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Unit One

What you need to know at first!
Observations
• Interaction of one or
more of your senses
with the
environment or your
surroundings.
1. Sight
2. Hearing
3. Touch
4. Taste
5. Smell
Observations Continued
• Senses are limited so
we use instruments to
help improve our
powers of
observation.
• Examples:
– Telescopes
– Scales
– Rulers
Inferences
• Interpretation of one or more observations
– Includes proposing explanations or reaching
conclusions, like taking a guess
– Example:
• The scratches on the bed rock were caused by a
glacier
Prediction
• Inference based on
observations that
indicate what will
happen in the future
– Example:
• Weather predictions
(the only job that you
can be wrong more
then right and not get
fired!)
Classification
• The grouping of objects together based on
common characteristics (observable
properties)
– Example:
• Shape
• Color
Measurement
• A way of describing greater accuracy,
observations using numbers
• Contain at least one of three basic
dimensional quantities
– Time
– Length
– Mass
• Must contain correct units ex: 5 cm
Forms of Measurement
• Metric (SI) the one that everyone else uses but
Americans.
• English: what we use

Unit Metric English
Second, minute,
Time Same as metric
hour, day ,year
Millimeter,
Length centimeter, Inch, foot, mile
meter, kilometer
Mass gram, kilogram Ounce, pound
Time
• Instant in which
something happens
or period during which
change occurs
• “time of day” which
deals with the
apparent motion of
the sun in the sky
Length
• Measure of the distance between 2 points
Mass
• Amount of matter in an
object, mass never
changes
• MASS DOES NOT
EQUAL WEIGHT
• Weight is a measure of
the pull of the earth’s
gravity on a quantity of
matter (body) If you travel
into space and escape
Earth’s gravity, you would
become “weightless”
Properties of matter that use some
mathematical combination of basic
dimensional quantities

1. Volume
2. Density
3. Pressure
4. Speed
Volume
• Amount of space an
object takes up
– Ex.
• V(of a rectangle) = length x
width x height
– V= L x W x H cm3
– Can also find volume
by seeing how much
water an object
displaces.
Density
• Property of matter that combines mass and
volume
– D = mass/volume
– D = m/v (g/cm3)
Pressure
• Measure of force, or weight on a given
area
• Example: newton’s/meter² or lb./in²
Speed
• Measure of rate of motion
• Example: meter/sec. or miles/hour
Percent Deviation (Error)
• Equation located on
front cover of
E.S.R.T.
• Measures how wrong
a measurement is.
• Caused by faulty
instruments, careless
observations
% Error Example
• A test has 35 questions on it. You get 25
correct. What is your % error (deviation)?