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The s-Block Elements
Characteristic Properties of the s-Block Elements Variation in Properties of the s-Block Elements Variation in Properties of the Compounds of the s-Block Elements

40.1 40.2 40.3

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The Syllabus
• 8.1 Characteristic Properties • • • • • • Metallic character Low electronegativity Formation of basic oxides and hydroxides Fixed Oxidation state in their compounds Weak tendency to form complexes Flame colours of salts – flame test

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The Syllabus
• 8.2 Variation in properties of the s-block elements and their compounds
Variations in atomic radii, ionisation enthalpies, hydration enthalpies and melting points. Interpretation of these variations in terms of structure and bonding. Reactions of the elements with oxygen and water. Reactions of the oxides with water, dilute acids and dilute alkalis. Relative thermal stability of the carbonates and hydroxides. Relative solubility of the sulphates(VI) and hydroxides
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Notes p. 1 s-Block elements: • Consists of Group IA and Group IIA elements • Outermost electron shell: ns1 ns2 • Highly reactive metals • Good reducing agents • Fixed oxidation states +1 for Group I elements +2 for Group II elements 4 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 4 .

40.1 Characteristic Properties of the s-Block Elements 5 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 5 .

40.38) Metallic Character (not mentioned in notes) Group I elements: • Silvery in colour.1 Characteristic Properties of the s-Block Elements (SB p. tarnish rapidly in air ∴ keep immersed under paraffin oil or in vacuum sealed tubes • • Soft. low boiling and melting points Low density ∵ weak metallic bond due to only 1 e– is contributed to form bonds ∵ body-centred cubic structure -.have more spaces Cutting Rubidium 6 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 6 .

Group I elements: Lithium Sodium Potassium Rubidium Caesium 7 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 7 .

7 39.244 0.53 0.169 0.0020 2.000 10 Trace ―b‖ denotes body-centred cubic structure 8 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 8 .152 0.86 1.87 — 0.176 Crystal structure b b b b b — Melting Boiling point point (C) (C) 180.231 0.36 2.095 0.39) Some information about Group I elements Atomic Ionic Group radius radius I metal (nm) (nm) Li Na K Rb Cs Fr 0.133 0.53 1.009 0 0.060 0.1 28.1 Characteristic Properties of the s-Block Elements (SB p.09 0.5 97.97 0.8 63.270 0.4 27 1330 890 774 688 690 680 Density Abundance (g cm–3) on earth (%) 0.40.262 0.148 0.186 0.

39) Group II elements: • silvery in colour • harder and higher boiling and melting points than Group I counterparts ∵ stronger metallic bond due to 2e– are contributed to form bond and smaller atomic sizes • show different crystal structures 9 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 9 .1 Characteristic Properties of the s-Block Elements (SB p.40.

Beryllium Group II elements: Magnesium Calcium Strontium Barium Radium 10 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 10 .

0 0.33 4.215 0.15 0.85 1.197 0.75 1.217 0.099 0.220 0.135 0.40. face-centred cubic and body-centred cubic structures respectively 11 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 11 .160 0.113 0.112 0. ―f‖ and ―b‖ denote hexagonal close-packed.1 Characteristic Properties of the s-Block Elements (SB p.54 3.39) Some information about Group II elements Atomic Ionic Melting Group Crystal radius radius point II metal structure (nm) (nm) (C) Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra 0.140 h h f f b — 1278 648.55 2.60 5.000 28 2.065 0.031 0.042 Trace ―h‖.8 839 769 729 697 Boiling point (C) 2477 1100 1480 1380 1640 1140 Density Abundance (g cm–3) on earth (%) 1.038 0.

Variation in Physical Properties Atomic Radius and Ionic Radius (notes p. 1) 12 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 12 .

and more inner shells shielding the outermost shell electrons  attraction between the nucleus and the outermost shell electrons decreases  atomic and ionic radii increase 13 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 13 .41.52) Question: The atomic and ionic radii increase down the Groups.3 Variation in Properties of the s-Block Elements (SB p. why? ∵ outermost shell electrons become further away.

Question: Atomic and ionic radii decrease when going from Group I to II in each period. Increase in nuclear charge outweighs the increase in shielding effect of additional electron of the same shell. why? ∵ Group II elements have 1 more proton and electron than Group I elements.  atomic and ionic radii decrease 14 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 14 .

there is one electron shell less in the cation than in the atom. why? ∵ after losing the outermost shell electron(s).41. Increase in p/e ratio 15 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 15 .52) Question: Ionic radius of any Group I or II element is smaller than the atomic radius.3 Variation in Properties of the s-Block Elements (SB p.

41. 2) 16 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 16 .53) Ionization Enthalpy (notes p.3 Variation in Properties of the s-Block Elements (SB p.

3 Variation in Properties of the s-Block Elements (SB p.41.54) Variations in the 1st. 2nd and 3rd ionization enthalpies of Group II elements 17 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 17 .

electron is removed from stable noble gas configuration and higher effective nuclear charge  large 2nd I. For 2nd I.E. is much smaller than 2nd I. electron is further away from the nucleus and shielding effect of inner shell electrons  small 1st I. 18 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 18 .E.E.E..E. for Gp.E.1st I. I elements For the 1st I..

19 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 19 .  less attractive force experienced  less energy is required to remove the electrons Because of the high I. Li and Be forms a few covalent compounds instead of forming Li+ and Be2+ respectively..The ionization enthalpies decrease down the Groups Reason: • atomic sizes increase down the group  the outermost shell electron(s) is/are further away from the nucleus.E. they will be better shielded by inner electron shells.

1 Characteristic Properties of the s-Block Elements (SB p.increase in shielding effect. 3)) Low Electronegativity • All have low electronegativity values ∵ the outermost electron shell is effectively shielded by inner electron shells. notes p.40. .Low effective nuclear charge. 20 20 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 . • Decrease when going down the group ∵ the outermost electron shell are further away from nucleus .41.

stronger attraction to outermost shell electrons Group I element Electronegativity Group II element Electronegativity 21 Li Na K Rb Cs Fr New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 1.8 0.41) Group II elements are relatively more electronegative than Group I counterparts ∵ higher nuclear charge.8 0.0 1.9 — 21 .2 1.0 0.0 0.7 — Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra 1.1 Characteristic Properties of the s-Block Elements (SB p.5 1.9 0.40.

1 Characteristic Properties of the s-Block Elements (SB p.43) Characteristic Flame Colours of Salts • The outermost shell electrons of Group I & II elements are weakly held  The electrons can be excited to higher energy levels on heating  When electrons return to ground state.40. radiations are emitted  The radiations fall into the visible light region  The flame colour is a characteristic property of the element 22 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 22 .

Flame Test

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40.1 Characteristic Properties of the s-Block Elements (SB p.43)

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Flame colours

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1 Characteristic Properties of the s-Block Elements (SB p.Low ionic charge 26 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 26 . Group I & II elements seldom form complex: . .40.43) Weak tendency to form complexes (not mentioned in notes) Complex: Polyatomic ion or neutral molecule formed when molecular or ionic gropups (called ligands) form dative covalent bonds with a central ion.s-block ions do not have low energy vacant orbitals available for dative covalent bonds.

41.55) Melting Point (notes p.3 Variation in Properties of the s-Block Elements (SB p. 4) Variations in melting points of Groups I and II elements 27 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 27 .

Observations: • melting point decreases as going down Groups I and II Reason: • the ionic size of the elements increases  attraction between ions and electrons becomes weaker  metallic bond is weaker 28 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 28 .

• Group II elements have higher ionic charge  the attractive force between ions and electrons are stronger  metallic bond is stronger 29 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 29 . of valence electrons per mole contributed to the delocalized electron sea is greater.Observations: • melting points of Group II elements are much higher than those of Group I elements Reason: • no.

41.3 Variation in Properties of the s-Block Elements (SB p.56) Observations: • irregularity in the general decrease in melting point down Group II elements Reason: • different metallic crystal structures of the Group II elements Group Crystal II metal structure Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra h h f f b — 30 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 30 .

Extraction of sodium (not in syllabus) Downs Cell 31 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 31 .

Manufacture of sodium hydroxide graphite anodes chlorine + used brine saturated brine mercury alloyed with sodium flow of mercury flowing mercury (as cathode) Water Mercury (recycle) Flowing mercury cell 32 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 32 .

At anode (graphite): 2Cl (aq)  Cl2(g) + 2e- At cathode (mercury): Na+(aq) + e.During electrolysis. Na(s) + Hg(l)  Na/Hg(l) sodium amalgam 33 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 33 . Na(s). chlorine is liberated at the anode and sodium at the cathode.

1b.Flowing mercury cell 34 Q. Q.8 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 34 .

stronger the attraction. stronger the attraction. • • Hhyd must be negative value.3 Variation in Properties of the s-Block Elements (SB p. 8) Hydration Enthalpy Xn+(g) + aq  Xn+(aq) Hydration enthalpy (Hhyd) is the amount of energy released when one mole of aqueous ions is formed from its gaseous ions. Hhyd depends on charge density charge/size  Higher the charge.40. notes p. more energy released  Smaller the size.56. more energy released 35 35 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 .

M+ Variations in hydration enthalpy of Groups I and II elements 36 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 36 .

2H2O New Way Chemistry for Hong 4 37 . the charge density decreases  the attractive force between water molecules and ions becomes weaker  the hydration enthalpy becomes less negative Down the group.2H2O 37  CaSO4.6H2O SrSO BaCl 4 Kong A-Level Book 2. fewer molecules of water of crystallization Na2CO3.2H2O CaCl2.7H2O MgCl2.6H2O K2CO3.• magnitude of hydration enthalpies become smaller (less negative) as going down the Groups Reason: • the ionic size of the elements increases down the group.10H2O MgSO4.

Observations: • hydration enthalpies of Group II ions are more negative than those of Group I ions Reason: • Group II ions have higher charge and smaller size  charge density is much higher that of Group I ions  the attractive force would be much stronger 38 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 38 .

Lattice Enthalpies of Group I Halides (p.10) 39 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 39 .

10) • Good agreement between calculated and measured value. Why? • Lattice Enthalpies decrease down the group: Reasons: Size increase Internuclear distance increase Attractive force between opposite ions decrease 40 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 40 .Lattice Enthalpies of Group I Halides (p.

Reason: Higher charge.11) • Discrepancies occurred between calculated and measured values. Reason: Covalent characters occurred in small cations. smaller size.Lattice Enthalpies of Group II Halides (p. • Group II Halides have a higher lattice enthalpies than Group I Halides. 41 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 41 .

40.43. 13) Formation of Hydroxides – reactions with water • All Group I metals react with H2O to form metal hydroxides and H2 gas e. notes p. 2Na(s) + 2H2O(l)  2NaOH(aq) + H2(g) 2K(s) + 2H2O(l)  2KOH(aq) + H2(g) Li+H2O Na +H2O 42 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 42 .1 Characteristic Properties of the s-Block Elements (SB p.g.

K+H2O Rb+H2O Cs+H2O 43 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 43 .

e. Ca(s) + 2H2O(l)  Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2(g) Sr(s) + 2H2O(l)  Sr(OH)2(aq) + H2(g) • Be does not react with H2O(l or g) 44 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 44 .1 Characteristic Properties of the s-Block Elements (SB p.40.43) • All Group II metals (except Be) react with H2O to form metal hydroxides and H2 gas (Mg reacts with hot water).g.

Strontium + water Barium + water 45 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 45 .

40. notes p. superoxides • Relationship between three oxides: O2–  O2 1 O2 2 2– O O  2O2– superoxide O2 monoxide peroxide 46 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 46 . peroxides.41. 14) Formation of Basic Oxides Group I elements • Produce more than one type of oxides (except Li) • All are ionic • Three types of oxides: normal oxides (monoxides).1 Characteristic Properties of the s-Block Elements (SB p.

41) • Li forms the monoxide only 4Li(s) + O2(g)  2Li2O(s) 180C • Na forms the monoxide and peroxide when O2 is abundant 4Na(s) + O2(g)  2Na2O(s) 300C 2Na2O(s) + O2(g)  2Na2O2(s) 180C 47 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 47 .40.1 Characteristic Properties of the s-Block Elements (SB p.

Cs also forms superoxides 3000C Rb2O2(s) + O2(g)  2RbO2(s) C Cs2O2(s) + O2(g) 3000  2CsO2(s) 48 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 48 .41) • K forms the monoxide.1 Characteristic Properties of the s-Block Elements (SB p. peroxide and superoxide 180C 4K(s) + O2(g)  2K2O(s) 300C 2K2O(s) + O2(g)  2K2O2(s) K2O2(s) + O2(g)  2KO2(s) 3000C • Rb.40.

45) Group I element Li Na K Rb Cs Monoxide Li2O Na2O K2O Rb2O Cs2O Peroxide — Na2O2 K2O2 Rb2O2 Cs2O2 Superoxide — — KO2 RbO2 CsO2 49 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 49 .41.2 Characteristic Properties of the s-Block Elements (SB p.

40. Rb+ and Cs+ ions are large  Low polarizing power  peroxides and superoxides are relatively stable 50 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 50 .1 Characteristic Properties of the s-Block Elements (SB p.42 notes p. 14) • Li does not form peroxides or superoxides Reason:  Li+ is small  high polarizing power  serious distortion on electron cloud of peroxide or superoxide (large polyatomic anions)  more distortion . more unstable  Li2O2 and LiO2 do not exist • K+.

why? 2Be(s) + O2(g)  2BeO(s) 2Mg(s) + O2(g)  2MgO(s) 2Ca(s) + O2(g)  2CaO(s) 2Ba(s) + O2(g)  2BaO(s) 2BaO(s) + O2(g) 2BaO2(s) 51 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 51 .2 Characteristic Properties of the s-Block Elements (SB p.41. notes p. Ba which can form peroxides. except Sr. 14) Group II Elements • Form normal oxides only.46. • All are basic (except BeO which is amphoteric).

Strontium + air Barium + air 52 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 52 .

43) Group II element Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Reason: Normal oxide BeO MgO CaO SrO BaO Peroxide — — — SrO2 BaO2 Superoxide — — — — — Be. Mg.40. Ca peroxide do not exist. why?  High charge density  high polarizing power  serious distortion on electron cloud of the peroxide ion 53 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 53 .1 Characteristic Properties of the s-Block Elements (SB p.

14 2(e) Reactions of Oxides of s-Block Elements Reaction with Water • • • Group I oxides react with H2O to form hydroxides Normal oxides: e.g. Li2O(s) + H2O(l)  2LiOH(aq) Peroxides: e.g. Na2O2(s) + 2H2O(l)  2NaOH(aq) + H2O2(aq) Dissolution of Na2O2 in H2O containing phenolphthalein • Superoxides: e.40.g.59) notes p.3 Variation in Properties of the compounds of the s-Block Elements ( p. 2KO2(s) + 2H2O(l)  2KOH(aq) + H2O2(aq) + O2(g) New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 54 54 .

• Group II oxides (except BeO. but dissolves in acids to form salts • 55 BaO2(s) + 2H2O(l)  Ba(OH)2(aq) + H2O2(aq) New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 55 . CaO(s) + H2O(l)  Ca(OH)2(aq) (weakly alkaline) • • The basicity of all Group II oxides increases down the group BeO is amphoteric BeO(s) + 2H+(aq)  Be2+(aq) + H2O(l) hot BeO(s) + 2OH–(aq) + H2O(l)  [Be(OH)4]2–(aq) hot • MgO is slightly soluble in water. MgO) react with H2O to form a weakly alkaline solution e.g.

CaO(s) + 2HCl(aq)  CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) Peroxides: e.g.60.g. 2KO2(s) + 2HCl(aq)  2KCl(aq) + H2O2(aq) + O2(g) 56 56 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 .40.3 Variation in Properties of the compounds of the s-Block Elements (p. Na2O2(s) + 2HCl(aq)  2NaCl(aq) + H2O2(aq) Superoxides: e.g. not mentioned in notes) Reaction with Acids • • • • All oxides of s-Block elements are basic except BeO which is amphoteric Normal oxides: e.

40.60) Reaction with Alkalis • No reaction between the oxides of s-block elements with alkalis except BeO • BeO is amphoteric.3 Variation in Properties of the compounds of the s-Block Elements (p. it reacts with NaOH to give Na2Be(OH)4 BeO(s) + 2NaOH(aq) + H2O(l)  Na2Be(OH)4(aq) 57 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 57 .

the higher is the temperature needed to decompose it The thermal stability of ionic compounds depends on: (1) charges & (2) sizes of ions 58 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 58 . 15.60) notes p. 18 Relative Thermal Stability of the Carbonates and Hydroxides Thermal stability refers to the resistance of a compound to decomposition on heating • • The higher the thermal stability of a compound.3 Variation in Properties of the compounds of the s-Block Elements (p.40.

18 • Compound with large polarizable polyatomic anion (large electron cloud.40.61) notes p. the thermal stability depends on the polarizing power (charge density) of cations  The stronger the polarizing power. the electron cloud of anion will be distorted to greater extent  The compound tends to be less thermal stable 59 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 59 .3 Variation in Properties of the compounds of the s-Block Elements (p. as shown in notes).

61) Group II carbonates/hydroxides are less stable than Group I • Group II ions are smaller and have a higher charge than Group I ions in the same period  Greater polarizing power  The carbonates and hydroxides of Group II metals are less stable on heating e.g.40. K2CO3 is stable upon heating while CaCO3 decomposes on heating 60 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 60 .3 Variation in Properties of the compounds of the s-Block Elements (p.

61) • Most carbonates and hydroxides of Group II metals readily undergo decomposition on heating to give oxides (more stable) e.g.40.3 Variation in Properties of the compounds of the s-Block Elements (p. MgCO3(s)  MgO(s) + CO2(g) Ca(OH)2(s)  CaO(s) + H2O(g) 2+ O H MgO + Mg - O H H2O - Mg2+ 61 O O C O - MgO + CO2 61 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 .

73 Effect of sizes of cations on thermal stability of compounds 62 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 62 .3 Variation in Properties of the compounds of the s-Block Elements (p. 2b on p. the size of cations increases  polarizing power decreases  compound with large anion become more stable ∴ thermal stability of carbonates & hydroxides of Groups I and II metals increases down the group Do Q.62) • Down the group.40.

making the anion unstable. In solid form. 63 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 63 . it has a high polarizing power. therefore. the polarizing power decreases. Explain briefly why lithium hydrogencarbonate does not exist as a solid while other Group I hydrogencarbonates can be found in solid state.Q. As the size of cations increases down the group. This distorts the electron cloud of HCO3-. solid hydrogencarbonates can be formed. the cation and anion are close to each other. A. Due to small size of Li+.

Hydroxides (p. All decompose on heating forming metal oxides and water.Effect of Heat on s-block carbonates and hydroxides (p. 64 64 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 . All decompose on heating forming metal oxides and carbon dioxide.19) i. Carbonates Group I: Group II: All are thermally stable except Lithium. ii.21) Group I: Group II: All are thermally stable except Lithium.

Stabilization of ions by water molecules (hydration enthalpy released) 65 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 65 .3 Variation in Properties of the compounds of the s-Block Elements (p.40. two processes are taken place: 1. Breakdown of the ionic solid (-ve lattice enthalpy) 2.63) notes p. 21 Relative Solubility of the Sulphates(VI) and Hydroxides Processes involved in Dissolution and their Energetics • When an ionic solid is dissolved in water.

Dissolution of NaCl 66 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 66 .

23) MX(s) Hs M+(aq) + X-(aq) -U Hhyd M+(g) + X-(g) A low modulus of lattice enthalpy and a high modulus of hydration enthalpy favour the dissolving process. 67 67 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 .Solubility of s-block Sulphates and Hydroxides (p.

Effect of charge and size of ions on Hhyd and Hlattice Z Z H lattice  + r +r + - 1 1 H hy d  + + r r 68 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 68 .

Solubility of s-block Sulphates and Hydroxides i. like sulphates When moving down the group. For large anions. However. the decrease in size of the cation does not cause a significant change of U. SO42- SO42- MgSO4 69 SrSO4 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 69 . Hhyd become less negative and has a significant change  the solubility of sulphates decreases down the group.

Why? New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 70 . Mg(OH)2 iii. For smaller anions. like hydroxides When moving down the group. the increase in size of the cation causes a significant change of U but Hhyd change a little because of the great hydration energy of the anion.ii. 70 Sr(OH)2 Group I sulphates and hydroxides are more soluble than that of Group II. Therefore the solubility of hydroxide increases down the group.

3 Variation in Properties of the compounds of the s-Block Elements (p.23) Relative Solubility of the Sulphates(VI) and Hydroxides –Trend and Interpretation • The sulphates(VI) and hydroxides of Group I metals are more soluble in water than those of Group II metals ∵ Group I metals has a smaller charge and larger size than Group II metals in the same period  The lattice enthalpies of Group I compounds are smaller in magnitude than those of Group II compounds  The enthalpy changes of solution are more –ve 71 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 71 .40.

6.Do Q. 74 The END 72 New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 4 72 . 10 and Q. 7 on p.

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