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*PRESTRESSED CONCRETE*

DRAWBACKS OF RCC
1. Weakness of Concrete in Tension : Concrete in Tension Zone Cracks 2. To limit crack width in concrete in Tension in steel and hence stress in steel is kept low. Strain in steel = stress in steel / Es ( Es = Youngs modulus of Elasticity in steel )

CONCRETE IN TENSION ZONE CRACKS.

In an RCC Beam 1. 2. Cracking of concrete in Tension zone may cause corrosion of steel of reinforcement. Cracking in concrete makes concrete in Tension zone ineffective to take stresses.

Hence Section in an RCC beam is not fully utilised Hence NOT fully efficient.

CONCRETE IN TENSION ZONE CRACKS.

In an RCC Beam 1. 2. Cracking of concrete in Tension zone may cause corrosion of steel of reinforcement. Cracking in concrete makes concrete in Tension zone ineffective to take stresses.

Hence Section in an RCC beam is not fully utilised Hence NOT fully efficient.

In the illustration of a Hollow steel tube with a Threaded Steel rod and end steel plates ; Tightening of Nut will cause tension in Rod and comprn. in side plates. Comprn. in side plates will induce comprn. in Tube. IN A PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAM Hollow Tube is replaced by concrete beam. Steel rod is replaced by steel wires or steel cables. Nuts are replaced by steel wedges and end anchorages. y Steel Tendons.

PRESTRESSING CENTRE OF CONCRETE SECTION

PRESTRESSING
is the Technique of introducing in a concrete member compressive force of permanent nature, so that it causes compressive stresses in that zone of member, where Tensile stresses will be caused by external loads.

Principle of Prestressing :
Principle of applying a compressive force of permanent nature to a prestressed concrete member may be explained by analogy of applying compressive force to a hollow steel tube by end steel plates by tensioning a threaded a steel rod.

PRESTRESSING CENTRE OF CONCRETE SECTION

ECCENTRIC PRESTRESSING :
Prestressing force applied eccentrically below the Neutral Axis will induce compressive stresses below the N.A. and tensile stresses above the N.A. This Technique is called ECCENTRIC Prestressing. Stresses induced by the eccentric prestressing will be of nature opposite to those induced by the external loading.

CASE 1 : AXIAL PRESTRESSING

STRESS DIAGRAM FOR AXIALLY PRESTRESSED BEAM

CASE 2 : ECCENTRIC PRESTRESSING

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE - ELABORATE DEF. Concrete in which there have been introduced Internal stresses of such magnitude and distribution that the stresses resulting from given external loading are counteracted to a desired degree. Prestressing ( Eccentric P.S ) will induce compressive stresses in those zones where Tension is induced by External loading and Tensile stresses in those zones where comp.stresses are induced by External loading.

Eccentric Prestressing ( Contd.)


Magnitude and eccentricity of the Prestressing force are so adjusted so that final stresses are always compressive and no tension develops at any stage.

STRESS DIAGRAMS IN AN ECCENTRICALLY P.S. BEAM *Note : final stress must be compressive through out and

Tension must not develop at any stage.

TERIALS USED IN PSC ONCRETE : Min Grade : Tensioned PSC : M 30 Tensioned PSC : M 35 crete strength grades mmonly used in PSC : M 35 to M 60

teel : h strength steel with yield strength of 1200 to 1800 N/mm2 in he shape of (i) wires 4 to 8 mm dia i). Strands in the shape of a rope with 8 to 12 wires.

METHODS OF PRESTRESSING:
Two Methods of Prestressing :

1. Pretensioning.
2. Post Tensioning.

PRE TENSIONING : (def :) A method of Prestressing concrete in which tendons (Prestressing steel wires or rods)are tensioned (stressed) before concreting. Prestressing steel wires are tensioned before casting concrete in moulds. POST TENSIONING : (def :) A method of Prestressing concrete in which Prestressing steel is tensioned against hardened concrete. Prestressing steel tensioned against hardened concrete.

PRE TENSIONING : Prestressing wires temporarily anchored against strong abutments. Transfer of prestress to concrete is by bond. Transfer of prestress after concrete has set. Axial prestressing generally adopted. Bending of wires difficult and hence generally not adopted. Small sized prestressing wires (4 mm to 8 mm) generally used. Pre tensioning generally used for small pre cast factory produced elements.

Applications of Pretensioning
1. For precast small factory produced uilding elements like precast beam elements, precast slab or wall elements. 2. Precast Railway sleepers. 3. Precast electric poles. 4. Other similar factory produced precast conc elements which may also be pretensioned to to reduce dead weight.

PRETENSIONED PRECAST SLAB UNITS

PRETENSIONED PRECAST ELECTRIC POLE PRECAST PRETENSIONED CONC. ELEMENTS

PRETENSIONED PRECAST TEE BEAM ( BUILDING FLEMENT )

LONG LINE METHOD :

A method used for manufacture of pre tensioned pre Cast identical elements (such as wall panels, slab,panels, Electric poles or railway sleepers), in which a long Permanent bed with strong abutments at each end is Used for casting a number of elements simultaneously.

SCHEMATIC ARRANGEMENT OF LONG LINE MANUFACTURING OF PRE CAST PRETENSIONED ELEMENTS.

STEAM CURING : A process of accelerated curing normally adopted for factory produced pre tensioned pre cast concrete elements by long line method, in which the pre cast elements are cured by passing saturated steam (circulating saturated steam around the pre cast elements). Heat and humidity provided by the saturated steam accelerates curing. 24 hours steam curing is considered adequate for removing pre cast elements from casting beds. Steam curing enables curing beds be used quickly.

POST TENSIONING (def.) :


A method of Prestressing concrete in which Prestressing steel is tensioned against hardened concrete.

TYPICAL ARRANGMENT EXPLAINING TECHNEQE OF POST TENSIONING

ADVANTAGES OF POST TENSIONING: 1. 2. 3. 4.

As post tensioning is normally adopted for In situ casting, lo Cables can be bent, hence more efficient. Less loss of prestress compared to pre tensioning. Stage prestressing possible.

Demerits of Post Tensioning :


1. Post Tensioning needs sheathing, end anchorages, bearing plates etc. and is therefore costlier and more tedius than Pretensioning.

BENDING OF CABLES IN POST-TENSIONED PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS : Cables are bent such that the effective eccentricity at any section is proportional to external moment at that section so that no tension develops at any section.

L-SECTION OF BEAM INDICATING ARRANGEMENT FOR BENDING OF CABLES IN A PRESTRESSED BEAM

BENDING OF CABLES IN A POST TENSIONED PRESTRESSED BEAM

BENDING OF CABLES IN A POST TENSIONED PRESTRESSED BEAM

STEPS For Post Tensioning : 1. To place prestressing tendons, a duct is formed in the concrete member at the time of casting. 2. The conrete member is cast and allowed to harden to 3. Achieve adequate strength. 4. Steel tendons are inserted and placed loose in the ducts at after the conc member has hardened with end steel mplates and end anchorages devices like steel wedges. 5. The tendons are stretched and anchored at each end 6. By means of steel wedges. 7. Tendons are anchored at each end. Prestressing is

EQUIPMENTS NEEDED FOR POST-TENSIONING : 1. Concrete Beam (to be post-tensioned) 2. High strength steel cables. 3. Sheathing to house cables. 4. End Anchorages.

(i) Steel bearing plates with holes for cables. (ii) Steel wedges (to anchor cables to plates) (iii) Special reinf. to prevent splitting of concrete due to concrete due to heavy concentrated stresses.

5. Electric or Hydraulic jacks for tensioning cables. 6. Grouting Equipment. (i) Grouting Tank (ii) Grouting Pump (iii) Grouting material (a) Spl. Grade high strength cement. (b) Water (c) Super plasticisers.

STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN A COMPRESSION

Applications of Post Tensioning :


1. For large span and heavily loaded beams for structures like bridges, flyovers, and similar structures. 2. For Ground Anchorages.

Ground Anchorages :
The Technique of Post Tensioning is used to provide anchorage and support for deep retaining walls, base ment floors and floors of large under ground water tanks with high water table.

TYPE INJECTION GROUND ANCHORS

TYPE INJECTION GROUND ANCHORS

TYPE INJECTION GROUND ANCHORS

TYPE ROCK GROUND ANCHOR