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next Four main functions:
› produce egg and sperm cells, › to transport and sustain these cells,
› to nurture the developing offspring
› and to produce hormones
Labia majora: The labia majora enclose and protect the other external reproductive organs. Literally translated as "large lips," the labia majora are relatively large and fleshy, and are comparable to the scrotum in males. The labia majora contain sweat and oilsecreting glands. After puberty, the labia majora are covered with function of the external female reproductive hair. Labia minora: Literally translated as lips," the labia minora structures (the genital) is"small twofold: To enable can be very small or up to 2 inches wide. They lie just inside the labia majora, surround openings toto theprotect vagina (the canal sperm to and enter the the body and the that joins the lower part of the uterus to the outside of the body) internal organs infectious and urethra genital (the tube that carries from urine from the bladder to the outside of the body). organisms Bartholin's glands: These glands are located next to the vaginal opening and produce a fluid (mucus) secretion. Clitoris: The two labia minora meet at the clitoris, a small, sensitive protrusion that is comparable to the penis in males. The clitoris is covered by a fold of skin, called the prepuce, which is similar to the foreskin at the end of the penis. Like the penis, the clitoris is very sensitive to stimulation and can become erect.
Vagina: The vagina is a canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal. Uterus (womb): The uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped organ that is the home to a developing fetus. The uterus is divided into two parts: the cervix, which is the lower part that opens into the vagina, and the main body of the uterus, called the corpus. The corpus can easily expand to hold a developing baby. A channel through the cervix allows sperm to enter and menstrual blood to exit. Ovaries: The ovaries are small, oval-shaped glands that are located on either side of the uterus. The ovaries produce eggs and hormones. Fallopian tubes: These are narrow tubes that are attached to the upper part of the uterus and serve as tunnels for the ova (egg cells) to travel from the ovaries to the uterus. Conception, the fertilization of an egg by a sperm, normally occurs in the fallopian tubes. The fertilized egg then moves to the uterus, where it implants to the uterine wall.
Penis: The penis is the male organ for sexual intercourse. It has three parts: the root, which attaches to the wall of the abdomen; the body, or shaft; and the glans, which is the cone-shaped end of the penis. The glans, which also is called the head of the penis, is covered with a loose layer of skin called foreskin. (This skin is sometimes removed in a procedure called circumcision.) The opening of the urethra, the tube that transports semen and urine, is at the tip of the glans penis. The penis also contains a number of sensitive nerve endings. Scrotum: The scrotum is the loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs behind the penis. It contains the testicles (also called testes), as well as many nerves and blood vessels. The scrotum has a protective function and acts as a climate control system for the testes. For normal sperm development, the testes must be at a temperature slightly cooler than the body temperature. Special muscles in the wall of the scrotum allow it to contract and relax, moving the testicles closer to the body for warmth and protection or farther away from the body to cool the temperature. Testicles (testes): The testes are oval organs about the size of large olives that lie in the scrotum, secured at either end by a structure called the spermatic cord. Most men have two testes. The testes are responsible for making testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, and for generating sperm. Within the testes are coiled masses of tubes called seminiferous tubules. These tubules are responsible for producing the sperm cells through a process called spermatogenesis. Epididymis: The epididymis is a long, coiled tube that rests on the backside of each testicle. It functions in the transport and storage of the sperm cells that are produced in the testes. It also is the job of the epididymis to bring the sperm to maturity, since the sperm that emerge from the testes are immature and incapable of fertilization. During sexual arousal, contractions force the sperm into the vas deferens.
Vas deferens: The vas deferens is a long, muscular tube that travels from the epididymis into the pelvic cavity, to just behind the bladder. The vas deferens transports mature sperm to the urethra in preparation for ejaculation. Ejaculatory ducts: These are formed by the fusion of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles. The ejaculatory ducts empty into the urethra. Urethra: The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of the body. In males, it has the additional function of expelling (ejaculating) semen when the man reaches orgasm. When the penis is erect during sex, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm. Seminal vesicles: The seminal vesicles are sac-like pouches that attach to the vas deferens near the base of the bladder. The seminal vesicles produce a sugar-rich fluid (fructose) that provides sperm with a source of energy and helps with the sperms’ motility (ability to move). The fluid of the seminal vesicles makes up most of the volume of a man’s ejaculatory fluid, or ejaculate. Prostate gland: The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that is located below the urinary bladder in front of the rectum. The prostate gland contributes additional fluid to the ejaculate. Prostate fluids also help to nourish the sperm. The urethra, which carries the ejaculate to be expelled during orgasm, runs through the center of the prostate gland. Bulbourethral glands: The bulbourethral glands, or Cowper’s glands, are pea-sized structures located on the sides of the urethra just below the prostate gland. These glands produce a clear, slippery fluid that empties directly into the urethra. This fluid serves to lubricate the urethra and to neutralize any acidity that may be present due to residual drops of urine in the urethra.
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STDs that produce inflammation of the urethra, epididymis, cervix, or oviducts. Gonorrhea and chlamydia are the most common STDs in this category. Both diseases can be treated and cured with antibiotics, once diagnosed.
STDs that produce sores on the external genitals. Genital herpes is the most common disease in this class, affecting more than 25 million individuals in the US. Symptoms of herpes can be treated by antiviral drugs, but the infection cannot be cured. Syphilis is a bacterially caused infection, and can, if left untreated, cause serious symptoms and death. However, the disease is curable with antibiotics. Genital warts are caused by the STD the human papillomavirus (HPV), and are often called vaginal warts, but they can occur in more places than just the vagina. Category Three › This class of STDs includes viral diseases that affect organ systems other than those of the reproductive system. AIDS and hepatitis B are in this category. Both can be spread by sexual contact or blood. Infectious individuals may appear symptom-free for years after infection.
GONORRHOEA (CLAP) is one of the most common communicable diseases. The concerned bacteria directly act within the urethra, rectum, and pharynx. When the infection occurs in the genital tract, mouth, or rectum of a child, it is most commonly due to abuse . Gonorrhoea among females can also be transmitted from one individual to another via contact to surfaces that may still be damp from prior contact. It is hardly possible to catch this disease through sponges, towels and other shared things.
a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, which can damage a woman's reproductive organs. Even though symptoms of chlamydia are usually mild or absent, serious complications that cause irreversible damage, including infertility, can occur "silently" before a woman ever recognizes a problem. Chlamydia also can cause discharge from the penis of an infected man.
a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). Most genital herpes is caused by HSV-2. Most individuals have no or only minimal signs or symptoms from HSV-1 or HSV-2 infection. When signs do occur, they typically appear as one or more blisters on or around the genitals or rectum. The blisters break, leaving tender ulcers (sores) that may take two to four weeks to heal the first time they occur. Typically, another outbreak can appear weeks or months after the first, but it almost always is less severe and shorter than the first outbreak. Although the infection can stay in the body indefinitely, the number of outbreaks tends to decrease over a period of years.
A sexually transmitted bacterial infection, syphilis starts as a painless sore on your genitals, mouth or other body part. The disease progresses in stages, each more serious than the last. Syphilis can lead to serious complications if left untreated, such as blindness, seizures and dementia. Treatment for syphilis is a simple matter of antibiotics, but it must be diagnosed and caught in the early stages for the cure to be effective.
Genital warts, also known as condylomata acuminata or venereal warts, are caused by a virus called the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). HPV is the most commonly occurring sexually transmitted disease with more than 50 million Americans currently infected. On average, more than 5.5 million new cases appear every year in the United States. HPV comes in many strains, but certain strains cause fleshy lumps to appear on the genital region of both males and females. Genital warts can sometimes cause itchiness and irritation and bleeding after intercourse, and in women they can also cause smelly vaginal discharge. However, genital warts often do not cause any additional symptoms other than their appearance.
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This condition progressively reduces the effectiveness of the immune system and leaves individuals susceptible to opportunistic infections and tumors. HIV is transmitted through direct contact of a mucous membrane or the bloodstream with a bodily fluid containing HIV, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluid, preseminal fluid, and breast milk.
Other Diseases of the Reproductive System
Ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer in women in the U.S. (25,000 women diagnosed each year ) It is the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths in women and frequently does not result in symptoms until the cancer has spread extensively. Ovarian cancer actually represents a group of different tumors that arise from diverse types of tissue contained within the ovary. The most common type of ovarian cancer arises from the epithelial cells (the outside layer of cells ) of the surface of the ovary.
Cancer that forms in tissues of the cervix (the organ connecting the uterus and vagina). It is usually a slowgrowing cancer that may not have symptoms but can be found with regular Pap tests (a procedure in which cells are scraped from the cervix and looked at under a microscope). Cervical cancer is almost always caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
Ovulatory problems (Abnormalities of the thyroid gland, Excessive male hormone, stress) Cervical factors (inability of the sperm to pass through the mouth of the uterus due to damage of the cervix ) Pelvic and tubal factors (disruption of the normal pelvic anatomy) Uterine factors (Thin or abnormal uterine lining)
Low sperm counts, abnormal sperm morphology (shape), and low sperm motility) Exposure to hazardous toxins, chemicals, or radiation Infections such as mumps, or venereal diseases Testicular injury (sports or work injury) Childhood illness (failure of a testicle to descend properly) Immune reaction against sperm (antisperm antibodies) Testicular failure and other hormonal problems Chronic medical illness (thyroid disease, diabetes, and hypertension) Spinal cord injuries and paralysis
Prevention and Contraception
Yet another cool video
-a little something about how pregnancy happens
a barrier device most commonly used during sexual intercourse to reduce the likelihood of pregnancy and spreading sexually transmitted diseases (STDs—such as gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV); it is put on a man's erect penis and physically blocks ejaculated semen from entering the body of a sexual partner
a device that is used during sexual intercourse to prevent pregnancy and reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs—such as gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV); it is worn internally by the receptive partner and physically blocks ejaculated semen from entering that person's body
An intrauterine device is a long acting reversible contraceptive birth control device placed in the uterus, also known as an IUD or a coil
physical barrier to prevent sperm from reaching the cervix chemical to kill sperm (spermicide)
The Combined Oral Contraceptive Pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth-control pill, or simply "the pill", is a birth control method that includes a combination of an estrogen (oestrogen) and a progestin (progestogen), hormones like those in a woman's body. When taken by mouth every day, these pills inhibit normal female fertility. Progestogen Only Pills or Progestin Only Pills (POP) are contraceptive pills that only contain synthetic progestogens (progestins) and do not contain estrogen. They are colloquially known as mini pills.
In the womb, the baby's body is covered by a thin layer of hair but as soon as the baby is born it disappears The largest cell in the female human body is the ovum or egg present in the ovaries About 500 million sperm mature every day in a normal male adult. The ovaries of a newborn girl contains about 600, 000 immature eggs. The average life span of a sperm is about 36 hours. The life span of an ova is about 12 - 24 hours. The female human body is capable of giving birth to 35 children in one lifetime. Not so fun fact:
The male equivalent of menopause is called the male climacteric. During this gradual change, circulating testosterone levels begin to decline between the ages of 50-60. Sperm production, however, continues, so men can father children well into their eighties.
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