Personality Development

Dr Ros Weston Psychology

1995) . internal factors that make one person‟s behaviour consistent from one time to another.Definition: Child (1968) “More or less stable. and different from the behaviour other people would manifest in comparable situations” • • • • Stable Internal Consistent Different Personality is „INTERNAL‟ Freud‟s theories on Personality Development Change and development are the key words : internal process + past experiences The dynamics of behaviour which is what distinguishes this theory from the cognitive (Glassman.

sexual Development Energy .libido & Eros & Thanatos •Oral •Anal •Phallic (Oedipus & Electra complexes) •Latency •Genital .Innate drives + early experiences id ego super ego pleasure principle defence mechanisms Anna Freud “defence against instinct” The child learns defensive behaviours to control id Defence Mechanisms 1 Repression 2 Displacement 3 Projection 4 Denial 5 Intellectualisation Psycho .

(they recalled the words that had neutral associations) Case studies: (Evaluatory comment on each of these and on Freud‟s theory of personality development) .Other Defence Mechanisms • Fixation Affective strategies in personality development • Regression Anna O Little Hans Myers & Brewin (1994) Childhood Memories Williams (1994) Sexual Abuse McGunnies (1949) Perception defence “things are likely to be ignored if they are unpleasant or emotionally threatening” Levinger & Clarke (1961) supported this using emotionally provoking words.

Neo .Freudians Erikson (1959) Conflict WAR Parents friends natural processes of maturation expectations of society teachers employers norms & values .

1952) • Stage 4 has been supported by work of Damon & Hart (1988) (older children used more internal psychological terms.focuses on social process & ego development .the facing of developmental tension / conflicts .Chart of Eight Stages Evaluatory Comments • Used clinical evidence (therapist case studies using Freud‟s clinical method) • theory imprecise & anecdotal • experimental research provides indirect support for Erikson (Ainsworth & Bell: 1970) (Bowlby. Younger children focused on concrete & tangible ) • Strengths : . It is the conflict that is problematic) • Does not give detail of how you move from one stage to another • Dwaretzky (1996) feels there is little convincing evidence for E theory • Hard to test this theory • The evidence is correlational It gives a very tidy account of development . (that does not mean the parents are to blame.most of the conflicts lie with the family (Freud also said : When you are looking at a „sick‟ (mentally) or disturbed person you often don‟t have to look far for a cause.

Social Learning Theory Key term : Significant others Social Modelling • Attention • Retention • Reproduction • Motivation • Conditioning Vicarious Classical Operant reinforcement This is exact opposite of learned helplessness • • Bandura‟s work Observation & internalisation Reciprocal determination Self efficacy (self image & belief in self What would help a child learn self .efficacy? -? -? -? -? Continue………… .

1997) Not a development theory .• Evidence - Bobo doll Harter & Monsour (1992) Bandura & Cervone (1983) • Evaluatory Comment More than one self? (Baars.

Research failed to show consistency Behavioural specificity (M & P. 1993) Person variables Cognitive & behavioural Encoding & personal constructs Expectancy Subjective stimulus value self .regulatory systems & plans Evidence • Context . 1982) We think it is a stable trait because we see people in similar situations Individual differences (M & P.dependent learning research (Abernety. 1940) • Generalising learning • Lack of fragmentation .Situationalism • • • • • • • • • • Bandura suggested that personality is not a stable trait of an individual Mischel & Peake‟s theory (1982) suggest a consistency paradox.

What is gender? (as part of personality) Gender Sex Sexual identity Behaviour Gender identity Situation (upbrining & social context) Gender stereo types Gender role See : .Behaviourist .Humanistic (Carl Rogers : Erikson) .Cognitive (Kohlberg) .Psychoanalytical theory .Social learning .Debates and all the work we did on real and perceived differences .

gender identity (2-3½) • Gender stability (3½ .depends on gender consistency • Contradictions • Individualistic (not social context) . Ruble.4½) • Gender consistency (4½ . Balabon & Cooper (1981) Adverts & gender consistency.7yrs) (fits with Piaget‟s notion of conservation) Evidence • Munroe.Kohlbergs (1966) Cognitive . Shimmin & Munroe (1984) These stages are cross . Evaluatory Comments • Cross cultural • interactivity • gender identity . Slaby & Frey (1975) .cultural.attending to some sex models.developmental theory (1966) “The child actively constructs his own experiences and they are not products of social training” • Basic .increases gender role • How they interact in the world requires gender identity • Criticism : gender role behaviour .

1986) (Masters et al. 1987) (Bradbard et al. (1979) Evaluatory Comment • seems to explain & fit with other theories of child development specially cognitive • individualistic • schemas are overaggerated • should be able to change schemas. out group schema • our gender schema • children are not passive • gender .Gender Schema Theory An organised set of beliefs about the sexes (Martin et al.schema‟s help them pay attention to ………… & interpret the world & what they remember • gender schemas structure experience Evidence : (Martin et al. .. 1987) • in group.. As Durkin (1995) found: it is easier to change concepts Continued…….

social biological theory by explaining • Theory (giving) • evidence (including) • evaluatory comment .Now : Compare social learning theory yourself using biological.

1994) -Identity diffusion -Identity crisis Intimacy Diffusion Diffusion of industry Negative identity Gender & individual differences alpha & beta bias -Identity achievement Evidence to support : Meilman (1979) Evidence against : (Munroe & Adams (1977) Coleman‟s focal theory (1974) „Storm & Stress‟ -Counter evidence -Support evidence .Theories of Adolescent Development What evidence is there that these are important The Isle of Wight Study (1976) Rutter‟s large scale study. Relationship with parents Relationship with peers Cultural differences What factors cause disturbance in young people? Delinquency Marcia‟s theory (1966-1980) -Alternatives to choose from -Have fun commitment been made Four possible identity statuses -Identity diffusion -Foreclosure -Moratorium What is the problem of retrospective data? Erikson‟s theory (1902.

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