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# Time

0s 1ms 2ms 3ms 4ms 5ms 6ms 7ms 8ms 9ms 10ms
V(out) AVG (V(out))
0V
20V
40V
V(error) AVG (V(error))
-20V
0V
20V
V(control) AVG (V(control))
0V
10V
20V
SEL>>
AVG (V(out))
V(out)
V(error)
AVG(V(error))
V(control)
AVG(V(control))
Chapter 9
Simulation
of
Switching Converters
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 2
Overview

PSpice

## Solving convergence problems

Matlab

Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 3
PSpice Simulations using .CIR
An Ideal Open-Loop Buck Converter
L
O
10mH
C
O
R
V
PWM
+
-
1 2
0
100F
5O
Open-loop buck converter simulation
* SWITCHING FREQUENCY = 1 KHZ ; DUTY CYCLE = 50%
VPWM 1 0 PULSE(0 10 0 1US 1US 0.5MS 1MS)
* PULSE PWM SOURCE: PULSED VOLTAGE = 10 V, RISE TIME = 1 US,
* FALL TIME = 1 US, PULSE WIDTH = 500 US, PERIOD = 1 MS.
L0 1 2 10M
C0 2 0 100U
RL 2 0 5
.TRAN 50US 20MS
.OPTION ITL5=0
.PROBE
.END
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 4
PSpice Simulations using .CIR
An Ideal Open-Loop Buck Converter
Time
0s 5ms 10ms 15ms 20ms
V1(RL) I(C0) I(L0)
-4.0
0
4.0
8.0
I(C0)
I(L0)
V1(RL)
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 5
PSpice Simulations using .CIR
An Ideal Open-Loop Buck Converter
Time
0s 5ms 10ms 15ms 20ms 25ms 30ms 35ms 40ms 45ms 50ms
I(C0) I(L0) V(2)
-2.0
0
2.0
4.0
6.0
I(CO)
I(LO)
V(2)
L = 50 mH
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 6
PSpice Simulations using .CIR
An Ideal Open-Loop Buck Converter
Time
0s 5ms 10ms 15ms 20ms
V(2) I(LO) I(CO)
0
2.0
4.0
6.0
-1.0
V(C2)
I(LO)
I(CO)
L = 5 mH
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 7
PSpice Simulations using .CIR
An Ideal Open-Loop Buck Converter
Time
0s 5ms 10ms 15ms 20ms
V(2) I(LO) I(CO)
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
V(2)
I(LO)
I(CO)
L = 1.25 mH
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 8
PSpice Simulations using .CIR
An Ideal Open-Loop Buck Converter
Time
0s 5ms 10ms 15ms 20ms
V(2) I(LO) I(CO)
-2.0
0
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
I(CO)
I(LO)
V(2)
L = 10 mH
and
C = 500 uF
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 9
PSpice Simulations using .CIR
An Ideal Open-Loop Buck Converter
Time
0s 5ms 10ms 15ms 20ms
V(2) I(LO) I(CO)
-5
0
5
10
I(CO)
I(LO)
V(2)
L = 1.25 mH
and
C = 500 uF
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 10
PSpice Simulations using .CIR
S
R
on
N
N
N
+
c
+
N
-
-
c
Voltage-controlled switch
S<name> N+ N- NC+ NC- SNAME
.MODEL SNAME VSWITCH (RON=0.01 ROFF=1E+7 VON=0.7 VOFF=0)
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 11
PSpice Simulations using .CIR
Current-controlled switch
R
on
W
N
-
+
N
N
V
W<name> N+ N- VN WNAME
.MODEL WNAME ISWITCH (RON=0.01 ROFF=1E+7 ION=0.1 IOFF=0)
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 12
PSpice Simulations using .CIR
Buck Converter with an Ideal Switch
CO
100uf
LO
10mH
1
S1
VPWM
DFW
0
VS 10V R
5ohms
2
RSX
3
OPEN-LOOP BUCK CONVERTER WITH AN IDEAL SWITCH
* SWITCHING FREQUENCY = 1 KHZ ; DUTY CYCLE = 50%
VS 1 0 10.0
VPWM 100 101 PULSE(0 1 0 1US 1US 500US 1MS)
S1 1 2 100 101 SX
RSX 100 0 10G
DFW 0 2 D1
L0 2 3 10M
C0 3 0 100U
RL 3 0 5
.MODEL SX VSWITCH (RON=0.01 ROFF=1E+7 VON=1 VOFF=0)
.MODEL D1 D
.TRAN 0.05MS 20MS
.PROBE
.END
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 13
PSpice Simulations using .CIR
Buck Converter with an Ideal Switch
Time
0s 5ms 10ms 15ms 20ms
V(3) I(LO) I(CO)
0
2.0
4.0
6.0
-1.0
I(CO)
I(LO)
V(3)
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 14
PSpice Simulations using .CIR
Buck Converter with an Ideal Switch
Time
15.0ms 15.5ms 16.0ms 16.5ms 17.0ms 17.5ms 18.0ms
V(3) 20* I(CO)
0
5.0
-3.0
I(CO)*20
V(3)
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 15
PSpice Simulations using .CIR
L0 2 3 100U IC=1
C0 3 0 IC=5
.TRAN 2NS 200NS UIC
Using Initial Conditions IC
Time
0s 5ms 10ms 15ms 20ms
V(3) I(LO) I(CO)
0
2.0
4.0
6.0
-1.0
I(CO)
I(LO)
V(3)
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 16
PSpice Simulations using schematics
entry
Boost converter
+
-
+
-
S
1
S
VON = 1.0V
VOFF = 0.0V
ROFF = 1e6
RON = 1.0
pwm
D
break
D
1
0
V
2 TD = 0
TF = 1n
PW = 0.5m
PER = 1m
V1 = 0
TR = 1n
V2 = 1 R1 C
1
V
1
10V
dc
out
L
1
10mH
20O
+
-
100F
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 17
PSpice Simulations using schematics
entry
Time
0s 5ms 10ms 15ms 20ms 25ms 30ms
V(out)
5V
10V
15V
20V
25V
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 18
PSpice Simulations using schematics
entry
Time
0s 5ms 10ms 15ms 20ms 25ms 30ms
I(L
1
) I(C
1
)
-2.0A
-1.0A
0A
1.0A
2.0A
3.0A
I(C
1
)
I(L
1
)
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 19
PSpice Simulations Using
Behavioral Modeling

## Control system parts

Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 20
Control system parts
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 21
Control system parts
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 22
Control system parts
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 23
Control system parts
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 24
Control system parts
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 25
PSpice-equivalent parts
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 26
PSpice-equivalent parts
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 27
Operators in ABM expressions
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 28
Operators in ABM expressions
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 29
Functions in arithmetic
expressions
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 30
Functions in arithmetic
expressions
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 31
Examples of ABM blocks use
PARAMETERS:
PI = 3.141592654
freq = 1k
3*sin (2*PI*freq*TIME)
sine
ABM and PARAM
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 32
Examples of ABM blocks use
control
3*V (sine)
Node voltages can be accessed from ABM blocks
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 33
Examples of ABM blocks use
rms
sine
If (TIME<=0,0,SQRT(SDT(PWR(V(%IN),2))/TIME))
RMS meter
If(argument,then,else)
If (TIME<=0, 0, SQRT(SDT(PWR(V(%IN),2))/TIME))
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 34
Examples of ABM blocks use
control
pwm
0
If (V(%IN1) > V(%IN2),1,0)
V
4
triangular
TD = 0
TF = 1u
PW = 1n
PER = 2u
V1 = -10
TR = 1u
V2 = 10
PWM modulator
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 35
Examples of ABM blocks use
Sin (2*PI*100k*ABS(V(%IN)) * TIME)
VCO triangular
VCO implementation with ABM1
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 36
PSpice Simulations Using Control
Blocks
control
0
pwm
triangular
V
4
TD = 0
TF = 0.5m
PW = 1n
PER = 1m
V1 = -10
TR = 0.5m
V2 = 10
100k
10
0
PWM modulator with control blocks
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 37
PSpice Simulations Using Control
Blocks
0
OpAmp
V
4
1V
ac
0V
dc
50
50 + s IN OUT
PARAMETERS:
V
cc
= +12
V
EE
= 0
0
0
{V
cc
}
{V
EE
}
In-
0
In+
R
2
10Meg
100k
R
1
10Meg
Model of an operational amplifier
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 38
PSpice Simulations Using Control
Blocks
Frequency
10mHz 1.0Hz 100Hz 10KHz 1.0MHz 100MHz 1.0mHz
P(V(OPAMP))
-100d
-50d
0d
DB(V(OPAMP))
-50
0
50
100
SEL>>
Open loop frequency response
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 39
PSpice Simulations Using Control
Blocks
V
4
1V
ac
0V
dc
R
3
10k
OpAmp
0
R
2
10Meg
R
1
10Meg
0
In-
R
4
1k
50
50 + s IN OUT
In+
0
PARAMETERS:
V
cc
= +12
V
EE
= 0
100k
{V
cc
}
{V
EE
}
0
Closed loop amplifier
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 40
PSpice Simulations Using Control
Blocks
Frequency
10mHz 1.0Hz 100Hz 10KHz 1.0MHz 100MHz 1.0mHz
P(V(OPAMP))
-100d
-50d
0d
SEL>>
DB(V(OPAMP))
-50
0
50
Closed loop frequency response
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 41
Voltage mode PWM boost
converter
Error amplifier
3
C
1
0
0
1Meg
1Meg+s
pwm_out
If (V(%IN1) > V (%IN2),1,0)
control
5
D
break
D
1
12
-12
V
ref
out
saw
V
1
10V
dc
+
-
+
-
S
1
S
VON = 1.0V
VOFF = 0.0V
ROFF = 1e6
RON = 0.05
error
R
2
1
pwm
sense
V
4
TD = 0
TF = 1n
PW = 1n
PER = 1m
V1 = 0
TR = 999u
V2 = 10
PWM
modulator
R
1
0
L
1
10mH
-
+
+
-
E
1
E
GAIN = 0.25
20
100F
+
-
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 42
Voltage mode PWM boost
converter
Time
0s 1ms 2ms 3ms 4ms 5ms 6ms 7ms 8ms 9ms 10ms
V(out) AVG (V(out))
0V
20V
40V
V(error) AVG (V(error))
-20V
0V
20V
V(control) AVG (V(control))
0V
10V
20V
SEL>>
AVG (V(out))
V(out)
V(error)
AVG (V(error))
V(control)
AVG(V(control))
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 43
PSpice simulations using vendor
models
TL084
+
-
V
+
V
-
D
1
MUR420
sense
L
1
10mH
IC = 0
R
7
1
0
0
pwm_out
-15
saw
R
6
100
+15
V
ref
out
+15
R
3
100k
R
5
3k
R
4
1k
V
4
TD = 0
TF = 1n
PW = 1n
PER = 1m
V1 = 0
TR = 999u
V2 = 10
pwm
R
2
300k
R
8
300
PWM modulator
5
control
V
1
10V
dc
Error amplifier
C
1
100uF
LM311
+
-
G
V
+
V
-
B/S
B
R
1
20
0
X
2
MTP15N05E/MC
ESR
10m
-15
+
-
.TRAN 0 30m 0 0.1u
.OPTIONS STEPGMIN
.OPTIONS ABSTOL= 10p
.OPTIONS ITL1= 400
.OPTIONS ITL4= 500
.OPTIONS RELTOL= 0.01
.OPTIONS VNTOL= 10u
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 44
PSpice simulations using vendor
models
Time
0s 5ms 10ms 15ms 20ms 25ms 30ms
V(out)
0V
10V
20V
SEL>>
V(control)
4.8V
5.0V
5.2V
I(L
1
)
0A
2.0A
4.0A
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 45
Vorperian models for PSpice
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 46
Vorperian models for PSpice
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 47
Vorperian models for PSpice
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 48
Vorperian models for PSpice
**** VMSSCCM ****
* Small signal continuous conduction voltage mode model
* Params: RMPHITE --> External ramp height
* D --> Duty cycle
* Ic --> Current flowing from terminal C
* Vap --> Voltage across terminal A P
* Rsw --> Switch on resistance
* Rd --> diode on resistance
* Rm --> which models the base storage effects
* Re --> models ripple across esr of cap
* Pins control voltage --
* common -------- |
* passive----- | |
* active -- | | |
.subckt VMSSCCM A P C VC Params: RMPHITE=2 D=0.4 IC=1 VAP=20
+ Rsw=1e-6 Rd=1e-6 Re=1e-6 Rm=1e-6
efm 4 0 value ={v(Vc)/rmphite}
e2 A 6 value={v(0,4)*Vap/d}
g1 A P value={v(4)*IC}
gxfr 6 P VALUE={I(vms)*D}
exfr 9 P VALUE={V(6,P)*D}
vms 9 8 0
rd 8 C {d*rd+(1-d)*rsw+d*(1-d)*re+rm}
rope 4 0 1g
rgnd 0 P 1g
.ends
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 49
Small-signal analysis of switching
converters
R
20
0
U7
VMSSCCM
D = 0.5
IC = -1.84
RD = 1e-6
RE = 10m
RM = 1e-6
RMPHITE = 10
RSW = 10m
VAP = -17.6
1
3
2
4
A
C
P
V
C
R
s1
300k
out
R
s
1
R
esr
10m
V
1
10V
dc
0
L
1
10mH
IC = 0
R
s2
100k
sense
V
4
1V
ac
0V
dc
C
out
100uF
IC = 0
+
-
Small-signal AC analysis
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 50
Small-signal analysis of switching
converters
Time
0s 5ms 10ms 15ms 20ms 25ms 30ms
V(OUT)
0V
10V
20V
SEL>>
I(L
1
)
0A
1.0A
2.0A
3.0A
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 51
Small-signal analysis of switching
converters
Frequency
1.0Hz 10Hz 100Hz 1.0KHz 10KHz 100KHz 1.0MHz
P(V(OUT))
-300d
-200d
-100d
-0d
DB(V(OUT))
-80
-40
0
40
SEL>>
Open-loop transfer function
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 52
Small-signal analysis of switching
converters
U7
VMSSCCM
D = 0.5
IC = -1.84
RD = 1e-6
RE = 10m
RM = 1e-6
RMPHITE = 10
RSW = 10m
VAP = -17.6
1
3
2
4
A
C
P
V
C
R
s2
100k
R
esr
10m
0
V
4
1V
ac
10V
dc
L
1
10mH
IC = 0
R
s
1
R
20
sense
out
C
out
100uF
IC = 0
R
s1
300k
0
Input impedance
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 53
Small-signal analysis of switching
converters
Frequency
1.0Hz 10Hz 100Hz 1.0KHz 10KHz 100KHz 1.0MHz
DB(V(V4:+)/I(V4))
0
20
40
60
80
100
Input
impedance
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 54
Small-signal analysis of switching
converters
Output impedance
sense 0
U7
VMSSCCM
D = 0.5
IC = -1.84
RD = 1e-6
RE = 10m
RM = 1e-6
RMPHITE = 10
RSW = 10m
VAP = -17.6
1
3
2
4
A
C
P
V
C
L
1
10mH
IC = 0
R
esr
10m
0
out
R
s2
100k
V
4
1V
ac
10V
dc
R
20
R
s
1
V
5
10V
dc
R
s1
300k
C
out
100uF
IC = 0
+
-
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 55
Small-signal analysis of switching
converters
Output impedance
Frequency
1.0Hz 10Hz 100Hz 1.0KHz 10KHz 100KHz 1.0MHz
DB(V(V4:+)/I(V4))
-40
-20
0
20
40
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 56
Small-signal analysis of switching
converters
L
1
10mH
IC = 0
R
s
1
R
s1
300k
U7
VMSSCCM
D = 0.5
IC = -1.84
RD = 1e-6
RE = 10m
RM = 1e-6
RMPHITE = 10
RSW = 10m
VAP = -17.6
1
3
2
4
A
C
P
V
C
R
s2
100k
V
1
10V
dc
sense
0
0
V
4
TD = 20m
TF = 1n
PW = 50m
PER = 50m
V1 = 1.2
TR = 1n
V2 = 1.5
C
out
100uF
IC = 0
R
esr
10m
R
20
out
+
-
Small-signal transient analysis
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 57
Small-signal analysis of switching
converters
Small-signal transient analysis
Time
0s 5ms 10ms 15ms 20ms 25ms 30ms
I(L
1
)
0A
1.0A
2.0A
3.0A
V(OUT)
0V
10V
20V
25V
SEL>>
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 58
Averaged-inductor model for a
voltage-mode boost converter
C
1
100u
IC = 0
V
1
10
R
2
20
R
1
10m
0.5
out
U7 BOOSTVM
Rs = 1
FS = 1k
L = 10m
DON
IN OUT
GND
R
3
1
0
+
-
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 59
Output voltage obtained with the
averaged-inductor model
Time
0s 5ms 10ms 15ms 20ms 25ms 30ms
V(OUT)
0V
5V
10V
15V
20V
25V
30V
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 60
Measuring the loop gain
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 61
Measuring the loop gain
Frequency
1.0mHz 10mHz 100mHz 1.0Hz 10Hz 100Hz 1.0KHz 10KHz 100KHz 1.0MHz 10MHz
P(V(VF))
-360
-270
-180
-90
0
90
SEL>>
(100.000,-163.029)
DB(V(VF))
-80
-40
0
20
(100.000,-1.2488)
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 62
Frequency compensation
choose f1 = 100 Hz for a switching frequency of 1 kHz
PID compensation
1 1 1 1
1
( ) 90 2tan 2tan
comp
z p
f f
f
f f

_
_
+

,
,
2
2
1 1
1 10 1 10 10
( ) 20 (2 ) 40 1 40 1
comp
z p
f f
M f Log f Log Log
f f

_
_
_
_

+ + +

,
,
,
,
1
1
1
1
90 2tan
tan
2
comp
p
z
z
f
f
f
f
f

_
_
+ +

,

,
( )
2
2 1
1 10 1 10 1 10
( ) 20 (2 ) 40 1 40 1
comp z
p
f
M f Log f Log f Log
f

_
_

+ + +

,
,
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 63
PID compensation
1 p
3 3
1
= f
2
C R

2
1 2
p
2 1 2
( + )
C C
= f
2
C C R

1 z
2 1
1
= f
2
C R

2 z
1 3 3
1
= f
2 ( + )
C R R

2
1
1
R
=
K
R
2 1 3
2
1 3
( + )
R R R
=
K
R R
3 1 2
3
2 1 2
C C R
= .
C
+
C C R
Mag_comp_f1 = -7.0985
Ph_comp = 32
k1_db = -24.6094
k1 = 0.0588
k2_db = -5.0259
k2 = 0.5607
R2 = 588.2076
R3 = 269.7258
C1 = 5.0034e-005
C2 = 1.3496e-006
C3 = 2.8658e-006
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 64
Boost switching converter with
PID compensator
-15
pwm
R
s
1
+15
saw
C
out
100uF
IC = 20
L
1
10mH
IC = 4
C
1
5.0014e-005
R
2
518.3291
V
1
10V
dc
0
R
1
10k
0
-15
sense
R
6
100
V
3
-15
out
5
+15
LM311
+
- G
V
+
V
-
B/S
B
R
s3
1k
0
0
D
1
MUR420
+15
C
3
2.5483e-006
Error amplifier
R
20
R
4
10meg
V
ref
V
4
TD = 0
TF = 1n
PW = 1n
PER = 1m
V1 = 0
TR = 999u
V2 = 10
R
s2
3k
TL084
+
-
V
+
V
-
E
SR
10m
R
8
300
R
3
173.0498
V
2
`15
control
V
X2
MTP15N05E/MC
PWM
modulator
C
2
1.1461e-006
-15
pwm_out
+
-
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 65
Simulation results with a PID
compensator
Time
0s 5ms 10ms 15ms 20ms 25ms 30ms
V(out)
0V
20V
40V
V(control)
5.0V
7.5V
10.0V
SEL>>
I(L
1
)
4.0A
4.5A
5.0A
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 66
PI compensation
0
C
out
200uF
IC = 0
0
EAO
0
10
-10
L
1
10mH
IC = 0
V
g
10V
dc
R
s
1
out
100k
R
esr
10m
0
10
10 + s
error
R
20
V
f
0
R
1
1k
V
1
1V
ac
0V
dc
V
f
C
1
500n
U7
VMSSCCM
D = 0.5
IC = -1.84
RD = 1e-6
RE = 10m
RM = 1e-6
RMPHITE = 10
RSW = 10m
VAP = -17.6
1
3
2
4
A
C
P
V
C
0
-
+
+
-
E1
E
GAIN = 0.25
R
2
10k
+
-
Small-signal model of the boost converter with PI
compensation
1 1
1 2
1 s C R
TF
s C R
+

## Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 67

PI compensation
Frequency
1.0mHz 10mHz 100mHz 1.0Hz 10Hz 100Hz 1.0KHz 10KHz 100KHz 1.0MHz
P(V(VF)) P(V(EAO))
-360
-270
-180
-90
0
90
180
DB(V(VF)) DB(V(EAO))
-200
-100
0
SEL>>
Compensated loop gain
Uncompensated loop gain
Compensated loop gain
Uncompensated loop gain
100
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 68
PI compensation using ABM
blocks
0
saw
R
esr
10m
0
5
1
1 + s
out
D
break
D
1
10
-10
R
2
10k
R
1
1k
R
3
100k
if( V(%IN1) < V(%IN2),1,0)
1
3
2
V
2 TD = 0
TF = 0.05u
PW = 0.05u
PER = 100u
V1 = 0
TR = 99.9u
V2 = 10
C
1
500n
C
2
1n
+
-
+
-
S
1
S
VON = 1.0V
VOFF = 0.0V
C
out
100u
IC = 20
R
s
0.1
ref
0
0
R
20 gate
100k
L
1
10mH
IC = 1.8
1 2
V
1
10V
dc
pwm
control
0.25
+
-
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 69
Simulation results of the PI
compensation using ABM blocks
Time
0s 5ms 10ms 15ms 20ms 25ms 30ms
V(CONTROL)
0V
5V
10V
V(OUT)
0V
10V
20V
30V
SEL>>
I(L
1
)
0A
2.0A
4.0A
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 70
PI compensation using vendor
models
R
3
10
0
R
1
1k
-15
+15
V
1
10V
dc
V
2
TD = 0
TF = 0.05u
PW = 0.05u
PER = 100u
V1 = 0
TR = 99.9u
V2 = 10
-15
C
out
100u
IC = 20
0
ref
0
0
gate
out
X
1
MTP15N05E/MC
R
20
0
R
s
0.1
V
3
+15V
dc
C
1
500n
LM311
+
-
G
V
+
V
-
B/S
B
R
6
1k
TL084
+
-
V
+
V
-
5
0
L
1
10mH
IC = 1.8
1 2
R
5
3k
0
R
2
10k
saw
-15
R
esr
10m
control
+15
pwm
V
4
-15V
dc
D
2
MUR420
R
4
300
+15
+
-
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 71
Simulation results of the PI
compensation using vendor
models
Time
0s 2ms 4ms 6ms 8ms 10ms 12ms 14ms 16ms 18ms 20ms
V(CONTROL)
0V
5V
10V
SEL>>
V(OUT)
0V
20V
40V
I(L
1
)
0A
2.0A
4.0A
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 72
PI compensation using vendor
models
*Analysis directives:
.TRAN 0 30m 0 10n SKIPBP
.OPTIONS STEPGMIN
.OPTIONS PREORDER
.OPTIONS ABSTOL= 10.0p
.OPTIONS CHGTOL= 0.1p
.OPTIONS ITL2= 200
.OPTIONS ITL4= 400
.OPTIONS RELTOL= 0.01
.OPTIONS VNTOL= 10.0u
I/O ERROR -- Probe file size exceeds 2000000000
JOB ABORTED
TOTAL JOB TIME 912.11
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 73
Creating capture symbols for PSpice
simulation

## Vendors often provide PSpice models for their circuit

components. They are normally provided in a text file with
extension .LIB; if the file has a different extension, it should
be changed to .LIB

Start the PSpice Model Editor and from the File menu, choose
Create Parts

Browse to find the input model library (.LIB file) and click
OK to start

## This step creates an .OBL file with a schematic symbol linked

To place the new part into the schematic, open Capture, and
and add the new .OLB file
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 74
Solving convergence problems

## PSpice uses the Newton-Raphson algorithm to

solve the nonlinear equations in these analyses

## The algorithm is guaranteed to converge only if the

analysis is started close to the solution

## If the initial guess is far away from the solution, this

may cause a convergence failure or even a false
convergence

## If the node voltages do not settle down within a

certain number of iterations, an error message will
be issued
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 75
DC analysis error messages

## The DC Analysis calculates the small-signal bias

points before starting the AC analysis or the initial
transient solution for the transient analysis

## Solutions to the DC analysis may fail to converge

because of incorrect initial voltage guesses, model
discontinuities, unstable or bistable operation, or
unrealistic circuit impedances

## When an error is found during the DC analysis,

SPICE will then terminate the run because both the
AC and transient analyses require an initial stable
operating point in order to start
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 76
DC analysis error messages

No convergence in DC analysis

PIVTOL Error

Singular Matrix

## No Convergence in DC analysis at Step = xxx

Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 77
Transient analysis error messages

## If the node voltages do not settle down, the time

step is reduced and SPICE tries again to determine
the node voltages

## If the time step is reduced beyond a certain fraction

of the total analysis time, the transient analysis will
issue an error message Time step too small and
the analysis will be halted

## Transient analysis failures are usually due to model

discontinuities or unrealistic circuit, source, or
parasitic modeling
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 78
Solutions to convergence
problems

## the first only tries to fix the symptoms by adjusting the

simulator options

## while the other attacks the root cause of the

convergence problems

## Once the circuit is properly modeled, many of the

modifications of the "options" parameters will no longer
be required

## It should be noted that solutions involving simulation

options may simply mask the underlying circuit
instabilities
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 79
Bias point (DC) convergence

## PSpice options are checked to ensure that

they are properly defined
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 80
Checking circuit topology and
connectivity

nodes

## Make sure that the correct PSpice units (i.e. MEG

for 1E6, not M, which means mili in simulations) are
used
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 81

node to ground

at every node

## Make sure that capacitors and/or current sources

are not connected in series

## Make sure that no (groups of) nodes are isolated

from ground by current sources and/or capacitors

## Make sure that there are no loops of inductors

and/or voltage sources only
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 82

circuit

## Be careful when floating grounds (e.g., chassis

ground) are used; a large resistor should be
connected from the floating node to ground. All
nodes will be reported as floating if "0 ground" is
not used

## Make sure that voltage/current generators use

realistic values, and verify that the syntax is
correct

## Make sure that dependent source gains are

correct, and that E/G element expressions are
reasonable
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 83

occur

range +/- 1e10

necessary

## Avoid situations where an ideal current source

delivers current into a reverse-biased p-n junction
without a shunt resistance
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 84
Setting up the options for the
analog simulation

## Use NODESETs to set node voltages to the nearest

reasonable guess at their DC values

## PSpice does not always converge when relaxed

tolerances are used

## Setting GMIN to a value between 1n and 10n will often

solve convergence problems

## Setting GMIN to a value, which is greater than 10n,

may cause convergence problems
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 85
Transient convergence

## The transient analysis can fail to complete if

the time step becomes too small

## (a) the Newton-Raphson iterations would not

converge even for the smallest time step size

## (b) something in the circuit is moving faster than

can be accommodated by the minimum step size
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 86
Transient convergence

first be checked

## Followed by the PSpice options

Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 87
Circuit topology and
connectivity

necessary

## Initialize the nodes with valid digital value to ensure

there are no ambiguous states

## Add Capacitance for all semiconductor junctions

Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 88
Circuit topology and
connectivity

nonzero

## It is recommended that all inductors have a

parallel resistor

## Look for waveforms that transition vertically

(up or down) at the point during which the
analysis halts
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 89
Circuit topology and
connectivity

sources

## Ensure that there is no unreasonably large

capacitor or inductor
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 90
PSpice options

Set RELTOL=.01

## Reduce the accuracy of ABSTOL/VNTOL if

current/voltage levels allow it

## ABSTOL and VNTOL should be set to about 8

orders of magnitude below the level of the maximum
voltage and current

## Increase ITL4, but no more than 100

Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 91
PSpice options

## Any applicable .IC and IC= initial conditions

statements should be added to assist in the
initial stages of the transient analysis
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 92
Switching converter simulation using
Matlab
Working with transfer functions
Consider a buck converter designed to operate in the continuous conduction
mode having the following parameters: R = 4, L = 1.330 mH, C = 94 f, Vs =
42 V, Va = 12 V
\$
1 2
2
2
0 0
1 1
( )
( )
1
o
z z
d
s s
s s
v s
K
s s
d s
Q
_ _
+

, ,

+ +
\$
2
(1 )
s
d
V
K
D

1
1
z
ESR
s
R C

2
2
(1 )
( || )
ind
z ESR
R D
s R R R
L L

0
(1 ) 1
ind e
ESR
R r D D
R R
LC

+
||
e ESR
r R R
0
(1 ) 1
( )
ind e
ESR
Q
R r D
L C R R

+
+
+
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 93
Switching converter simulation using
Matlab
% this is a comment
% parameters
R= 4;
L = 1.330 e-3;
Rind = 100 e-3;
C = 94 e-6;
Resr = 10 e-3
Vs = 42;
Va = 12;
D=Va/Vs;
Kd= Vs/(1-D)^2;
Sz1=1/(Resr*C);
Req = R-(Resr*R/(Resr+R));
Sz2 = (1/L)*(1-D)^2* Req Rind/L;
Re=(Resr*R)/( Resr+R);
Wo = (1/sqrt(L*C)) * sqrt((Rind+re*D*(1-D))/(Resr+R));
Q = Wo/(((Rind+re*(1-D))/L)+(1/(C*(Resr+R))));
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 94
Switching converter simulation using
Matlab
% polynomials are entered in descending order of S.
n1=[1/Sz1 1]
n2=[-1/Sz2 1]
NUM=conv(n1,n2)
% the convolution realizes the product of 2 polynomials
% define denumerator
DEN = [1/(Wo^2) 1/(Wo*Q) 1]
% create TF variable
sysTF = Kd * tf(NUM,DEN)
which returns
Transfer function:
-5.317e-008 s^2 - 0.05648 s + 82.32
4.913e-006 s^2 + 0.01343 s + 1
sysTF
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 95
Switching converter simulation using
Matlab
The location of the poles can be
found using
poles = roots(DEN)
and the frequency response can be
plotted using
bode(sysTF)
Bode Diagram
P
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
)
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
(
d
B
)
-40
-20
0
20
40
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
-270
-225
-180
-135
-90
-45
0
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 96
Switching converter simulation using
Matlab
The small signal transient step response can be plotted using
Figure % this command opens a new figure window
step(sysTF) Step Response
Time (sec)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 97
Switching converter simulation using
Matlab
Working with matrices
Consider a buck converter designed to operate in the continuous conduction mode
having the following parameters: R = 4, L = 1.330 mH, C = 94 f, Vs = 42 V,
Va = 12 V.
% state-space averaged model of a Buck converter
L= 1.330e-3; % inductance
cap=94.e-6; % capacitance
Ts=1.e-4; % switching period
Vs=42; % input DC voltage
Vref=12; % desired output voltage
The average duty cycle is:
D=Vref/(Vs); % ideal duty cycle
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 98
Switching converter simulation using
Matlab
^
^ ^ ^
1
^
2
1
0
1 1
0 0
s
V D
x
L
x u d
L L
x
C RC

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
+ +
1 1 1 1
] ] ] ]
A=[ 0 -1/L
B1=[ 1/L
0]; %during Ton

B2=[ 0
0]; %during Toff
B=B1*D+B2*(1-D)

C=[0 1];
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 99
Switching converter simulation using
Matlab
OLpoles = eig(A)
sysOL=ss(A,B,C,0)
step(sysOL)
Time (sec.)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
Step Response
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5
x 10
-3
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
From: U (1)
T
o
:
Y
(
1
)
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 100
Switching converter simulation using
Matlab
gamma=[ Vs/L
0];
closed-loop poles:
P=1e3*[-0.3298 + 0.10i -0.3298 - 0.10i]';
Bf= gamma*(D/Vref);
F=place(A,Bf ,P)
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 101
Switching converter simulation using
-5.317e-8 s^2 - 0.05648 s + 82.32
4.913e-6 s^2 + 0.01343 s + 1
sysTF
[NUM,DEN] = TFDATA(sysTF,v)
-5.317e-8s -0.0565s+82.32
2
4.913e-6s +0.0134s+1.0
2
Transfer Fcn
time
To Workspace1
output
To Workspace
Step Scope
Clock
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Time (s)
O
u
t
p
u
t
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 102
Switching converter simulation using
sysZPK = zpk(sysTF)
-0.010821 (s+1.064e006) (s-1455)
(s+2657) (s+76.6)
sysZPK
zeroes: [-1.0638e+006 +1455]
poles: [-2657 -76.6]
gain: [-0.010821]
Power switching converters Simulation of switching converters 103
Switching converter simulation using
[ ]
[ ]
0 752
10638 2660
214.82 0 '
0 1 '
0
A
B
C
D
1

time
To Workspace1
output
To Workspace
Step
x' = Ax+Bu
y = Cx+Du
State-Space
Scope
Clock