Earthquakes

Earthquakes
• The Vibration or shaking of earths crust by rapid movement of rocks in the lithosphere.
– Occur mostly along faults – Frequently near areas where plates meet – Caused by sudden release of energy – Release of energy sends out seismic waves which cause the ground to shake

EARTHQUAKES AND FAULTS
• An earthquake is caused by the sudden release of energy stored in rocks along a fault • A fault is a crack in a mass of rock along which there has been movement of rock layers on either side of the crack

NORMAL FAULT

REVERSE FAULT

TRANSFORM FAULT

TRANSFORM FAULT SAN ANDREAS FAULT

FREQUENT EARTHQUAKES

NORTH

SAN ANDREAS FAULT

PACIFIC PLATE WEST SIDE MOVES NORTH

WEST

EAST

NORTH AMERICAN PLATE EAST SIDE MOVES SOUTH
SOUTH

Richter Scale
• Measure of Magnitude of Earthquake on a scale of 1-10 2.0 mag  3.0 mag  4.0 mag  5.0 mag
(30 x’s stronger than 2.0) (900 x’s stronger than 2.0) (27,000 x’s stronger than 2.0)

6.3 magnitude = 1 megaton nuclear bomb (50 x’s Hiroshima)

Facts!
• Over 25,000 recorded each year • Only about 1-2 severe ones per year. • About 10,000 people killed per year.

United States
• New York City
– 1871 there was a moderate earthquake – 1884 magnitude 5

• San Francisco 1906
– 700 died, magnitude 7.6

• 1989 World Series (S.F.)
– 54 died – 7.1 Magnitude – San Francisco Earth Quakes

Libson, Portugal, 1755, Nov. 1
• • • •

st

55,000 died 8.6 magnitude 3 shocks, first one lasted 6-7 minutes Tremors felt in Sweden (2000 mile away)
– That’s like a California quake being felt in New York

China
• 1949-1976, 37 year period, 27 million people killed • In 1966 two earthquakes
– March 6 – 6.8 magnitude – March 22 – 7.2 magnitude

Products of Earthquakes
1. Collapsed buildings and fires

Products of Earthquakes
2. Tsunami (Japanese for harbor wave)
– Largest in Lituya Bay, Alaska, 1958, 1600 ft high – 35,000 died in Indonesia from Krakatau 1883 – Need a magnitude of 6.5 or greater for a significant tsunami – 1300 ft wave evidence in Australia triggered by a Hawaiian slide

Products of Earthquakes
3. Volcanic Eruptions
– Pompeii (79 AD)

Earthquake Safety
• Get Outdoors • Store emergency supplies
– Water, flashlight, radio, food, medicines

• Build earthquake proof buildings • Have an evacuation plan/know emergency shelter locations • Click here to see some earthquake videos • More Earthquake videos

Seismograph
• Detects and records seismic waves
– Minimum of three (3) seismographs are needed to locate an epicenter. – Seismogram: Seismograph machine print out

One station can determine A radius as to how far away the epicenter was.

With two stations, there are two possibilities where the epicenter could be

Three stations will give you the one place the epicenter could be

Seismic waves

Earthquake Location
• Focus: where the earthquake actually originated underground • Epicenter: Location on the surface of the earth that is directly above the focus.

SEISMIC WAVES
• When earthquakes occur, waves of energy SEISMIC WAVES travel outward from the earthquake focus 3 types of seismic waves are produced AT THE SAME TIME but each behaves differently within earth.

1. P WAVES
• Primary waves or compression waves vibrate parallel to the direction of movement. (slinky) • Travel faster than any other wave (6-8 km./s) • Travel through solids, liquids, and gases

2. S Waves
• S waves: Secondary waves, Shear waves
– Like a shaking rope – Slower than P waves (4-5 km/s) – Can NOT go through liquids

EARTH’S INTERIOR

ANALYSIS OF SEISMIC WAVES HAVE RESULTED IN THE INFERENCE ABOUT EARTH’S INTERIOR S WAVES CANNOT PASS THROUGH THE LIQUID OUTER CORE

3. SURFACE OR LONG WAVES
• Vibrations travel along earth’s surface in a circular motion at relatively slow speeds (2 km/s) like waves in a pond
Do more damage because they produce more ground movement

VELOCITY OF SEISMIC WAVES
• Velocity depends on the material they are passing through
a. Increase density and pressure – greater the velocity b. Waves are refracted or bent as waves pass through materials with different densities

P & S Waves
• Shadow zones exist on earth because S-waves cannot go through liquid core.

Calculating the distance to the epicenter
• The greater the difference between the arrival of P & S waves, the greater the distance to the epicenter (the farther away the earthquake is).
– Ex. Lightening and Thunder
• Flash and then a boom

Which is closer, which is farther?
• Seismograph 1 has a time difference of 1 min and 30 sec • Seismograph 2 has a time difference of 55 sec.

P WAVES TRAVEL FASTER THAN S WAVES

AS DISTANCE FROM EPICENTER INCREASES -THE GREATER THE TIME INTERVAL BETWEEN P AND S

Questions
1. How far does a P wave travel in 4 min? 2. How long does it take an S wave to travel 5200 km? 3. If the difference in arrival time between P and S waves is 2 min, how far away is the epicenter? 4. If the arrival time difference is 5 min 40 sec, how far away is the epicenter 5. If the distance to the epicenter is 5000km, what would be the difference in arrival time?