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Schmidt Analysis of Solar Stirling Power Systems

David Willy MS Mechanical Engineering EGR 501 Topics in Sustainable Systems Project Advisor: Dr. Okey Onyejekwe

Presentation Outline

Introduction to Solar Concentration Stirling Engine Types Scientific Principles


Optics Thermodynamics

Schmidt Results using Matlab Analytical vs. Numerical Future Steps to Take if this was a Thesis
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Introduction to Solar Concentration

Parabolic Trough Designs


2-dimensional Parabola Single Axis Tracking Typically Rankine Cycle Possibility of Stirling Cycle use

Introduction to Solar Concentration

Fresnel Lens Designs


Fresnel vs. Standard Convex Lens Currently used in Photovoltaics Double Axis Tracking Material Costs tradeoff? (Silicon $$ vs. Aluminum $$)

Introduction to Solar Concentration

Power Tower Designs


Array of Heliostats Double Axis Tracking

Introduction to Solar Concentration

Parabolic Bowl (Dish) Collector


3-dimensional Parabola Array of Reflectors Double Axis Tracking Stirling Cycle Air cooled
(No Water Required)

Air Lubricated (No Oil Required)

Stirling Engine Types Alpha, Beta, & Gamma

Stirling Engines are External Combustion engines that can run on any fuel (heat source). Alpha Type Configuration Dual Piston Type

Example Engine
STM 4-120 engine by Stirling Thermal Motors

Stirling Engine Types Alpha, Beta, & Gamma

Beta Type Configuration Piston/Displacer

http://www.keveney.com/Stirling.html

Stirling Engine Types Alpha, Beta, & Gamma

Gamma Type Engine Piston/Displacer in different cylinders. MM-7

Scientific Principles - Optics

Equation of Parabola 2 y 4 fx Rim Angle


r sin 2 ( a ) 2rr

Local Mirror Radius


2f r 1 cos

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Scientific Principles - Optics

Perfect Parabola
Diameter of Receiver

D 2rr sin 0.267

a sin(0.267 ) sin r

Imperfect Parabola
Diameter of Receiver (w/ dispersion angle due to slope error)

D 2rr sin(0.267 / 2)

a sin(0.267 / 2) sin r
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Scientific Principles - Optics

Perfect Concentration Ratios


Cm ax_trough
Cm ax_bowl

1 214 .6 sin(0.267 )

1 46049 .6 sin 2 (0.267 )


Trough Slope error

Imperfect Concentration Ratios


Trough w/ Cylindrical Receiver

Cm ax_trough

sin r cos( r 0.267 / 2) 1 ?? sin(0.267 / 2)

Bowl w/ Flat Receiver

Cm ax_bowl

sin 2 r cos 2 ( r 0.267 / 2) 1 ?? 2 4 sin (0.267 / 2)

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Scientific Principles - Thermodynamics

1-2: Heat is transferred to the working fluid (isothermal Expansion). 2-3: Forces the fluid into the cold cylinder. 3-4: The right piston compressing the fluid (Isothermal Compression). 4-1: Forces the fluid back into the left cylinder.

**Regeneration: The heat stored in process 2-3 is ideally picked back up by process 4-1.

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Scientific Principles - Thermodynamics

Ideal Case with Dead Volume

Schmidt Analysis: Ideal Case with Dead Volume and Sinusoidal Motion

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Schmidt Results using Matlab


The Schmidt Cycle was named from Gustav Schmidt (1871)who first published the solution. It is defines as a Stirling Cycle in which Sinusoidal motion of the pistons. It is the most complicated case of a Stirling Engine that can be solved analytically. All other cases have had to be solved numerically.

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Schmidt Results using Matlab

In order to get Power per Engine Cycle, a Schmidt analysis has to be performed. Before this happens, the following assumptions have to be made:

Sinusoidal motion of all parts. Known and constant gas temperatures in all parts of the engine. No gas leakage. Working fluid obeys perfect gas law. At each instant in the cycle, the gas pressure is the same throughout the working gas.
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Schmidt Results using Matlab

Dual Piston (Alpha type engine)


pressure (MPa)

PV Curve Evaluated at 30 degree Increments


90 PV 85

80

Work PdV
P ( n) M R H (n) C (n) Rd Th Tc Tr

75

70

65

Work=641.2497 Joules

60

55

50

45

40

Unit of Energy: Joule=Watt*Second


60 70 80 90 100 110

35 50

Volume (cm3)

V (n) H (n) C (n) Rd


C (n) Vk [1 sin( F Al )] Cd 2

H (n)

Vl [1 cos(F )] H d 2

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Schmidt Results using Matlab

Nomenclature

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Schmidt Results using Matlab

Plots of 30 and 1 degree Increments. As Degree Increments approaches zero, the true work per cycle can be found.
PV Curve Evaluated at 1 degree Increments
90

PV Curve Evaluated at 30 degree Increments


90 PV 85
85

PV

80

80

pressure (MPa)

pressure (MPa)

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Work=641.2497 Joules per Cycle

75

70

70

Work=671.4811 Joules per Cycle

65

65

60

60

55

55

50

50

45

45

40

40

35 50

60

70

80

90

100

110

35 50

60

70

80

90

100

110

Volume (cm )

Volume (cm )

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Schmidt Results using Matlab

Plots of pressure and volume at 0.25 degree Increments.


Hot, Cold, & Total Gas Volumes
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Hot Volume Cold Volume Total Volume

volume (cm )

pressure (MPa)

crank angle(degrees) Total Pressure


80 60 40 20 0 Pressure

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

crank angle(degrees)

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Analytical vs. Numerical

Some Special Case Numerical Work Equations

Mort Mayer Work Equation

V p Vk

Tr

(Th Tc ) 2
(Th Tc ) T log( h ) Tc

J. R. Senft Work Equation

V p Vk

Tr

Cooke-Yarborough Work Equation Walker Work Equation Finkelstein Work Equation


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Analytical vs. Numerical

Numerical: Mort Mayer Work Equation=329.2018 J


Analytical: Schmidt
Percent Error
pressure (MPa)
PV Curve Evaluated at 0.25 degree Increments
60 PV 55

Degree Interval 30 20

Work (J) 314.3633 322.5558

-4.507% -2.019%

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Work=329.1995 Joules per Cycle

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10
5 1 0.5 0.25

327.5317
328.7828 329.1838 329.1963 329.1995

-0.507%
-0.127% -0.005% -0.002% -0.0007%

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35

30 75

80

85

90

95

100

105

110

115

120

125

Volume (cm )

0.1

329.2003

-0.0005%

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Future Steps to Take if this was a Thesis

Perform the Finkelstein Adiabatic (no heat transferred in fluid) Analysis of Stirling Engines. Similar to the Otto cycle gasoline engine. The next closest analysis to reality in Stirling Engines. Combine Optics into full analysis with some physical imperfections. Include Alternator and transmission efficiencies. Include 2-axis tracking errors.
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Questions??

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Citation
Twidell, John; Weir, Tony. Renewable Energy Resources (2nd Ed.). New York, NY: Taylor and Francis. 2007. Martini, William R. Stirling Engine Design Manual (2nd ed.). NASA. US Department of Energy. 1983. Engel, Thomas; Reid, Philip. Thermodynamics, Statistical Thermodynamics, and Kinetics. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Education Inc. 2006.

Duffie, John; Williams Beckman. Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes (Third Edition ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2006.
United States Department of Energy (DOE). http://www.nrel.gov/solar/parabolic_ trough.html. Sept 19, 2008. Stirling Energy Systems (SES). http://www.stirlingenergy.com/. Oct 22, 2008. http://www.stirlingenergy.com/technology/suncatcher.asp Solar Paces. Spain SP10. http://www.solarpaces.org/Tasks/Task1/PS10.HTM. Oct 20, 2008. Wormser, Paul. Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV). http://solar.nau.edu. Jan 11, 2008. http://solar.nau.edu/csp/docs/presentations/Paul%20Wormser.pdf. Oct 27, 2008. Urieli, Izzy. Stirling Cycle Machine Analysis. http://www.ent.ohiou.edu. 2007. http://www.ent.ohiou.edu/~urieli/stirling/me422.html. Nov 6, 2008.

engal, Yunus A.; Boles, Michael A. Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach (Fourth Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. 2002.

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