before reacting Max. allowed distance between berth and ship is normally limited to 6% of the water depth
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Mixed mooring systems


Mix of wire ropes and synthetic ropes Certainly NOT the best configuration but the most common one. If possible use steel wire rope as springs and breasts and use synthetic ropes as head- and stern line

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New materials
Composite materials Expensive but excellent mooring system Kevlar Aramid ropes are very strong, light and show little sagging. They react fast in case of breaking out of the ship.

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Efficient mooring

The efficiency of a mooring rope depends on the following factors

Material (steel wire or synthetic elongation & MBL) Length Angles with longitudinal and transversal axis in the horizontal plane Angles with the horizontal in the vertical plane

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Function of the different ropes


Head- and stern lines & the springs are stabilising the ship alongside Breast line will prevent the ship to break free from the berth Breast lines must be as perpendicular as possible to the ships longitudinal axis Springs must be as parallel as possible to the berth
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Recommendations

The function of springs and breast lines is clear. Springs are preventing longitudinal movement while breast are opposing transversal movements. The function of head and the stern lines depends on their angle with the longitudinal axis. Great angle => they serve mainly as breast line while small angle => stopping longitudinal movement
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Recommendations

The ideal configuration will rarely be achieved. To obtain a perfect mooring configuration their must be a perfect harmony between the ships equipment and disposition on board and the configuration ashore Berthing ships is always a matter of compromises
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Recommendations
Following recommendations have been published by the OCIMF = Oil Company International Maritime Forum The recommendations are valid for a tanker moored alongside a T-berth

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Recommendations based on OCIMF Effective mooring


1.

The horizontal angles of head-, stern- and breast lines < 15

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Recommendations based on OCIMF Effective mooring


2.

The vertical angle with the horizontal plane must be < 25

The effective force is proportional to the cosine of the angle If the angle is 25 the line is effective for 91% If the angle is 45 the efficiency is reduced to 71%

=> Springs & breasts must be long enough and not to steep
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Springs & Breasts

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Recommendations based on OCIMF Effective mooring


3.

Breast lines are most effective is on the longitudinal axis.

If is 45 we have to increase the force in the breast line till 141 ton to obtain an effective transversal force of 100 ton
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Recommendations based on OCIMF Effective mooring


4.

Springs offer the greatest holding power in the longitudinal direction. Their length is 60 meters

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Recommendations based on OCIMF Effective mooring


5.

The impact of the head and the stern lines on the total holding power of the mooring configuration is less important than the influence of springs and breasts. This mainly because these lines are too long. Never the less they are important to compensate the dynamical forces. Length 110m = coil
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Recommendations based on OCIMF Effective mooring


6.

Very short lines must be avoided. They always take the most important part of the load, especially when the ship is moving
Short length = important vertical angle

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Short breast lines

Long breast line: 52ton load is sufficient to obtain an effective holding power of 50 ton Short breast line: Load has to be increased till 88 ton to obtain same result
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Recommendations based on OCIMF Effective mooring


7.

All the mooring ropes in the same group (working in the same direction)must have a same tension. If not, the weakest line will break first. Total load will have to be received by the remaining lines => increased risk of breaking (chain reaction)

Groups are f.i. aft spring + head lines, Stern lines + forward spring, breast lines
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Recommendations based on OCIMF Effective mooring


8.

Their must be an equilibrium between the 4 groups (head- and stern lines, springs and breasts.
Example: Optimal mooring configuration is determined after studying the static and dynamical forces for a specific berth.

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Mooring example

Maximum breaking out from the berth = 1 meter Direction of the wind: 110 -> 290 Frequency 58% 25.2% 3 4 Beaufort 0.65% > 8 Beaufort Proposed configuration all nylon 80mm (MBL 110 ton):

4 breast lines (aft) + 1 stern line 3 headlines + 3 breast lines (fore)


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The fore ship will resist a wind pressure of 32 knots while the stern will resist a wind pressure of 33 knots => The berth will be operational till 7 Beaufort => not operational 5.8% per year The configuration of the berth is not ideal since the horizontal angles > 15

Recommendations based on OCIMF Effective mooring


9.

The number of lines is function of the size of the ship and the prevailing weather conditions
A Panamax (75.000 dwt) - 12 lines (2 headlines 4 breasts 4 springs 2 stern lines: 2 2 2 fore and aft) B VLCC (150.000 dwt) 16 lines (4 headlines 4 breasts 4 springs 4 stern lines: 4 2 2 fore and aft)
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A Panamax & B - VLCC

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Mooring configurations bulk carriers


Cape Size: 4 2 2 (fore and aft) Panamamax: 4 1 1 (fore and aft) Handy Size: 4 1 (fore and aft) Mini Bulker: 3 1 (fore and aft) Mini Bulker moored so it can shift forward and backwards during loading/discharging

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Mooring configurations bulk carriers

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Recommendations based on OCIMF Effective mooring


10.

Mooring lines must be passed ashore using the deck fittings (fairleads) because of friction and the curvature relation. Curvature relation = curvature deck fitting/ mooring line In case of a mooring wire relation has to be > 20 to reduce loss in tensile strength
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Mooring configuration concentrated on the fore ship

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Deck fittings (accessoires de pont)

OCIMF equipment:
Panama hawse- hole Pedestal Fairleads (Chaumard)

Info
Suez & Panama Canal

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Suez Canal
Total length is 190.25 km Water surface width is 280.345 m Width between the buoys is 195.215 m Canal depth is 22.5 m Maximum ship draught allowed is 62ft Speed allowed for loaded carriers is 13 km/h Speed allowed for unloaded carriers is 14 km/h. Mooring Average transit time is 14 hours of ship
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Suez Canal

Panama Canal

The Panama Canal is approximately 80 kilometers. The Canal uses a system of locks The locks function as water lifts: they raise ships from sea level (the Pacific or the Atlantic) to the level of Gatun Lake (26 meters above sea level)

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Panama Canal

Each set of locks bears the name of the townsite where it was built: Gatun (on the Atlantic side), and Pedro Miguel and Miraflores (on the Pacific side). The maximum dimensions of ships that can transit the Canal are: 32.3 meters in beam; draft 12 meters in Tropical Fresh Water; and 294.1 meters long The narrowest portion of the Canal is Culebra Cut
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Panama Canal

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Gatun Lock

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Gaillard Cut

Pedro Miguel Locks

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Mira Flores Locks

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4-roller fear lead Towing Bracket

Smit Towing Bracket

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Chocks and buttons

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Bits and Bollards

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Panama chocks

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Roller Chocks

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Roller Fairleads

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Towing pads (point dattache pour le cble de remorque)

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Emergency Towing Systems


SOLAS Requirement Regulation Chapter II-1, A-1, 3-4 Since 1996, January 1, all tankers exceeding, 20,000 DWT are to have an emergency towing arrangement fitted at the aft and forward. This IMO resolution MSC35(63) which covers the installation of emergency towing arrangements on tankers was decreed after the unfortunate disaster of the MV Braer in 1993.
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Emergency Towing Systems - Aft beneath deck

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Emergency Towing Systems Typical Arrangements Fwd

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Demo

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Mooring alongside a classic berth (quay)

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Mooring alongside a classic berth (quay)


Different methods see lab ships technique Practical techniques see lab ships technique

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Mooring alongside a classic berth (quay)


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Mooring alongside a T-berth

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Mooring with 2 anchors

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Ship to ship

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SPM Single Point Mooring Buoy

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SPM - buoy

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SPM - buoy

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FPSO single point mooring

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FSO - operations

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STL Submerged Turret Loading

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STP Submerged Turret Production

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STP Submerged Turret Production

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Safe fibre ropes


1.

2. 3. 4.

Ropes should be covered when they are not being handled, and stowed away when not in use at sea, to prevent contamination by oils and chemicals, and degradation by sunlight. Ropes must be kept away from heat, oil, paint and chemicals. Ropes should be stowed on gratings for ventilation and drainage. Ropes must be examined regularly for wear, stranding, melting and powdering, and replaced if serious defects are found.
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Safe Wire Rope


1. 2.

3.

Wires should be lubricated regularly with an approved lubricant. Everyone who handles wires should wear leather -palmed gloves to protect their hands from snags. Wires must be examined regularly for wear, stranding, dry core, kinks, and excessively flattened areas. They must be replaced if the number of broken strands (snags) exceed 10% of the strands in any length equal to eight diameters, or if any other serious defects are found.
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Safe line handling see lab


1.

2.

Flake out all mooring lines on the deck, clear, and ready to send. This will ensure that any fibre lines which have become buried on reels can be freed in advance, when there is less likelihood of accidents. Do not use a wire direct from a reel designed only for stowing. Have all necessary heaving lines, messengers, tails and stoppers available at the mooring station, and rat guards ready for use.
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Flaking out mooring lines


Lover les aussires la franaise De trossen zijn klaar gelegd in franse bochten To avoid that someone puts his foot/feet in a loop
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Safe position between mooring ropes

Position yourself away from the whip

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Putting the mooring rope on the warping head of the winch

The anchor winch has maximum power when it runs in the sense of picking up the anchor (anti-clock wise)

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Safe line handling see lab


3. 4.

Have sufficient crew available. All crew should wear safety helmets and safety shoes, and have no loose clothing which could become entangled in the winches or trapped by the lines. Gloves should be tight fitting, to reduce the risk of becoming trapped by lines, and should have a leather palm to protect the hand against abrasion and prevent wounds caused by snags of wires; they should provide adequate insulation in cold weather.
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Safe line handling see lab


5.

6.

When one seaman is handling a line on a drum end, he should not stand too close to the drum to avoid being drawn in. There should be an additional seamen whose duty is to clear the loose line when heaving, and supply the loose line when slacking. The person operating the winch controls should have a clear view of the entire area including any seaman handling lines with that winch.
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Traditional stopper

A traditional stopper using a single line may be used only on a mooring line made of natural materials, as shown below, but such mooring lines are no longer common on board ship
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Safe line handling see lab


Stand well clear of all lines under tension. This means everybody, not just those handling that line. 16. Synthetic fibre ropes may break without warning, and the resultant whiplash may cause severe injuries or even death. 17. Synthetic fibre mooring ropes should be stoppered using two tails of fibre rope, halfhitched under the mooring rope, with the two free ends criss-crossed over and under, as shown in the diagram below: (This is sometimes known as a Chinese stopper.) Mooring of ship 15.
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Safe line handling see lab


18.

Mooring wires should be stoppered using a chain stopper with a well-spaced cow hitch (Larks head)(Deux demi clefs renverses)(it is recommended that the two hitches are at least 25 cm. apart) and with the remainder of the chain and its rope tail turned up several times against the lay, as shown in the diagram below. The cow hitch is used because it is easily pulled loose when no longer required, a clove hitch (mastworp -Deux demi clefs capeler (noeud de cabestan)) is likely to jam.
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Chain stopper

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Safe mooring
1.

2.

All operations must be carried out ONLY under the direct orders of the supervising officer. The supervising officer must ensure that communications with the bridge are CONTINUOUSLY maintained. If using radios all calls should start with the ships name (to avoid confusion), and then the caller should immediately identify himself and who he is calling to avoid confusion on ones own ship A spare fully-charged battery should be carried whenever portable radios are used. A back up system must be readily available at all times.

Safe mooring
3.

4.

5.

6.

Check with the bridge before sending the first lines, and before making any lines fast. Keep the bridge informed of distances off the quay, any obstructions and other moored ships, lighters or other floating objects. Advise the bridge if there is any possibility that a slack line may become entangled in the propeller - or thrusters. Warn the bridge if any lines become excessively taut.
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Safe mooring
7. 8.

9.

Make fast and cast off tugs only on orders from the bridge. When heaving lines are being thrown, ensure that all personnel ashore and on board are alerted, and stand well clear. The supervising officer must make sure he can always see both the winch operators and the particular line when giving orders for adjusting the tension in a line.

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Safe mooring
10.

11. 12.

Secure the lines as per the Masters orders. i.e. which lines to leave on the drums, which lines to make fast on bitts, Which lines to leave in auto/self-tension, if any, and what level to set the controls. Ensure rat guards are properly fitted to all lines. The supervising officer must remain at the mooring station, with his full crew, until he is dismissed by the Master.
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Plague Control ?
Deratisation Rat guards

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Self Tensioning Winches

Self tensioning winches can be set to a certain holding force. If this value is exceeded, then the winch automatically adjusts the length of wire to the new force (too much holding force: slacking; too little holding force: heaving). This system is frequently used by ships that load and discharge quickly (container ships and RoRo-vessels) or if there is a large tidal range in the port.
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Self Tensioning Winches


1.

2. 3.

Control lever for the winch Cooling fan Control for the selftension setting

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Self Tensioning Winches

The heaving power of a winch is always lower than its render force. This means that if a winch is left in selftension, and the external forces increase, the line will pay out, and it may not be possible to heave it in again until such external forces reduce. Also, the render force of the winch is much less than the holding power of the brake Self-tensioning winches at opposite ends of the ship can work against each other, so that the ship can sometimes walk along the berth, when an external force is applied at one end.
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Self Tensioning Winches

Hence it is recommended that mooring lines are NOT left in self-tension once the ship is secure alongside. With short breast lines in fair weather, these controls may be useful during rapid load/discharge operations. However, those winches which are directly counteracting any external forces must be left on the brake. Self-tensioning winches are useful during berthing operations with reduced manning, as once the line is ashore and the controls set, they will reel in any slack, maintain the tension in the line, and prevent the line being damaged through excessive strain.
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Keeping moorings taut

The OOW must ensure that the mooring lines are kept sufficiently taut at all times to keep the ship firmly alongside. At rapid loading or discharging berths, the Chief Officer may assign additional crew to assist the OOW, as the operation of adjusting the lines may have to be done frequently. The 00W must never attempt to adjust a mooring line by himself, unless it is permanently wound on its own drum. If the lines are not in equal tension, they may part in succession if the ship is subject to exceptional high forces, such as very strong winds, large swells or water surges from other ships passing too close and/or too fast.
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Keeping moorings taut


Brake linings can lose their grip when oil and rust are present, and are susceptible to loss of holding power during periods of rain or high humidity. The OOW should remember to adjust any fire wires as the ships freeboard changes, to ensure that their ends remain clear of the water. It is essential for the OOW to check the moorings when other ships are arriving at or leaving from the berth immediately ahead or astern of their ship. It is good practice for the OOW to be in attendance forward or aft whenever the adjacent ship is arriving or sailing to watch out for contact damage, or other incidents, Mooring of ship in - addition to monitoring the moorings.

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Fire wire

Strong steel wire 1 end is put on a bollard Other end is hanging overboard +/- 1 meter above the water The outer end is held in position by means of a weak line. Middle part is flaked out on deck In case of fire a tugboat can grab the outer eye and pull the tanker free of the berth

Excerpt from terminal rules and regulations - Saoudi Arabia

TOWING-OFF WIRES OF ADEQUATE STRENGTH AND CONDITION MUST BE MADE FAST TO BOLLARDS ON THE TANKER. FORWARD AND AFT, AND THEIR EYES RUN OUT AND MAINTAINED AT OR ABOUT THE WATERLINE. THE WIRES MUST BE OVER THE OFFSHORE SIDE.
IN ORDER THAT SUFFICIENT WIRE CAN BE PUT OUT TO ENABLE THE TUGS TO TOW EFFECTIVELY, ENOUGH SLACK MUST BE RETAINED BETWEEN THE BOLLARD AND CHECK AND PREVENTED FROM RUNNING OUT BY A ROPEYARN OR OTHER EASILY BROKEN MEANS
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Chafing (Frotter Raboter)

The OOW must check the moorings at least hourly during his watch, not only to ensure they remain taut but also to look out for chafing, where the rope rubs against an obstruction, and may part. This may occur when the ship is surging back and forth along the quay due to a large swell, or when there is excessive movement of a mooring buoy. Synthetic fibre ropes possess very low resistance to chafing when under load; the friction generates heat which causes them to melt and fuse, and the rope is then permanently weakened, and may part quite quickly.
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Chafing (Frotter Raboter)

Ropes may chafe by rubbing against each other, or against the ropes of another ship. The officers on stand-by fore and aft during mooring operations must be alert for this when sending ropes to different bollards ashore through different leads on board. If they notice any chafing, they should have that line removed and sent from a different lead. Short leads with substantial dips are prone to chafing on the ships structure.

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Chafing

Sometimes a change in freeboard, or some external factors such as a change in the sea state, may cause lines to start chafing. If he notices any chafing, OOW must clear the obstruction, change the lead of the mooring rope, or wrap the rope in canvas or some other material to bear the rubbing and wearing away action. The outside of the canvas may be greased to reduce the friction, but this grease must not be allowed to remain in contact with fibre ropes as it will cause them to deteriorate. The OOW must always advise the Chief Officer of his observations and actions.
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Emergencies

Occasionally unexpected changes of load may cause the brakes of the mooring line drums to slip, and the vessel is at risk of moving off the berth. DO NOT RELEASE THE BRAKES AND ATTEMPT TO HEAVE THE SHIP BACK ALONGSIDE USING ONLY THE POWER OF THE WINCH.

The recommended action is:


1. 2.

If the winches are in self-tension apply the brakes IN ADDITION. If the brakes are in use, tighten them, put the winch in gear and heave on as many lines as possible.
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Emergencies
3. 4. 5.

6.

Inform the senior officers, and seek extra crew assistance Summon tug assistance if necessary. Consider reducing the freeboard by ballasting. The OOW should remember that brake holding power is always greater than winch heaving power, but that the two together increase the load. For example: Winch render force = 35 tonnes. Brake holding power = 65 tonnes. Total holding power = 100 tonnes.
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Emergencies
He should be careful this does not exceed the breaking strain of the rope, or the safe working load of the leads and rollers. However, in an emergency it will usually be preferable to endeavour to hold the ship in position and risk breaking the lines.

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Mooring equipment ashore

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Equipment ashore
Bollards and bitts Winches - capstans Quick release hooks Laser docking systems Mooring line monitoring systems Fenders

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Bitts and bollards

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Capstans

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Quick Release Hooks


The basic starting point to any integrated mooring system Can be released manually or (electric, hydraulic or telemetry) and can incorporate load pins for optional multipoint computer-based remotely mooring line tension monitoring systems

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Quick Release Hooks

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Quick release hooks


Explosion proof double hook unit

Quad. hook with load monitoring and remoter release system


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Mooring Line Monitoring System

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The vessel Mooring Line Monitoring system (MLM), provides real time monitoring of all mooring lines and warns of excessive or out-of-range loads. Changing weather conditions or current loading can cause unequal load sharing within the mooring system. This can lead to potential failure of mooring lines and damage to jetty 161

Mooring Line Monitoring System

Load on the hooks is measured by load pins Data is transferred to the jetty control room Data is completed with environmental data and data concerning the movement of the ship alongside

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Environmental data

Data is collected by a buoy and presented on graphic display

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Laser docking systems

The primary benefit of a Docking Aid System or DAS is the provision of real time data of the vessels position and progress relative to the jetty by measuring distance from the jetty and speed of approach in the critical 0 to 200 meters zone. With this data the vessels master and pilot can better direct tug and shipboard personnel in the safe manoeuvring of the vessel towards the jetty and minimize any potential for Mooring of ship TVS 1ste kanto the berth damage

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Laser docking systems

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Typically, two sensors are located on the jetty measuring distance to bow and stern sections of the ship. This together with average speed are captured at the jetty control unit and displayed to the ship and mooring crew on wireless monitor, computer screen or jetty mounted display board, as required. Earlier systems used radar sensors, however today laser sensors are the most reliable technology employed for vessel165

Laser docking systems

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Docking systems GPS based f.i. e-fix system



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Ship trials (speed and manoeuvring) Oil and gas tanker approaches and docking operations SPM/FSO Docking and Drift Warning Oil rig positioning Navigation of ships into locks & docks Ferry operations
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Docking systems GPS based f.i. e-fix system


It should be noted that the E-Sea Fix system can be integrated into existing Laser Docking Systems. All data from an existing Laser Docking System (such as environmental data, load arm monitoring, mooring load monitoring and drift warning information) can be relayed and displayed on the pilot monitor. A receiver is capable of receiving signals from both the US constellation as well as the Soviet based GLONASS constellation. This dual constellation ensures that the number of satellites visible to the receivers Mooring of ship - is maximised.

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Accuracy
Speed accuracy better than any ships log, 1 cm per second i.e. 0.02 knots Heading accuracy better than any gyro system, approximately 0.01 degree Rate of turn better than any rate gyro system, approximately 0.02 degree/second and up Position accuracy to a few centimetres

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Docking systems GPS based f.i. e-fix system

Signal is used as input for an ECDIS based on C-map or S-57 maps. Portable version exists

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Berth management systems

A Berth Manager monitors the vessel approach, mooring load and environmental situation in a single integrated system, with a range of optional displays, readouts and functions, and provides the port operator with comprehensive reporting on the behaviour of vessels while in the confines of the port. The system assists the docking procedure and monitors mooring performance.
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Berth management systems

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Fenders

Used to:
Divide the load Protect the berth Protect the ship

Fenders can be fixed or mobile

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Yokohama Fenders

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Yokohama Fenders

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Fixed fenders

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Mooring equipment on board

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Mooring equipment on board


Heaving line (ligne dattrape) Messenger (grelin) Tails

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Heaving line (ligne dattrape)

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heaving line (Ligne dattrape)

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Messenger - grelin

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Tail (allongement de la touline)

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Passing ropes ashore

Before arriving at the dock all crewmembers should put on their Personal Protective Equipment and move out onto the deck. All lines should be prepared for docking making sure that they will feed out freely. There should always be someone on the dock to receive the line. Do not attempt to throw the line to the bitt. If the boat is to be moored some distance from the dock a messenger line (grelin) with a monkeys fist can be thrown and then hauled in to transfer the mooring line safely to the dock.
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Passing ropes ashore

If you are sharing the bitt or bollard with another vessel feed the eye of the mooring line through the eye of the line already on the bitt and then place the eye over the bitt. This will allow you or the other vessel to quickly remove a line without disturbing the remaining line.

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Passing ropes ashore

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Putting 2 ropes on the same bitt


1.Wrong 2.Correct

The other ship can leave without disturbing our mooring configuration
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Passing ropes ashore

While handling lines you must be very conscious of the placement of your hands and feet in proximity to the line. Never put your hand in the bight of the line at the bitt, and watch that you do not step into the bight of the line on the deck with your foot. If the boat surges you can be caught in an instant, resulting in serious injury or death.

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Passing ropes ashore

Never place yourself in a position where the line can pinch you up against the bulwarks or equipment on deck. You will never be able to move quick enough to get out of the way or have the strength to keep the line off you!

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