This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
• Air pollution may be described as contamination of the atmosphere by gaseous, liquid, solid wastes or by-products that can endanger life, attack materials and reduce visibility. • Air pollution worldwide is a threat to human health and the natural environment. • It may also be defined as the presence of matter in atmosphere at concentrations, durations, and frequencies that adversely affect human health and environment.
• Air pollution can be caused due to the burning of wood, coal, oil, petrol, or by spraying pesticides. • Some of the questions which might come to mind while thinking about air pollution are:
– Are we doing something about solving these problems? – Do we know enough about the conditions under which a pollution episode occurs? – What are the regulations? – How to control emissions?
. • Air pollution reduces crop yields and affects animal life. • Air pollution can cause health problems and in an extreme case even death. • In short. • Air pollution can damage monuments. it also damages environment on earth’s surface and their inhabitants.Should we worry about Air Pollution? • Air pollution affects every one of us. air pollution does not only damage air. • Air pollution can cause significant economic losses.
New York city.History of Air Pollution in the US • The problems of air pollution in Los Angles. • In early nineties standards for ozone air pollution and sulfur dioxide has been revised • In late nineties standard for particulate matter pollution was strengthened. • Invisible emissions of toxic pollutants were recognized in the late seventies. • In early eighties scientists observed a slow down in growth of red spruce in the mountain areas of north-eastern US as a result of acid rain. . • Conventional pollutants due to auto emissions and smoke stacks were the major thrusts of air pollution during the sixties and seventies. and Chicago during the fifties drew attention of regulators in the United States.
• In 2006.History of Air Pollution in the US • In 2000. • In 2005. EPA passed a new rule for diesel. capping sulfur levels in diesel fuel at 15 parts per million by 2007. • In 2010 (January 6th). to achieve the largest reduction in SO2 & NOX from the atmosphere in the eastern United States. EPA has proposed to strengthen the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ground-level ozone. . EPA issued the strongest National Air Quality Standards for particle pollution in the country’s history. EPA issued the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR).
Air Quality Standards Achievement .
Chernobyl. US . Penn. China 2007 – Wildfires in TALLAHASSEE Florida. Belgium 1931 -9 day fog in Manchester. India 1986 -Radionuclide releases. US 2001 – Enormous clouds of dust in New York during Collapse of World Trade Center. US 1952 -4 day fog in London. Kingston. England 1948 -Plant emissions in Donora. Three Mile Island. Australia 2005 .Kingston Fossil Plant coal fly ash slurry spill. Jilin city.Jilin chemical plant explosions. Ukraine 1997 – Haze disaster in Indonesia 2001 – Wildfires in Sierra Nevada. US 1984 -Release of Methyl isocynate in Bhopal.Accidents and Episodes • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1930 -3 day fog in Meuse Valley. England 1970 -Radionuclide emissions. US 2008 . US 2002 – Violent dust storm in Queensland.
Eras of Air Pollution Early-Industrial Era Pre-Industrial Era Early 20th Century Late 20th Century Early 21st Century .
g. plant life.Air Pollutant • Contaminant that affects human life. Sulfur dioxide and Hydrocarbons Secondary pollutants: These are formed due to the chemical reaction among two or more pollutants. • Air pollutants are classified into two categories: Primary pollutants: These pollutants are emitted from a source directly into the atmosphere. animal life and property could be termed as an air pollutant.g. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN ) . e. e.
How to Define an Air Pollutant? • Basis: Chemicals present in the environment • Process: – Use composition of the clean air as a bench mark. it is termed as an air pollutant . – When the concentration of a chemical in air is above the bench mark. .
Chemical Composition of Dry Air .
CO2 • Oxides of Nitrogen • Ozone • Total Suspended particles • Lead • Particulates • Volatile organic compounds • Toxic Air pollutants . Polyaromatic hydrocarbons Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Volatile organic compounds Asbestos Formaldehyde Biological contaminants Pesticides → Outdoor • SO2 • CO. NOx Particulates. SO2. → • • • • • • • • • • Indoor Radon Combustion by-products CO.Common Air Pollutants The air pollution problem is encountered in both indoor as well as outdoor. CO2. Hydrocarbons.
Sources of Air Pollutants Indoor Outdoor .
Physical Forms of an Air Pollutant • Gaseous form o Sulfur dioxide o Ozone o Hydro-carbon vapors • Particulate form o o o o Smoke Dust Fly ash Mists .
Toxic Air Pollutants • Toxic air pollutants may originate from natural sources as well as from manmade sources such as stationary and mobile sources. • The Clean Air Act of 1990 provides a list of 189 chemicals to be regulated under the hazardous air pollutant provisions of the act. • The list of hazardous air pollutants can be found in the EPA website.gov/ttn/atw/188polls.epa. • The stationary sources like factories and refineries serve as major contributors to air pollution. (http://www.html) .
Sources of Toxic Air Pollutants .
or 25 tons per year of a mixture of air. in the United States.Toxic Air Pollutants • The toxic air pollutants released from industrial facilities. “Area” sources are defined as sources that emit less than 10 tons per year of a single air toxic. are reported to the public via the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) USEPA • • “Major” sources are defined as sources that emit 10 tons per year of any of the listed toxic air pollutants. or less than 25 tons per year of a mixture of air toxics. .
• To obtain volume at any temperature.Units for measurement of Air Pollution There are two units of measurement. use gas law P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2 . volume of the air is 22.41 l/mol. They are as follows: • µg/m3 and ppm (parts per million) At 25°C and 1 atm • At 00 C and at a pressure of 76 cm of Hg.
Sources of Air Pollution Natural Sources • • • • • • • • • • • • • Volcanoes Coniferous forests Forest fires Pollens Spores Dust storms Hot springs Fuel combustion .Largest contributor Chemical plants Motor vehicles Power and heat generators Waste disposal sites Operation of internal-combustion engines Man-made Sources .
coniferous forests. power and heat generation. caused by man. . • Fuel combustion is the largest contributor to air pollutant emissions. and the operation of internal combustion engines. and hot springs have a minimal effect on environment when compared to that caused by emissions from man-made sources like industrial sources.Natural Sources vs. waste disposal. with stationary and mobile sources equally responsible. Man-made Sources • Pollutants released from natural sources like volcanoes.
Source Classification Sources may be classified as: (A) Primary Secondary (B) Combustion Non-combustion (C) Stationary Mobile (D) Point: These sources include facilities that emit sufficient amounts of pollutants worth listing Area: all other point sources that individually emit a small amount of pollutants are considered as area sources. .
Source Classification (E) Classification for reporting air emissions to the public: Transportation sources: Includes emissions from transportation sources during the combustion process Stationary combustion sources: These sources produce only energy and the emission is a result of fuel combustion Industrial sources: These sources emit pollutants during the manufacturing of products Solid waste Disposal: Includes facilities that dispose off unwanted trash Miscellaneous: sources that do no fit in any of the above categories like forest fires. coal mining etc. .
5% by volume of carbon monoxide.Exercise The exhaust from a 2001 Honda contains 2. Compute the concentration of CO in milligrams/m3 at 25°C and 1 atm of pressure. .
Molecular Weight of CO is 28 g/mol Step 2 = 2.Exercise Problem : The exhaust from a 2001 Honda contains 2. Compute the concentration of CO in milligrams/m3 at 25°C and 1 atm of pressure. 2. Solution : Step 1 1 percent by volume = 104 ppm.8 x 107 mg/m3 .5 percent by volume = 2.5*104 ppm.5% by volume of carbon monoxide.
. The standard conditions are 70 F and 2000 cfm. when the actual temperature is 400 F.Exercise Determine the actual volumetric flow rate in acfm assuming that pressure is constant.
when the actual temperature is 400 F. Temperatureact = 400 F = 860 R. The standard conditions are 70 F and 2000 cfm. = 2000*(860 / 530). = 3245. Step 2 qact = qstd*(Tempact / Tempstd). Solution : Step 1 Temperaturestd = 70 F = 530 R.28 acfm .Exercise Problem : Determine the actual volumetric flow rate in acfm assuming that pressure is constant.
Exercise Calculate the density of a gas whose molecular weight is 29 at 1 atm. absolute and 50°F. .
Step 2 density = P * mol. .73 atm-ft3 /lb mol-R. Solution : Step 1 80 F = 50 + 460 = 510 R R = 0.Exercise Problem : Calculate the density of a gas whose molecular weight is 29 at 1 atm.wt/RT density = (1*29)/(0.73*510) = 0.0779 lb/ft3. absolute and 50°F.