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CABLE SUSPENDED ROOFS By J.C.

WASON

FORCES IN A CABLE

H = PULL

P/2

P/2

A CABLE IS A PURE TENSION STRUCTURAL MEMBER

H = PULL

FUNICULAR POLYGON

A CABLE IS A PURE TENSION STRUCTURAL MEMBER

H = PULL

FUNICULAR POLYGN

A CABLE IS A PURE TENSION STRUCTURAL MEMBER


H = PULL H

FUNICULAR POLYGN Shape of a suspended cable depends upon loads suspended from cable.

PARABOLIC

SAG

FUNICULAR

CURVE

CATEHARY SAG

P1

P5

P2 P3

P4

FUNICULAR CURVE

A SUSPENSION BRIDGE IS A CABLE SUPPORTED STRUCTURE


HANGERS BRIDGE DECK ANCHOR BLOCKS MAST

SUSPENION CABLES

SUSPENSION BRIDGE

COMPONENT PART S OF A SUSPENSION STRUCTURE : 1. 2. 3. 4. Structure (to be suspended) Cable (tension) Mast (Compression member) Uplift Anchorages

ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF CABLE SUPPORTED SYSTEMS :


ADVANTAGE : 1. Feasibility of large free areas 2. Shallower and more economical structure 3. Structural efficiency (cable Tension Member in steel.) :DISADVANTAGE : 1. Problem of Stability under strong winds

TRADITIONALLY SUPPORTED STRUCTURES :

In a Traditional Long Structure, the Structure is supported by the Vertical Supports

CABLE SUSPENDED SYTEMS : Cables

Mast

structure

In a Cable Suspended System, the Structure is supported by Cables

SOME TYPICAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR CABLE SUPPORTS SYSTEMS

Cable

Mast

Cables Mast

structure

structure

MASTS ARE SUPPORTING PIERS WHICH SUPPORTS THE CABLES AND TRANSFER REACTION OF CABLED TO GROUND

TYPES OF PERIMETER SUPPORT

CENTRAL SUPPORTS

SOME CABLE SUSPENDED STRUCTURAL ARRANGEMENTS

Anchorage

Cables

Half plan

HALF PLAN

Mast

Cable structure

SUSPENDED ROOFS COVERING TOP FOOR OF BUILDING

CABLE SUSPENDED ROOF STIFTENING ARRANGE MENTS


Mast Cable

Mast Anchoring cables

L
Anchor Blocks

Cable

Anchor Blocks

CONVEX LENS- SHAPED CABLE TRUS

CABLE SUSPENDED ROOF STIFTENING ARRANGE MENTS


Mast Cable

Mast Anchoring cables Cable

L
Anchor Blocks Anchor Blocks

CONVEX LENS- SHAPED CABLE TRUSS

CABLE SUSPENDED ROOF STIFTENING ARRANGE MENTS


Diagonal strut Bearing member

Strut Tie/Anchorage

Stabilizing member

Anchor Blocks

Anchor Blocks

CONVEX LENS - SHAPED CABLE TRUSS

CABLE

SUSPENDED ROOFS SOME DUBLE LAYERED STIFFENED SYSTEMS

cables Ring beam

PLAN

CABLE SUSPENDED ROOFS SOME DUBLE LAYERED STIFFENED SYSTEMS


Strut cable Strut

Strut cable

CONVEX LENS SHAPED ROOF Twin ring Central cage beams

CONCAVE LENS SHAPED ROOF Twin ring beams

Central cage

cable Strut INTERMEDIATE TYPE LENS SHAPED ROOF COSS - SECTIONS

Edge member

Anchorage Secondary cable Primary cable

STABILIZATION THROUGH TRANSVERSE CABLES TIED TO GROUND

Edge member

Secondary cable

Primary cable

Vertical column

INCLINED ARCHES CROSSING EACH OTHER ABOVE THEIR BASES

INCLINED ARCHES CROSSING EACH OTHER ABOVE THEIR BASES

CABLE-STAYED SUSPENSION ROOF

CABLE- SAYED SUSPENSION ROOF WRITH INTERMEDIATE SUPPORTS

BEAM STRING ROOF

CABLE-STAYED SUSPENSION ROOF

CABLE- SAYED SUSPENSION ROOF WRITH INTERMEDIATE SUPPORTS

BEAM STRING ROOF

PRINCIPLES OF SPACE STRUCTURES


County, use, date completed Supermarket Athis,Mons, France Sport Hall, Sala, Sweden Exhibition Hall, Poznan, Poland Size, area

Shape

Structural Roof type cladding Cable Truss Cable Truss Cable Truss Cable Truss Cable Truss Light Weight Light Weight Light Weight Light Weight Light Weight

HT Steel in cable weight, kg/sp.m 2.78 4.88

43m Rectangular spam 43m Rectangular spam 43m Rectangular spam

2.59 2.98 5.22

Sports hall, 43m Rectangular Kerkrade, Germany spam Sport Palace, Helsinki, Finland 43m Rectangular spam

Industrial Building Pomezia, Italy

43m Rectangular spam

Cable Truss

Light Weight

2.69

SUSPENDED ROOF SUPPORTED BY INCLINED INTERCONNECTED ARCHES

WAVE FORMED MEMBRANE

ROOF

ANOTHER VERSION OF A PRESTRESSED SUPENDED ROOF

In chined arch
Support for cables

cables

Comprn ring

Vertical support for arch

ANOTHER VERSION OF PRESTRESSED SAUSPENDED ROOF

Comprn ring Tension ring Cables

BICYCLE WHEEL

Comprn ring

Cables

THREE WAY SUSPENDED ROOF

CASE STUDIES OF CABLE SUSPENDED SYSTEMS :

1. INDRA GANDHI INDOOR STADIUM, NEW DELHI

I.G . SPORT TADIUM, NEW DELHI Roof : Octagonal lotus shaped roof lower point 23m above G.L i. Central compression ring ii. Steel trusses in the segmental areas between main RCC column iii. Roof covering and insulation COMPRN RING : 37.5 m face to face lattice trusses octgonal in plan SECTING CAPACTY OF STADIUM 25000

FOUNDATION :Driven cast in sits piles, 400 to 500mm dia, 16 to 23m deep, capacity 70 to 110 tonnes
PARTITION :155 m long X 14m high in sulated partition to divide stdium in to two halve, visually and acoustically from each other. The lower 22m partition folds up vertically and retracts into I'm space to give a visually unhindered stadium. Partition folds up by a push of button in 7 minute time.

Add Text

SHADDLE

+40.00m +38.656m +35.30m


ANCHOR

CABLES

+35.45m
ROOF SLAB WITH ANCHOR BEAM

A.H.U ROOM FOR STADIUM

+23.30m
CONTROL ROOM FOR ALL ELECTRICAL

LOCATION OF MAIN OF A RING

+18.60m +14.25m
ENTRY TO STADIUM

+8.10m
INTERNAL STAIR CASE

FOYER LEVEL

SECTIONAL ELEVATION OF TOWER


SECTION OF PYLON I.G. STADIUM , NEW DELHI

+3.80m

PODIUM LEVEL

A.H.U ROOM FOR GROUND FLOOR

-0.25m -2.025m

GROUND LEVEL RETURN AIR DUCT

36
35 34 33 32 31 30

37

38 39 40 41

42 43 44 45 46 1 2

29
28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20

Foldable partition

3 4 5 6 7

8
9 10 11 13 12 SEATING LEVEL PLAN

PUBLIC PLAZA NORTH

38 37

41 42 43 39 40 44

45 46 47
PUBLIC PLAZA EAST

36
35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26
VIP SEATS VIP SEATS

48
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

SERVICE CORE SNACK COUNTER GENTS PUBLIC TOILET

LADIES PUBLIC TOILET

Foldable partition

25
24 23 22 21 20 19 18
PUBLIC PLAZA WEST

PUBLIC PLAZA SOUTH

11 12 13 14

2 0 4

8 12 16 20M

17 16 15

L.G. INDOOR SPORTS STADIUM FOYER LEVEL PLAN (AT 8.1 M)

SOME CABLE STRUCTURES 1. Raleigh Arena (1952) Covers 205FT X 295FT (90mx 90mx) area with a saddle shaped cable roof connected to two RCC catenary Arches, resisting compression. Arches crossed and deeply embedded. Arches supported by vertical col. of varying height. Roof formed by two group of cable, one curved upward and other curved do inward Intersection of cables forms a double anticlastic curvature. Hor thrust from cable is resisted by the tow inclined RCC arches.

2.

Municipal auditorium, New York, USA

Diameter : 73m (240FT) Based on bicycle wheel principle. uses to sets of cable, anchored to a 73m (240FT ) dia. RCC comprn ring & two steel tension rings , and are kept apart by pipe spreaders. Comprn ring supported by 24 rect. RCC cols paced at 150 apart. Each pair of upper and lower cable space at 50 apart. dist between upper & lower rings 6m (20FT). (span / depth rat10= 1/12). The tow seet of cables used den vibration. (the system also used for us pavilion at international binge at Brussels

2.

Yale university , hockey rink A double curyed roof surface supported at middle by a high arch concrete spine of Para bock and span72m (235ft). With additional 12m cantilevers at both ends. cables supported by RCC pine and two exterior wall deigned to take the lateral thrust from cable. RALAEIGH ARENA (1952) Cable suspended roof area covered = 90m x 90m. A saddle shaped cable roof connected to two RCC Catenary arches, resisting comprn arches on vertcal cols of varying height.

Cable roof farmed by two groups of cables one curved downward and other curved up ward, forming a surface of double anticlastic curvature. CABLE STAYED BRIDE :Specially suited in span range of 200- 500m cal though large pans also since constructed. Aesthatically appealing and economical in teel consumption. cable stayed bridge are highly indeterminate structure and need use of computers for rigorous analysis. Cable stayed bridges for long pans have become popular because of -

i. A variability of high strength steel for cables ii. Adoption of orthotropic deck using advanced welding technique iii. Use of computer for analysis MAIN COMPONT OF A CABLE TAYED BRIDGE i. Inclined cables ii. Tower ( or Pylons) iii. Orthotropic deck in teel & prestressed conc. Box girder deck

Compreion ring

Strut

SECTIONAL AND TABILIZATION MECHANIM Stabilization cable above suspension (convex lens shaped)

Primary cable Compression ring

Tension ring

Tie

Secondary cable

SECTIONAL AND TABILIZATION MECHANIM Stabilization cable below suspension (convex lens shaped)

Tension ring

Compression ring

DISHED SHELL ROOF

Tension ring Central pot

Compression ring

TENT ROOF

Main cable
Roof panel

Strut

Anchor

SINGLY CURVED SINGLE LAYER CABLE SUPENDED ROOF

Primary cable

Secondary cable

Edge member

DIAMOND SHAPED DOUBLE CURVATURE NET

CABLE SUSPENDED BRIDGES


SLAB SUPPORTED BY STEEL SUSPENDERS SUSPENDED FROM STEEL CABLES SUPPORTED BY MASTS)

(DECK

A SUSPENSION BRIDGE IS A CABLE SUPPORTED STRUCTURE


HANGERS BRIDGE DECK ANCHOR BLOCKS MAST

SUSPENION CABLES

SUSPENSION BRIDGE

Anchor Cable

Compression ring

CABLE SUSPENDED BRIDGE WITH STEEL DECK AND STEEL MASTS

MAIN CABLES

SUSPENDER CABLES

BRIDGE DECK

SUPPORTING MAST

CABLE SUSPENSION BRIDGES

CABLE STAYED BRIDGES (DECK SLAB SUPPORTED BY STEEL CABLES SPLAYED AND SUPPORTED BY MASTS)

(i) (ii) (iii)


HFL

(i) (ii)

(i). Steel Cables (ii). Mast (iii). Bridge Deck

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE DECK

A CABLE STAYED BRIDGE WITH PRESTRESSED CONCRETE DECK

CABLE STAYED BRIDGE - HARP TYPE

CABLE STAYED BRIDGE - FAN TYPE

Cables

HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE ANCHOR

Rock bed

AHCHORAGE FOR SUSPENSION BRIDGE

STROMSEND

BRIDGE

CABLE STAYED BRIDGES - SOME LIVE EXAMPLES

SEVERIN BRIDGE

DUSSELDORF BRIDGE

NORDERELDE

BRIDGE

SECOND HOOGHLY BRIDGE, KOLKATTA A CABLE STAYED BRIDGE

CABLE STAYED BRIDGE - HARP TYPE

Cable

HIGH STIREHGTH CONC. ANCHOR

Rock bed

AHCHORAGF OF SUSPENIOS BRIDE CABLE

CABLE STAYED BRIDGE - FAN TYPE

Cables

HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE ANCHOR

Rock bed

AHCHORAGE FOR SUSPENSION BRIDGE

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