Rocks And Minerals

Lithosphere

Solid Portion of Earths Crust

This unit examines
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Origin of rocks Physical properties of rocks Chemical properties of rocks

Rock Type

Major factor in determining the landscape of an area Helps understanding the geologic history of an area

Rocks And Minerals

Rocks and minerals are a nonrenewable resource

When energy resources are used faster than they can be replaced

Minerals

Naturally occurring, solid, inorganic substance that has a definite chemical composition and molecular structure. Classified based on their physical and chemical properties, their chemical composition, and their structure.

Chemical Composition
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All Minerals are made up of elements. Some minerals can be identified by their special chemical properties
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Calcite: Fizzes in acids Graphite: soft (carbon atoms), weak bonds Diamond: hard (carbon atoms), strong bonds

Some minerals are made up of 1 element, most are made up of compounds (two or more elements that are chemically bonded).

MINERALS
NATIVE ELEMENTS
These minerals are made up of only one element Gold (Au) Silver (Ag) Platinum (Pt) Diamond (C) Graphite (C) Sulfur (S) Copper (Cu) Gold

Copper Silver

1. Crystalline solid – atoms have specific arrangement or crystal structure 2. Naturally occurring – not manufactured 3. Have a definite chemical composition – may be a single element or combination 4. Inorganic – minerals not made by living things (organic)

Mineral Criteria

Minerals are identified by their Physical Properties
Crystal Form – determines physical properties
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1. Color 2. Streak 3. Hardness – Mohs Hardness Scale (1-10) 4. Luster – metallic or non-metallic 5. Cleavage 6. Fracture 7. Acid Test for carbonate minerals

A mineral’s physical properties are controlled by its internal arrangement of atoms
regularly repeating, orderly pattern

The most common crystalline structure

Silica-oxygen tetrahedron – basic building block for silicate minerals

Minerals can have the same chemical composition (Carbon) but different physical properties because of their crystal structure

Diamond

Graphite

1. COLOR

Color is not usually a definitive property of a mineral. Most minerals come in a variety of colors.

Some Colors of Quartz

2. STREAK

For many minerals, if you rub the sample across a streak plate, it will leave a colored powder. This streak is distinctive for minerals and is used to identify minerals.

Varieties of Hematite – all same color streak

3. HARDNESS – Mineral’s resistance to scratching or abrasion. Minerals with higher numbers are harder & will scratch minerals below

4. LUSTER
Categories: Metallic or Non-metallic

First ask yourself: Does this look like it could be made from a hard metal (gold or silver)?

• Metallic – luster of metal – shines like a
hard metal • Non-metallic: vitreous or glassy; silky; pearly; greasy; waxy, dull; earthy

Examples of metallic luster

More Examples of Metallic Luster
Pyrite (FeS2) Galena (PbS)
PYRITE

GALENA

Example of non-metallic luster

Vitreous--quartz

Example of non-metallic luster

Silky--example plagioclase feldspar

5. Cleavage and 6. Fracture

Some minerals split along flat surfaces, in a pattern (called cleavage planes) when struck hard-this is called cleavage Other minerals break unevenly along rough or curved surfaces--this is called fracture

Cleavage –
Halite (NaCl) Fluorite (CaF2)

due to weak bonds in the crystal structure

HALITE FLUORITE

Cleavage

BIOTITE

MUSCOVITE

Rose Quartz – Conchoidal Fracture

7. Acid Test for Carbonates

Special Characteristics:

Carbonates react with HCl and other acids by fizzing or bubbling (releasing CO2 gas)

MINERAL FORMATION

CRYSTALLIZE FROM MAGMA or LAVA solidification of liquid magma/lava to solid with a definite internal arrangement of atoms into a regular repeating pattern PRECIPITATE FROM SOLUTION dissolved minerals come out of solution (water) to form solids

Crystallization from magma

Minerals also form due to the cooling and solidification of magma or in the rearrangement of atoms existing minerals subjected to high temperatures and pressure.

Precipitation

As water evaporates, the molecules of minerals collect together and precipitate out.

Speed of evaporation determines size of crystals Slower evaporation = larger crystals

Minerals will form in……..
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Loose cavities Attached to a wall of rock surrounding cavity Embedded in Rock

Chemical Composition