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Intelligent Business


Unit 1: Companies Unit 2: Leadership Unit 3: Strategy Unit 4: Pay Unit 5: Development Unit 6: Marketing Unit 7: Outsourcing Unit 8: Finance

Unit 9: Recruitment Unit 10: Counterfeiting Unit 11: Markets Unit 12: Lobbies Unit 13: Communication Unit 14: Logistics Unit 15: Innovation

Unit 1: Companies Survival of the fittest

Keynotes Company (UK) corporation (US) Public limited company (Plc) joint stock company Shareholder (n) The stock exchange (n) Multinationals (n) Subsidiaries (n) Assets (n) Merger (n) Acquisitions (n) Dotcoms (n) Entrepreneurs (n)

Preview Types of company - Sole trader (UK) - Partnership (n) - Limited company (UK) - Plc (UK) (joint stock) Inc (US) - Multinational (n) - Merger (n) - Takeover (n) - Joint venture (n)

3 key groups of people Shareholders Management The workforce


Work for
Large multinational corporations Small or medium-sized family business



Trendy new hightech corporations

Work for Large multinational corporations

Advantages Clear structure Career progression Good benefits Recognized by future employers

Disadvantages Narrow area of work Lack of view of what is happening in the rest of the organization. - Difficulties working with other family members - Amateur running of the business - Risky fast-moving business area. - Possibility of redundancy if fail.

Small or medium-sized - Close relationship family business with other workers - Ability to see how all the roles fit together Trendy new high-tech corporations - Exciting environment

2. Threats to the survival of the traditional companies

Developments in technology Growth in consumer power Expansion of e-business Increase in shareholder power Financial scandals Transfer of money / jobs abroad Weakening trade unions

Developments in technology Growth in consumer power Expansion of ebusiness Increase in shareholder power Financial scandals Transfer of money / jobs abroad Weakening trade unions

Greater efficiency

Specific skills can be redundant Possible impact on image and profitability

Increased responsiveness from companies

Opportunity for any company to Competition from sell any where companies with few overheads

Greater control of individuals at Lack of freedom by the top of companies directors to make decisions Increased regulation and greater financial soundness More competitive companies Loss of consumer / shareholder trust

Loss of control over quality loss of skills at home Unhappy staff

More competitive companies

Capitalism (n) Stability (n) Hierarchical (a) hierarchy (n) Bureaucratic (a) bureaucracy (n) standard (a) standardize (v) Customize (v) Warehouse (n) Tangible asset (n) Freelance worker (n) , freelancer (n) Bidder (n) Venture capitalist (n) at the expense of .

High-volume; high-value
High-volume : mass produced High-value : small quantity, with a larger profit margin

People who
1. Work independently or on short-term contracts. 2. Are willing to take risks 3. Are willing to invest in new and/or risky business projects 4. Express a wish to buy something 5. Make goods 6. Own part of a company 1. Freelancer 2. Entrepreneurs 3. Venture capitalists 4. Bidder / customers 5. Producer 6. Shareholder

Language check: Present simple and continuous

Present simple describes a. Facts that will not change b. Regular events and processes c. A scheduled event Present continuous describes d. Things happening now e. Temporary situations f. Future arrangements

Used with: Ownership, sense, emotion, routines

Transactional cost Supplier Market power Due to Eliminate Outsource Shift The end-user Diversification Business sector Pharmacy Pharmaceutical sector Transition period Wholesale Annual conference Take place

Career skills: Talking about your job

My job entails/involves Im responsible for . I work for / under . Im in charge of . I report to . I manage .


Writing: a job profile

Name: . Present position : .. Present responsibilities:

Culture at work: Hierarchy

Writing: Email (formal)

Format From: [senders email address] To: [receivers email address] Cc: [if any] Bcc: [if any] Subject: Attachment: [if any] ( cc : Carbon copy, bcc : blind carbon copy) Beginning Dear Mr. / Ms. / Mrs. + name (formal) Dear + name(s) (for 1 or 2 people) Ending Yours faithfully Yours sincerely

Writing: Email (ending and beginning)

Beginning - Dear Mr. / Ms. + name - Dear Sir/ Madam - Dear all Ending - Yours sincerely - Yours faithfully - Kind regards

Unit 2: Leadership Terrorizing the talent

Keynotes Inspire (v), inspiration (n), inspirer(n) Motivate (v), motivation (n), motivated (a) Management style (n) Delegate (v) Subordinate (n) Authority (n)

Management styles
Motivating employees by a. Inspiring fear / respect / affection b. Financial reward c. Non-financial reward: respect, status, promotion, . Delegating Controlling

Do you agree?
Employees cant be trusted and must therefore be closely supervised Staff should be allowed to organize their own work The best motivation is money and recognition for meeting targets

Reading: fear and management

Refuge (n): shelter (n) Strangle (v): frighten (v) Lose ones temper Rule by terror Indispensable (a) Constructive dismissal (n) Employee harassment (n) Upswing (n) Productively neurotic (a) Fragile ego (n) Emotional kick (n)

The art of delegation

Free flow of information Productive relationships Clear introductions Realistic deadlines Constructive criticism Loss of confidence

Take Meet Make Set

Take a chance Take an opportunity Take a position Take a point

Meet a deadline Meet a need Meet the cost Meet expectation

Make a mistake Make a judgment Make a profit / loss Make a call

Set a precedent Set an example Set an objective Set a limit

Listen and speak

Language check: Articles

Indefinite : A / AN General singular nouns a cat cant swim Jobs Im a teacher. Definite : THE Nouns already mentioned I gave the report to her. Nouns are unique we can see the sun. Superlatives Its the best job.

We dont need managers. We manage ourselves

A recipe (n) anarchy /nki/(n) An interactive media company (n) A leftover (n) Feverish (n) showing strong feelings of excitement or worry Turnover (n) A competitive weapon (n) In an age of Intellectual assets Absurd /bsd/(a) completely ridiculous; not logical and sensible Treat (v) Industrial-age mindset (n) a set of attitudes or fixed ideas that somebody has and that are often difficult to change Loyalty (n)

Getting things done

Have smb DO smt Have smt DONE I will have my dad repair my bike I will have my bike repaired by my dad Get smb TO DO smt Get smt DONE I will get my dad to repair my bike I will get my bike repaired by my dad

Softer approach to get things done

Is there any way you can ? I dont suppose you could ? Do you mind .? Would you do me a favor and .? I was wondering whether you could .? Would you mind? Id really appreciate if you .? Itd be a great help if you could?

What would you actually say to the person in each case?

In direct cultures, instructions are very shorts In indirect cultures, it is impolite and aggressive. How might this difference cause misunderstanding in multicultural teams?

Listen 1
Set clear goals Praise and valuate what have done Set realistic deadlines Regular meetings Make plans and schedule for team members He makes important decisions How to delegate

Unit 3: Strategy The big picture

Keynotes - Strategy (n), strategic (a) - Vital (a) - Planning process (n) - Market (n) - Competition (n) - Opportunity (n) - Threat (n) - Strategic objective (n) - Human and financial resource (n) - Achieve (v) - In relation to (phr)

Types of strategy
Marketing strategy Distribution strategy Overall corporate strategy

Factors in a strategic planning process

Product development Economic forecasts Competitors Technology Human and financial resources Fashions and trends Current sales

A tool commonly used at the start of strategic planning to focus on the situation of the company STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES OPPORTUNITIES THREATS

Reading: The Nike strategy

God , Goddess (n) Goddess of victory (n) Masculine /mskjln/ (a) Undisputed (a) cannot be questioned Beneath (under) An Achilles heel Perceive (v) Potential (n) Run out of Dig into (v) Approach (n) Destiny (n) Buddy (n) a friend Core attribute (n) /trbjut/ quality

Vice president (n) Global apparel (n) /prl/ clothing Seniority (n) /sinirti/ rank Retail icon (n) Pitch (v) persuade people to do something Turnoff (n) Harsh (a) unpleasant Redefine (v) Galvanize (v) /lvnaz/ to make somebody take action by shocking them or by making them excited, motivate Re-energize (v)

Active Misery Senior Custom Activist Miserable Seniority Customer



Diverse Inspire

Design Public Commerce Revolution Repute Comfort retail

Diverse Inspire

Diversity Inspiration

Design Public Commerce Revolution Repute Comfort retail

Designer Publicity / publicize Commercial Revolutionize / revolutionary Reputation Comfortable Retailer

Future forms
Present simple: Scheduled events Present continuous: Arranged future Simple future: Spontaneous decision, prediction Near future: Plan and intention

A short presentation
Make a plan: Introduction, development, conclusion Write details: - Key words - Transitions - Visual aids - Gestures Practise

Attitudes to timing
Some cultures: high punctuality Other cultures: Flexibility with schedules and itineraries. What effect could this have on meetings, presentations and appointments?

Unit 4: Pay Because Im worth it

Keynotes - CEO: Chief Executive Officer - Top senior manager (n) - Fat cats - Enormous (a) - Pay packages (n) - Rewards (n) - Pay deal (n) - Remuneration committee (n) - Compensation committee (n)

Pay deal
Salary Pension The possibility of a golden parachute Generous severance deal

1. work-and wealth-obsessed culture - Its worth it 2. Take up a post of senior manager - Be tempted by. - Fabulous pay deal - Jaguar sports car

Do you think anyone should earn so much money? Why (not)?

Read: Executive pay

Bosses perform badly earning huge salaries. Should all pay be based on performance?

The rewards of failure

Outrageous (a) outrage (n): xc phm, tn thng The board of directors (n): hi ng qun tr Boardroom (n): phng hp Pharmaceutical company (n): cng ty thuc At the sharp end of: b phn nguy him Reject (v): t chi Treat (v) i x Purely advisory (a): Binding force (n): lc lin kt Legal limbo (n) nh t php l Legal fight (n) chin tranh php l Discontent (v) bt m

Poor corporate performance (n): hiu sut km Superior performance (n): hiu sut cao Face criticism (v) i mt s ch trch Strike lavish deal (v) Cushion ones fall (v) One-way bet Make a fuss (v)

Vocab 1
Pension Reject Criticism Legal action Bonus Make a fuss Advise compensation

Vocab 2: Multi-part verbs

Point out Set up Look after Call on Buy up Step down Get ahead Go under Break down Call off

Present perfect and past simple

Present perfect
Recent and unfinished actions Recent and unfinished time: This Never Ever The last few Since Recently Today, yet, already .

Past simple Finished actions Finished time: - ago, yesterday - In 2005 - On Tuesday - Last week - 8 April

A controversial court case

Take someone to court Breach (n) Managing director (n) Interest rate derivative (n) Vision (n)

Career skills: Evaluating performance

Look at past objectives and decide whether they have been met If not yet, the person being evaluated can give reasons during an evaluation session

We had real problems with Theres been a slight overspend on the We were behind schedule but we managed to catch up. Weve come in under budget It hasnt been easy but we managed to hit our deadline in the end. The deadlines too tight. Were not going to meet it

Culture Fixed objectives or flexibility?

Objective-focused cultures clearly define objectives and detail roles and tasks in writing. Flexible cultures build relationships first and let goals develop with the relationship How might the difference cause misunderstanding in multicultural teams?

Unit 5: Development Prosperity or preservation?

Keynotes: - More economically developed countries (MEDC): t nc kinh t pht trin - Less economically developed countries (LEDC): t nc km pht trin kinh t - Loan (n): vay n, khon vay - International organisations (n): cc t chc quc t - Enable (v): cho php, cho quyn - Exploit (v): khai ph - Natural resources (n): ti nguyn thin nhin - Construction project (n): d n xy dng - Industrial facility (n): khu cng nghip - Raise (v): tng - Gross Domestic Product (GDP): tng sn phm quc ni - Standard of living: mc sng - Environmentalist (n): nh mi trng hc - Endanger (v): gy nguy him - Deplete (v): cn kit

Economic development
How has the quality of life changed in VN over the last few years? What do young people have today that their parents didnt have?

Analyst (n) Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

Read: Development and the environment Gas for Peru verse green imperialism
Imperialism (n) a system in which one country controls other countries, often after defeating them in a war : ch ngha quc Contract negotiation: m phn hp ng Make an attempt: c gng lm vic g Huge gas reserve (n): tr lng Upstream: supply of items for production: u vo (cung cp) Downstream: supply of finished products to consumers: u ra (phn phi) Consortium /knstim/: group of companies: t hp, nhm Lobby (v) influence someone for something: vn ng hnh lang Approval (n): ng , ph chun Opponent (n) i th Tribe (n) b lc, b tc

Pipeline route: ng ng dn du Export terminal: xut khu Marine reserve: ngun thy sn Defender: nhng ngi bo v Economy minister: b trng kinh t Tax revenue: doanh thu thu Generate: to ra Take precaution: cn trng Drilling site: dn khoan Radical: cp tin, tin b

Peruvian government Pluspetrol For For Peru will become an exporter of gas. GDP will increase by 0.8% It will make a profit from developing the field

Amazon Watch

Unsure Unsure

It believes the project threatens the environment

It was wiling to grant a loan but was dissuaded by lobbying It appears to be following the decision of IDB

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.


Affected victims
Rainforests Rare species Marine reserves Isolated tribes

Word form
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Benefit Estimate Award Tests Plants Concerns

Vocab 2
Construction Drilling sites Terminals Gas field Plants Pipeline Environment Reserves Tribes Rainforest plants Rare species

Modal verbs of likelihood

Certainty: Be going to, will, must, would (only if another event happens first) Probability: Should Possibility: might, may

Complex nature: bn cht phc tp Fusion: s kt hp Deal with: i ph Ultimate: cui cng Confidence: s t tin, nim tin Skeptics: hoi nghi Finite: hu hn Fossil fuel: nhin liu than Sustain : duy tr

Showing cause and effect

Lead to Due to Result in As a result of Caused by

Unit 6: Marketing Seducing the masses D d---m ng

Keynotes - Marketing mix - Four Ps: Product Price Promotion Place - Competitive advantage - Rival - Brand - Aspiration

Soft drinks Clothes Cars Shampoo

Read: Money can buy you love

Manipulate (v): nh hng, thuyt phc Accuse of (v): co buc Corrupt (v) h hng, tham nhng Grim (a) ti t, xu x Anti-branding (n): chng li thng hiu A huge portion of(n): phn ln Switch (v) chuyn i Guarantee (n) bo m Consistency (n) s vng vng, kin nh Pay a premium (v) tr gi cao hn A handful of : nhm, s t Bombard (v) b, tn cng Veteran(n) ngi c kinh nghim, ch huy Cynical (a): hoi nghi Enemy (n): k th Marketer (n): tip th Old-fashioned business (n): cng ty kinh doanh kiu c Dominate (v): chim u th, ni tri Advertising agency (n): cng ty qung co Marketing approach (n): phng thc qung co A brand: thng hiu Sell a lifestyle: Appeal to emotions: hp dn A stamp of product quality: m bo cht lng A promise of a more desirable lifestyle: ha hn c 1 li sng ao c An image of social responsibility: hnh nh v trch nhim i vi x hi

Young people no longer believe advertisements Do you agree? What does influence young peoples buying decision?

Vocab: Brand

Verbs : dominate, build, develop, represent a value/ aspiration Adj: strong, powerful, successful, valuable

Newly-wed kit Corporate marketers (n) Vulnerable (a) Pitch (n) Body odour (n) Financial worry (n) A divorce kit (n)

Comparative and superlative

Comparatives - Short adjectives S1 V Adj_er than S2 She is taller than me - Long Adjectives S1 V more Adj than S2 She is more beautiful than me Superlatives - Short adjectives S V the Adj_est in/of. She is the tallest in the family - Long Adjectives S V the most Adj in/of She is the most beautiful in the world

Special cases
1. good better the best 2. Bad worse the worst 3. Far farther / further the farthest/ furthest 4. Many, much more the most 5. Little less the least

Can you think of other celebrity endorsement?

Advertising strategies
Patriotism Self-esteem Insecurity Originality Value for money

1.C (American Express) 2. D (Apple) 3. E (Energizer batteries) 4. B ( LOreal) 5. A (Hersheys)

Considering alternatives
1. Show the degree of difference between them 2. Use quantifiers to show our preferences and argue more persuasively

Speaking: Car buying

Factual or vague?

Business letters

Writers address (not name) Recipients name and address

References and date Opening (Dear) Subject heading Body Closing (Yours) Signature Name and job titles Enclosures

Unit 7: Outsourcing The great job migration

Keynotes - Globalise (v) - Globalisation (n) - Make cost savings (v) - Reduce operating costs (v) - Outsource (v): transfer business processes to outside suppliers or service providers - Offshore (v): relocate(move) back-office operations in oversea facilities - Back-office operations: the operations of a business company which does not deal directly with the public - Labor cost (n) - Facilities (n): buildings, services, equipment, etc.

Take place when business is contracted out to a third party When the third party is overseas, it is known as offshoring.

Used for areas which do not require expert local knowledge, much face-to-face contact. Restricted to IT-related jobs, call centres and back-office work.

Pros and cons of offshoring

Advantages Disadvantages - Save money: skilled - Different languages, workforce that costs less cultures, time zones than at home. - Lack of control over - Access to wider range of overseas agencies workers than available locally - Loss of jobs at home and impact on remaining - Concentrate more on workforce. core business

The great job migration

The great shift of jobs from higher cost countries (UK, USA) to lower cost countries (VN, India) Benefits for India Job losses in the USA

1. 2. 3. 4. USA Ireland India Philippines

Reading: Going offshore The new global shift

Outbid (v) to offer more money to buy something Rival (n) Redundant (a) Redundancy (n):layoff Slash (v) reduce Corporate downsizing (n) Phase (n) Reshape (v) Flee (v) leave Tiny (a) very small Surplus: much Redeploy (v) move Pilot project (n) pioneer project Backslash (n) bad reaction Ample (a) enough

Vocab: offshoring
US: layoffs, backslash India: job creation, economic development Information sources: credit records, corporate financial information Technologies: high-speed data networks, internet Economic factors: labor costs, cheap telecoms, investor-friendly Performance / objectives: improve efficiency, reduce overheads, expand foreign markets

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Develop computer applications Check accident reports Provide help-desk support Process credit card receipts Write software code Mine databases Analyse corporate financial information

Conditionals 1 and 2
Type 1 Type 2

- A situation that may possibly happen

- A situation that is either unreal or unlikely to happen

IF(past simple), (would/could) verb

IF( present), (present/ future/modal)

Speaking What would you do if..

Your company asks you to work abroad for 6 months You find out a colleague is selling copies of company software You find out that you are being paid less than your colleagues You realize that your credit card is missing A colleague is criticizing the quality of your work Your company asks you to go on a six-week intensive Chinese course


Career skills: making and responding to suggestions

How/ What about. ? Couldnt you/we. ? Why dont you . ? If I were you, . I suggest / think you should It might be better to .. Ok, lets do / try that Sounds good to me But what if ? The only thing / problem is . Its a good idea, but . Youre right.

Culture at work Decision making

In some cultures, senior managers make decisions and others carry out their instructions In other cultures, decisions are made by consensus after everyone contributes suggestions and opinions

Unit 8: Finance The bottom line

Keynotes - Mismanagement (n) - Irregularity (n) - Financial reporting (n) - A demand for - Corporate governance (n) - Auditor (n) - SEC: Securities and Exchange Commission - Balance sheet (n) t quyt ton, bng tng kt ti sn - Income statement / profit and loss accounts (n) s tnh phc l li - Outgoings: costs / expenses


The Profit and Loss account (P&L)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Turnover Interest receivable Cost of materials Gross profit Research and development costs Dividend


Can you think of any other famous financial scandals?

Read: Corporate governance

Financial scandal (n) Reform (n,v) Exaggeration (n) Overwhelming (a) Financial risk (n) In debt Giant (n, a) Powerhouse (n) Striking (a) Aggressive earning management (n) Accounting irregularities (n) Rebate (n) Rebate payment (n) Uncover (v) Corporate wrong-doing (n) Occur (v) Overstate (v) Plunge (v) Exceed (v) Under investigation Various authorities (n) Scandal-hit Reputation (n) Applaud (v) Observer (n) Absolve (v) Persistent, firm-wide tendency Buy in bulk

CEOs who falsify accounts are criminals and should go to jail or is it an acceptable risk to falsify accounts if it helps to safeguard the companys future and jobs?

Adjectives and advebs

Adjectives Before nouns After stative verbs such as BE, BECOME, SEEM, APPEAR, LOOK . Adverbs After verbs Before an adjective or adverb

Referring to visuals
Visual aids: graphs, bar charts, pie charts, flow charts Useful phrases for getting listeners attention - As you can see, - Youll notice that, - This part of the graph clearly shows - .led to the .you see here - .is obvious on this part of the graph here. - This slide shows the ..

Describe a visual aid


Bar chart

Pie chart

Flow chart

Fluctuate mildly

A sharp increase

Reach a peak

Rise steadily

Drop slightly

A dramatic and sudden fall

Plummet /plmt/
to fall suddenly and quickly from a high level or position

Plunge /plnd/: to decrease suddenly and quickly Dip : to decrease fast or slow, small or large Soar /sr/: to rise very quickly Slide: to decrease not very fast, in small degrees Skyrocket / skarkt/ : to rise very fast, very large ( Example: continue to skyrocket) Jump : to rise fast, large Nosedive / nozdav /: to decrease very fast, large ( Example: nosedive to an all-time low) Decline /dklan/ : to decrease not very fast, in small degrees

There is a downturn Start a spectacular ascension / senn/ (the act of moving up or of reaching a high position)

Formal and informal presentations

Some cultures expect presentations to be formal and technical. Others find this dull and ineffective and prefer a more entertaining style of presentation

Unit 9: Recruitment Hiring for the future

Keynotes - Human resources department (n) - Recruit (v) recruiter (n) - Personnel (n) - Candidate (n) - Curriculum vitae (n) /krkjlm vita/ - Resume (n) /rzjum/ - Qualification (n) - Experience (n) - Skill (n) - Screen (v) - Apply (v) application (n) applicant (n) - Hire (v) - Payroll (n)

Recruiting process
1. Drawing up job and person qualifications 2. Advertising vacancies 3. Processing CVs 4. Screening applicants CVs and cover letters and selecting candidates for interview 5. Setting up and carrying out interviews in line with company/ legal policies and procedures 6. Conducting other selection procedures 7. Negotiating and drawing up contracts and terms and conditions 8. Putting the chosen applicants onto the payroll

The application process

When did you last apply for a job? What steps were involved in your application? Did you attend an interview? What sort of questions were you asked?

Hypothetical /hapetkl/ based on situations or ideas which are possible and imagined rather than real and true Anecdotal /nkdotl/ possibly not true or accurate Formulate questions (prepared) Behavioral interview


Read: Speed hiring

Come up trumps Long odds Confront challenge Nail the deadline Guinea pig Hire-and-fire authority Eliminate Transaction Law-enforcement official Reject Appoint A personnel file An equal employment opportunity commission file A medical file Payroll form Conduct interview A set of behavioral questions Evaluate Rating sheet Feed into the database Implement Apply for a position Set up an appointment Confirm Identity Notify Proceed Assess Overall demeanor Weed out

Language check: Relative pronouns

Defining clauses Give information defining the person/thing they refer to The person/thing is normally general Non-defining clauses Give extra information only Appear between commas

Objectives Employment history Qualifications Other skills Personal interests References

Utterances showing that you are listening Encouraging talking Stopping the conversation on time

Attitudes to personal space

In some cultures, people requires little personal space. They stand close together, touch each other often, and are happy to discuss personal matters. This can make people from other cultures feel uncomfortable How much personal space do people in Vietnam need?

Unit 10: Counterfeiting the globalization of deceit

Keynotes: - Counterfeit (v)/kantrft/ - Counterfeiter (n) - Patent (n)/ ptnt/ - Intellectual property (n) - copyright (n) - Trademarks (n) - Cheap copy (n) - Fakes of branded goods (n) - Infringement (n) /nfrndmnt/ - Digitization (n) - Mass produce (v) Distribute (v) Quality counterfeit product (n) Music industry (n) In particular In general Claim (v) File sharing system (n) Download (v) Free of charge

Preview: The universal crime?

Copyright infringement (n) Rank (v)

Branded goods (n) Justify (v) to show that somebody/something is right or reasonable

Read: Copyright infringement

Imitate (v) imitation (n) Theft (n) At ones peril : at ones danger/ trouble Forged currency : fake money An ever-widening range of Churn out (v) mass produce cheaply Car parts (n) Broaden (v) Vulnerable to (a) Shoddy (a) poor quality Indistinguishable (a) Genuine article (n) / denjun/ By definition Copycat (n) Take someone to court Perpetrator (n) criminal The right (n) With the purpose of .. Deceive (v) deceit (n) Diverse (a) diversify (v) Back-street sweatshop (n) shop/ factory in poor conditions Full-scale factory (n) Bribe (v) Manufacturing mould (n) Master disk (n) Licensed supplier / manufacturer Over-run production line (v) Legitimate (a) legal Anti-counterfeiting measures/ features Flattery (n) praise

Prototype (n) / prottap/ the first design of something from which other forms are copied or developed Piracy (n) / parsi /the act of making illegal copies of DVDs, computer programs, books, etc, in order to sell them

Type1: If clause Main clause S + V(s/es) S+ will/ can / may+ V Type 2: S + V2/ed S+ would/ could / might+ V Be were Type 3: S + had +V3/ed S + could have + V3/ed


File-swapping technology (n)/ swp/ (exchange) File sharer(n) Pay fines (n) Backlog (n) a quantity of work that should have been done already, but has not yet been done

Career skills: Giving reasons

To Because In order to . So that .. Due to . As Since .

Unit 11: Market The peoples company

Keynotes - Marketplace (n) - Negotiation (n) - Price setting (n) - Exchange (v) - Fluctuate (v) - Supply (n): the quantity available for sale and demand - Electronic marketplace: online market where businesses sell direct to consumers (e-commerce), or to other businesses (B2B) - Auction (n): bid (n,v) bidder (n)

Types of markets
Commodities market Real estate / property market Stock market Consumer goods/ mass market Labour market

Your recently bought product

What is it? Where it you buy it? How did the transaction take place? Did you negotiate the price? Were you satisfied with the result?

Internet shopping
Have you ever bought something online? What is different about buying things online?

Read: Electronic markets Going, going, gone

A casualty (n) a victim In charge : on duty Inventory (n) Capture (v) Be tailored (v) personalized Merchandise (v) trade Glitch (n) Lobby (v) Police (v) Keep an eye out for (v) Shoplifting (n) theft from shops Unveiled (a) Dispenser (n) Breakthrough (n) Gross (v) Dealer (n) Territory (n) An e-commerce platform Grand ambition (n) Dilute (v) weaken Missile silo house: Abandoned missile bases make safe and unique homes

Gerund and infinitive

Gerund - After prepositions - As a noun - After some verbs Infinitive - After adjectives - After some verbs - To show purposes

Making and responding to offers


The importance of relationships

Some cultures prefer to build long-term business relationships and invest a lot of personal time socializing out of office hours to create trust and understanding. Other cultures prefer short-term relationships based on specific deals and contracts with little personal contact.

Unit 12: Lobbies Finding a voice

Keynotes: - Charity (n) - Pressure group (n) - Industry group (n) - Campaign (v) - Lobby (v) - In an effort to - Influence opinion (v) + demonstrations : marches, sit-ins + petitions : collecting names, signatures on a letter of protest. + litigation : taking legal actions against companies or institutions + boycotts : refusing to buy products, services from a targeted company +celebrities : to raise public awareness

Which acts of protest would you take part in?

Demonstration against plans for a nuclear power plant near your home Boycotting of clothes made by children in poor working conditions Signing a petition against the killing of whales

Read : Fair trade

Energy-sapping heat (n) Bend double (v) Subsistence farming (n):farming for food not trade Exploitative (a) Condemned (v) Protectionism (n)using tariffs to block imports An odd spectacle (n) Tactic (n) Debt relief (n) Give grants (v) Aid (n) Lift quotas and duties on African exports cut subsidies (v) Save taxpayers a fortune (v) Liberation (n) Sacrifice (v, n)

Do you think internet petitions are powerful and effective tool or just junk mail? Have you ever signed one? Why/ why not ?

Modal verbs of obligation

Obligation, necessity or prohibition Lack of obligation or necessity
Have to Need to must Neednt Mustnt Dont have to

Advice or recommendation

Ought to Shouldnt

Discourse markers
Showing sequence or order Firstly, then, finally
Introducing new information Also, whats more, and Linking cause and effect Exemplifying a point Therefore, in order to , because, , as, so Lets say, for example, you see

Agree or disagree
Demonstrations are a waste of time Corruption is inevitable in politics Money is the only measure of success

Unit 13: Communication Messaging meltdown

Keynotes - Communication policy (n) - Information flow (n) - Telecommunication (n) - Information overload (n)

Lets communicate
Business correspondence (n) Human Resource Manager (n) Security badge (n) Come into effect (v) Come to ones notice (v) Paperwork (n) Routine correspondence (n)

Read: Information overload Coping with infoglut

Infoglut (n) Psychologist (n) Deluge in (v) Mental disorder (n) Information Fatigue Syndrome (n) Overwhelming (a) External affairs (n) Prioritize (v) Culprit (n) Junkie (n) Process (v) White-collar worker (n) Intrusive (a) Fatigue (n)

Unit 14: Logistics The invisible industry

Keynotes: - Logistics (n) - The flow of product (n) - Raw materials (n) - Finished goods (n) - Costly (a) - Inventory (n) - Overstocking (n) - Freight industry(n) : road haulage/hld/, rail freight, shipping or air-cargo) - Consolidator (n) - integrator (n) - Supply chain (n)

Demand and supply

Have you ever gone to the shop to buy something and not been able to find it? If so, how did you react? Why do shops not always have all their usual stock? Even goods that make it to the shelves can disappear because of theft. How do retailers try to reduce this problem ?

Read: Retail logistics The best thing since the barcode

Smart label (n) Distribute (v) Distribution (n) Distributor (n) Razor (n) Suspect (v) Attempt (v) Track (v) Consultant (n) Cost savings (n) Version (n) RFID: Radio Frequency Identification Smart tag (n) Antennas (n) Plunge (v) Put in an order of . Adoption (n) Consumer goods(n) Pilot (v) Fit (v) Tag reader (n) Labor-intensive task (n) Error-prone task (n) Pallet (n) Conveyor belt (n) Shrink (v) Reject (v) Traceable (a) Stray (n) Disable (v) Kill (tag) (v) Spy on smb (n)

Run out of (v) Keep count (v) Broadcast (v) Microchips (n) Empty shelf (n) Store staff (n) Scan reader (n) Fill (v) Disable (v) Press (n) Press conference (n) After-sales benefit (n) Error-prone task (n) Loading bay (n) Conveyor belt (n) Super-cheap version(n) Consumer goods industry (n) Returned-goods service (n) Accounting software (n)

Smart tags can be scanned automatically. Theft will be reduced The tags are being piloted Tags have been used in supermarket



Dealing with questions

1. doesnt know the answer 2. Knows the answer but doesnt want to tell the truth. 3. Knows the answer but find the questions inappropriate. a. Buy time b. Repeat positive messages to avoid direct answers c. Avoid answering by asking another question d. Have been carefully prepared to make s good impression

Attitudes to critical questions

In some cultures, any form of questioning or criticism in public is very impolite In other cultures, its important to speak out and criticism is not taken personally

Unit 15: Innovation Pushing the limits

Keynotes - Innovation (n) innovative (a) innovate (v) + launching products with new features + providing improvements to existing services + introducing more effective business practices + finding new markets and sources of supply. - Launch an innovation (v) - A degree of risk (n) - Produce a better return (v) - High profit margin (n) - Obsolete competitors product (n)

Product development
Revolutionary products when first introduced. How have they been improved?

How creative are you?

Read: Mastering design Failure is glorious

Transform (v) Housewares business (n) A trendsetting design giant (n) Secret (n) Borderline (n) Genius (n) Revel (v) Breakthrough (n) Take the reins of (v) Flop (n) Dud (n) Mundane (a) Generic (a) Reassure (v) Veer toward (v) Impressive stable (n) Free-agent designer (n) A mass-production company (n) Prototype (n) Experiment (n) Applied art (n) Fiasco (n)

Adapt, alter, revamp, change, modify
Dream up, devise, invent, think up, come up with

Boundary, frontier, brink, threshold, edge

Achievement, accomplishment, advance, success

Failures, dud, fiascos, disaster, lemon, flops

Product development

Past modals
Talk about alternative possibilities in the past
With more time we could have improved the design

Give advice after events have happened

She should have patented the process immediately

Talk about likelihood in the past

I may have made a mistake in the calculations

Reviewing achievement

Giving praise