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By Sabeen Qamar Romaillah bint Azfar 001 Mavish Saleem 12029012-004 1202901212029012-002

Born in 1561 and died in 1626 English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, and author He was truly of Renaissance Titles - Lord Verulam, the Viscount St. Albans, and Lord Chancellor of England noted contender in the William Shakespeare Identity debate Character - Intelligent, Ambitious, Arrogant, Cold and Calculating

A worldly wise man True follower of Machiavellian principles preached morality but his morality is subordinate to worldly success and he never hesitated to sacrifice it for worldly benefit. "A lie faces God and shrinks from man. Utilitarian Approach "Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man and writing an exact man." "Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested."


An Empiricist Creator of the modern school of experimental research Pioneer of modern sciences Staunch follower of theory of Sense Perception Novum Organum - philosophical work by Francis Bacon, written in Latin


Father of English prose His essays are the fullest and finest expression of the practical wisdom he had acquired from study experience and meditation. (W.J.Long) His style was completely different from his contemporaries like Hookers, Ascham, Lily and Ralgh


His prose has aphoristic style It always depends on the device of balance and antithesis Terseness of expression and epigrammatic brevity in the essays Master of simile and metaphor Master of rhetoric and pithy sentences Alexander Pope called him The wisest, brightest and meanest of mankind.


The essay Of Friendship, re-captures a primary essence of human life The fruit of humanity The essay, mostly reminds the reader the great comfort of having a good friend A friend is such a person with whom a person can share his/her feelings and emotion which cannot be shared with anyone If we keep the suffocation within we will destroy our mental peace but if we share it with a friend the suffocation will decline


begins the essay by invoking the idea that Whosoever is delighted in solitude is either a wild beast or a god Unfit for society He may be so self-sufficient that he may not need society Bacon is not ruling out the value of solitude; in fact, he is reserving solitude for higher kind of life, which is possible for a few great men Epimenides, Numa, Empedocles, Apollonius and some Christian saints


is the highest kind of life, it can be enjoyed uninterruptedly for the greatest length of time... Bacons logic is that those who live in society should enjoy the bliss of friendship for more than one reason Friendship is necessary for maintaining good mental health Through the use of friendship one can lighten the heart Sorrows, joys, fears, hopes, suspicions, advice


Practice of friendship on the highest social level Kings and princes, in order to make friends, would raise some persons who would be fit for friendship Participes curarum, which means sharers of their cares He gives example of friends from the Roman history: 1. Julius Caesar and Antonius, 2.Augustus and Agrippa, 3.Tiberius Caesar and Sejanus, 4.Septimius Severus and Plautianus

Aphoristic style Short sentence expressing a truth in the fewest possible words Bacon excels in this kind of writing Range of knowledge, the brightness of intellect and wit, the keen practical wisdom, all packed into the minimum possible words Example: Those that want friends to open themselves unto are cannibals of their hearts.


Central Argument Single men have a greater potential to be successful than married men. Wives rather weigh men down and that men have to share their wealth with women. Married and single life


man is burdened with wife and children. Married men are kind hearted. Married one worries for the welfare of their children in future.


to the society More socialize Good friends, good employers and good subordinates but they can never be good citizens Men prefer to remain single because they value freedom more. These men are selfish in the view of Bacon


A clergyman has to remain single in order to serve others Judges do not need a wife at all Bad husbands always have good wives. If a woman chooses a bad husband then she will be more devoted to show to the world that her choice was right Jealous husband will not be respected by wife


a young man wife is a mistress. For a middle-aged man she is a companion For a old age man she is a nurse

REFERENCES is-bacons-prose-style.html francis_bacon.html