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Water Pollution
Water Pollution:

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such

as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by
human activities, which can be harmful to organisms
and plants that live in these water bodies. It occurs
when pollutants are discharged directly into water
bodies without treating it first.
Why we are so much scared about it!
Some Reasons are:
 It accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000
people daily in world.
 Water pollution linked to male fertility problems
 Most people still don’t get pure & clean water to
 India has 4% of the world’s water
 It is said that third world war would be fought for
 According to the 2001 census, India, 68.2%
households have access to safe drinking water.
 No wonder 37.7 million people — over 75% of
whom are children — are afflicted by waterborne
diseases every year
Water Pollution categories:
Surface water pollution:
Surface water and groundwater have often been studied and managed as
separate resources, although they are interrelated. Sources of surface
water pollution are generally grouped into two categories based on their
• Point source pollution
• Non-point source pollution
•Water pollution can come from a number of different sources. If
the pollution comes from a single source, such as an oil spill, it is
called point-source pollution.
If the pollution comes from many sources, it is called nonpoint-
source pollution.
•Groundwater pollution

A lot of the Earth's water is found underground in soil or under rock

structures called aquifers. Humans often use aquifers as a means to
obtain drinking water, and build wells to access it. When this water
becomes polluted it is called groundwater pollution. Groundwater
pollution is often caused by pesticide contamination from the soil,
this can infect our drinking water and cause huge problems.

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Causes of Water pollution:

PSA Water Pollution 2007 - Google Chrome.flv

Demand for Water is Increasing
 Trends driving water consumption
 Population Growth
 Urbanization (higher per capita water consumption)
 Trends driving water pollution
 Changing agriculture
 Increasing use of fertilizer & pesticides

 Environmental/ecological need is often neglected

Transport and chemical reactions of water pollutants :-
Most water pollutants are eventually carried by rivers into the oceans.

Advanced computer models have been used to examine the fate of

pollutants in aquatic systems.
For example :- Hudson River

Trichloroethylene ,tetrachloroethylene


• Petroleum,
• Radioactive Substances
• Heat
Besides the supertankers, off-shore drilling operations contribute a large
share of pollution. One estimate is that one ton of oil is spilled for every
million tons of oil transported. This is equal to about 0.0001 percent.

Oil Spill Clean-up

Workers use special nets to clean up a
California beach after an oil tanker spill. Tanker
spills are an increasing environmental problem
because once oil has spilled, it is virtually
impossible to completely remove it. Even small
amounts spread rapidly across large areas of
water. Because oil and water do not mix.
Water is Precious and scarce Resource
•Only a small fraction (about 3%) is fresh water

•India is wettest country in the world, but rainfall is highly

uneven with time and space (with extremely low in Rajasthan
and high in North-East)
•On an avergae there are only 40 rainy days
•Water resources are over-exploited resulting in major WQ

Measurement of water pollution

 1 Sampling
 2 Physical testing
 3 Chemical testing
 4 Biological testing
Domestic sewage :
Well-designed and operated systems (i.e., secondary treatment or
better) can remove 90 percent or more of these pollutants.
Some plants have additional sub-systems to treat nutrients and
•utilizing a green infrastructure approach to improve stormwater
management capacity throughout the system.
•Repair and replacement of leaking and malfunctioning equipment
•increasing overall hydraulic capacity of the sewage collection
system (often a very expensive option).
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Deer Island Waste Water Treatment Plant serving Boston, Massachusetts

and vicinity.
Industrial wastewater

Some industrial facilities generate ordinary domestic sewage that can be

treated by municipal facilities.
Industries that generate wastewater with high concentrations of
conventional pollutants (e.g. oil and grease), toxic pollutants (e.g. heavy
metals, volatile organic compounds) or other nonconventional pollutants.
Dissolved air flotation is very widely used in treating the industrial
wastewater effluents from oil refineries,petrochemical and chemical plants
, natural gas processing plants and similar industrial facilities. such as
ammonia, need specialized treatment systems.

Dissolved air flotation system for treating industrial wastewater.

Construction site stormwater

Sediment from construction sites is managed by installation of:

 Erosion controls, such as mulching and hydroseeding,
 sediment controls, such as sediment basins and silt fences.
Discharge of toxic chemicals such as motor fuels and
concrete washout is prevented by use of:
 spill prevention and control plans, and
 specially-designed containers (e.g. for concrete
washout) and structures such as overflow controls
and diversion berms.

Silt fence installed on a construction site.

Stopping Deforestation:
Opposing Coastal Development:
Reducing Pollution from Oil and Petroleum
Liquids :
Reducing Mercury Emissions :
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Miscellaneous Solutions to Water Pollution :

•Set Cruise Control
•Do Some Tax Shifting
•Tilt at Windmills
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•Give Your Purchases Plastic Surgery

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U want but we
deliver it!