Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Difference between the two

Prokaryotes

Eukaryotes

 

Single-celled organisms Lack a nucleus 1-5 nanometers in size

Have cell organelles and nucleus More specialized

Identifying Prokaryotes
   

By Shape Bacilli – rod shaped Cocci – spherical Spirilla – spiral or cork screw

Identifying Prokaryotes

Cell Walls

Gram Staining
• Bacterial cells with walls that contain peptidoglycan only absorb the violet dye. (Gram Positive) • Others have a second ruter layer with lipids and carbohydrates that only absorb red stain (Gram Negative)

Identifying Prokaryotes
 Movement
 

 

Flagella Lashing, snake like movement, or spiraling forward Glide slowly over a slime secretion Some don’t move at all

Identifying Prokaryotes
 Obtaining Energy
 

Photoautotrophs: carry out photosynthesis Chemoautotrophs: get energy from inorganic molecules such as NH3, H, and nitrites. Heterotrophs: obtain energy by taking in organic molecules and then breaking them down Photoheterotrophs: capture sunlight for energy but need organic compounds for nutrients

Identifying Prokaryotes

Releasing Energy
 

Cellular respiration: requires oxygen Fermentation: does not require oxygen

  

Obligate aerobes: require oxygen to survive Obligate anaerobes: must live in the absence of oxygen Facultative anaerobes: does not require O2 but is not poisoned by it.

Bacteria
 Single-celled organisms that have no

nuclear membrane to surround and contain their DNA molecule.  Function as decomposers and nitrogen fixers

Bacteria and Disease

Cause Disease in two ways

Damage of tissue by breaking them down for food
• Tuberculosis: break down of lung tissue

Release of toxins that harm the body
• Food Poisoning

Human Uses of Bacteria
 Production of foods: Cheese, yogurt,

buttermilk, sour cream, vinegar, and pickles  Bacteria that eats petroleum  Removal of poisons from the water  Synthesis of drugs and chemicals

Controlling Bacteria
 Sterilization: exposing bacteria to heat or

chemical action
 Disinfection: chemical solutions that kill

bacteria
 Refrigeration: slows the growth of bacteria

Protists
 Eukaryotes that are not members of the

kingdom Plantae, Animalia, or Fungi.
 Protista = the

very first

Classified by how they obtain nutrition.

Animal Like Protists Protozoans

Zooflagellates
  

 

Move using flagellas (tails) Only have one or two Obtain nutrients through the absorbtion over their membrane Reproduce sexually Eugleana is an autotrophic and heterotrophic organism.

Animal Like Protists Protozoans
 Sarcodines

  

Use pseudopods (fake foots) for feeding and movements Amoebas Use ameoboid movement Foraminiferans: secrete CaCO3 shells

Animal Like Protists Protozoans

Ciliates

Cillia are identical to make-up of flagella, but there are a whole lot more of them and they are smaller. Paramecium
• Have trichocysts: bottle like structures used for defense below the surface

Animal Like Protists Protozoans

Sporozoans
 

Don’t move on their own and are often parasitic Can cause Malaria and African Sleeping Sickness