Unit One

What you need to know at first!

Observations
Interaction of one or more of your senses with the environment or your surroundings.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Sight Hearing Touch Taste Smell

Observations Continued
Senses are limited so we use instruments to help improve our powers of observation. Examples:
   Telescopes Scales Rulers

Inferences
Interpretation of one or more observations
 Includes proposing explanations or reaching conclusions, like taking a guess  Example:
The scratches on the bed rock were caused by a glacier

Prediction
Inference based on observations that indicate what will happen in the future
 Example:
Weather predictions (the only job that you can be wrong more then right and not get fired!)

Classification
The grouping of objects together based on common characteristics (observable properties)
 Example:
Shape Color

Measurement
A way of describing with greater accuracy, observations using numbers A direct comparison with a known standard Contain at least one of three basic dimensional quantities
   Time Length Mass
Must contain correct units ex: 5 cm

Forms of Measurement
Metric (SI) the one that everyone else uses but Americans. English: what we use
Unit Time Length Mass Metric Second, minute, hour, day ,year Millimeter, centimeter, meter, kilometer gram, kilogram English Same as metric Inch, foot, mile Ounce, pound

Time
Instant in which something happens or period during which change occurs “time of day” which deals with the apparent motion of the sun in the sky

Length
Measurement of the distance between 2 points

Mass
Amount of matter in an object, mass never changes MASS DOES NOT EQUAL WEIGHT Weight is a measure of the pull of the earth’s gravity on a quantity of matter (body) If you travel into space and escape Earth’s gravity, you would become “weightless”

Properties of matter that use some mathematical combination of basic dimensional quantities
1. 2. 3. 4.

Volume Density Pressure Speed

Volume
Amount of space an object takes up
 Ex.
V(of a rectangle) = length x width x height
 V= L x W x H cm3

 Can also find volume by seeing how much water an object displaces in a graduated cylinder.

Density
Property of matter that combines mass and volume
 D = mass/volume  D = m/v (g/cm3)

Pressure
Measure of force, or weight on a given area
Example: newton’s/meter² or lb./in²

Speed
Measure of rate of motion
Example: meter/sec. or miles/hour

Percent Deviation (Error)
Equation located on front cover of E.S.R.T. Measures how wrong a measurement is. Caused by faulty instruments, careless observations

% Error Example
The weather report said the air temperature was 35° F and a student thought the air temperature was 25° F. What is your % error (deviation)? % deviation = 35° F – 25° F x 100
35° F

= 10 X 100 35
= .2857 X 100 = 28.57

Percent deviation basically tells you how much you measurement is off, in percent, from what you should have gotten.

Density
The quantity of material contained in a certain space Something densely packed has a large quantity of material crowded into a small amount of space

Density continued
The greater the mass of a substance, the greater it’s volume will be (direct relationship). Thus, when graphing substances with different densities, the more dense the substance, the steeper the slope.

Phases of Matter
As substances undergo a change of phase, it’s density changes
 Density increases as it changes from gas to liquid to solid (water is the exception to the rule)

Objects denser then water will sink, and

Density Changes
Density CANNOT be changed by:
  Cutting the object into pieces Changing the shape (molding Clay)

Density CAN be changed by:
  Adding or removing heat or temperature Pressure

More Density and Phases
As material cools, it contracts. It becomes denser because the volume decreases but the mass stays the same. This is true for water except as it reaches 4o Celsius. At 4o, water expands until it reaches 0o.

Gases are affected more by pressure and temperature then solids and liquids because their particles are more spread out. Air is a mixture of gases When air is heated it expands, creating a larger volume and smaller density. Because cooler air is more dense, it goes down, as less dense warmer air rises

Effect of Temperature and Pressure on the Density of Gases

Air Pressure
Air Pressure is a measure of the force or weight of the atmosphere pushing down on the earths surface. The denser the air, the greater the pressure. Cold air gives a greater pressure then warm air.

Add Heat

Remove Heat -Molecules slow down -Molecules contract -Volume decreases

Add Press.

Remove Press -Molecules expand -Volume increases

All Matter Solid, Liquid, Gass

-molecules speed up -molecules expand -volume increases

-Molecules compact -Volume Decreases

Density
Examples

Decrease Increase s s -Hot air -Rings
Balloon -Jar lid (run under hot water when lid is stuck come off easier -Fingers shrink

Increases Decrease s -Tightly -Ears pop
packed snowball when flying or going up mountainrelease of pressure

Graphing Relationships
As one value goes up on a graph, what happens to the other?

Direct Relationship
As one value goes up or down, the other value does the same thing. Examples:
 As you heat something up, volume increases  As the mass of a substance increases, so does it’s volume (density remains the same)  As pressure goes up so does the density (packing a snowball)

Indirect/Inverse Relationship
As one value goes up, the other value does the opposite.
 As volume increases pressure decreases  When density increases volume decreases

Cyclic Relationship
As time progress, one goes up and the other goes up and then back down again.
 Example: day light, seasons, tides

Constant Relationship
As one value goes up, the other stays the same.