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By Mrs. Kanchan Patil

Table of contents :1. Types of Networks 2. Features of Client-Server Networks 3. Introduction to Internet 4. Network 5. What is Internet ? 6. Components to get connected on Internet 7. What we can do on internet 8. Internet Naming Conventions and Services 9. Browser 10.Advantages of Internet 11.Disadvantages of internet 12.Security

Peer To Peer Networks

Advantages Allow Simple File And Print Sharing Low Cost - No Need For Separate Server-Client Software, Or Additional Server Computers Disadvantages Very Little Security - Each Computer On The Network Controls It's Own Security Heavier Load On Computers Resource Sharing Causes Higher Processor Usage, And Therefore Slows Down Computers No Central Data Storage Easy Set-up - No Need For A Network Administrator Only Work For Small Networks

Sever/Client Networks
Advantages Disadvantages Very Strong Security Which Is also less Intrusive than Peer To Peer Expensive Dedicated hardware Security Central File Storage - Everybody Expensive Dedicated Server And Works From The Same Data, And Client Software Licenses Backups Are Much Easier Ability to share equipment such as Printers, Modems, and Plotters Faster data sharing and resource Dedicated Network sharing usually required Easy management of large numbers of users Central Organization, which keeps data from getting lost among Computers


Client Server Network

Division of labour

client program handles user interface and light processing chores server program handles heavy work, like database retrieval, and accessing centralised resources Server Client Program Program

Client Machine


Network :-

Computer 4

Computer 3



Computer 2 Computer 1


Network of Networks.

Wan Connects thousand of networks containing computers and software all around the world.


Time taken to distribute information is reduced to seconds



Internet is a global network of different types of computers and computer networks all over the world, allowing one to access information over the network and enabling information exchange.

Development of internet Arpanet : Advanced research project agency network Developed by U.S department of defense to connect all computers from research institutes to spread the defense research. It provides data transfer even if part of network is destroyed or malfunctioning. Tcp/ip : Transmission control protocol internet protocol

Defined the rules for communication between computers on network.

Html : Hypertext markup language developed to store and access information seamlessly across the world independent of O.S and hardware. Information stored in the form of html web pages on web servers. Browsers : Software developed to interpret these html pages.

To get on the Internet:-

1) Computer 2) Modem

3) Software 1) Operating System 2) Browser. 4) Internet Service Provider


Main Server

Internet Service Provider


Main Server
Internet Service Provider

Proxy server

Computer 1

Computer 2

Computer 3

Computer 4

Computer 13 5

Main Server

Internet Service Provider Wireless Connection



What can we do on the Internet:-

1) Communication 2) Document/File transfer 3) Browsing 4)E-Commerce 5) Reading and posting to topic specific bulletin boards


Internet Naming Conventions

For most Internet users, the four-octet address representation, called a dotted decimal, is too cumbersome. Therefore, most users substitute a naming convention called a uniform resource locator (URL). A URL uses names and abbreviations given to unique piece of information on internet. Eg. Domain names are a hierarchical word-oriented representation of an Internet address.

Root Level Domain Names

Com edu gov mil net org at au be ca de es fi fr it jp us Commercial enterprise education, for example, a university U.S. government U.S. military network service nonprofit organization Austria Australia Belgium Canada Denmark Spain Finland France Italy Japan United States

Domain Name Hierarchy

Countries Most General





grumpy doc sneezy bashful



Some URL Protocols

http ftp hypertext transfer protocol file transfer protocol


Access a newsgroup or new article.

Use the Gopher text-oriented access.


Services:Email :
allows to send digital messages to anyone with an email account. Sending email consists of accessing the Internet, logging into your email account,

entering the email address of the person Email can also be sent automatically to a large number of addresses.

A very common method of moving files between two computers on Internet .Can transfer files between different O.S .Files stored on Ftp servers


Telnet :
Telnet is a protocol for remote computing on the Internet.

Usenet News :
Usenet News, is a large collection of discussion groups, covering a wide range of topics. These electronic newsgroups are available internationally.

allows people with common interest to share ideas

Gopher :
text information retrieval system available prior to web.Does not support multimedia or graphical display.

Internet relay chat :

IRC allows pair or group of users to exchange messages in real time . Communication is done by typing messages.Special software are downloaded from intrenet.

Internet Phone :
Send and receive voice calls across internet in real time.Users can talk long distance at low expenses.

Video conferencing :
Creates virtual meetings where all people can hear & view each other.Video images are transmitted along with voice at high speed.


WWW World Wide Web

popular & widespread information service. Comprises of vast collection of html pages stored on http servers.


Browser:A client software program used for searching and viewing various kinds of Internet resources such as information on a web site.

In other words, a program that allows a user to find, view, hear, and interact with material on the World Wide Web.



Available Browser:-

1.Netscape Navigator
2.Internet Explorer 3.Opera 4.Mozilla


Advantages : 1. Government

2. Student
3. Citizen 4. Employer 5. Non IT Companies 6. IT Companies 7. ITES


Disadvantages : 1. Faith

2. Piracy
3. Virus

4. Unauthorised Access


Security : 1. Authentication

2. Firewall
3. Encryption 4. Digital Certification


Conclusion : -

Internet is Networks of computer networks. Information Highway. connecting whole world on 24x7 basis.


E commerce

Commerce is the business environment in which information for buying, selling and transportation of goods and services moves electronically.

Benefits of Electronic Commerce



Time required to create ,transfer and process a business transaction between trading partners is reduced.

Saving :

Efficient communication ,quicker turnaround time and closer access to markets


Streamlined Business Processes :

Businesses use internet to share information such as promotional plans, point-of-sale data, and sales forecasts.

Better Customer Service :

Customers can enjoy the convenience of shopping at any hour, anywhere in the world.

Opportunities for New Businesses

Business over Internet have a global customer reach.

Four main areas where companies conduct business online


marketing and selling. Online banking and billing. Secure distribution of information. Value chain trading and corporate purchasing.

Eg. Of E-commerce

reservation system. Stock trading Order processing Insurance


Types of Internet access


Dialup access 2) Broadband access


Narrowband Internet Connections

Dial-Up Internet: Connection rates 2,400 bps & 56,000 bps, which is incredibly slow Dial-up modems are attached internally or externally to a given computer, and then connected using a standard telephone cable. ISDN: ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) Internet connections are a type of digital telephone connection. Basic Rate Interface (BRI) ISDN connections transmit data right around the broadband cutoff at 100 Kbps. Although a better Internet connection option than dial-up, ISDN connections are still more or less outdated. Typical ISDN speeds range from 64 Kbps to 128 Kbps. 38

Dialup access

connection speed compared to broadband . many disconnects or "drops". dialup is not much cheaper than comparable broadband access


Broadband can be classified

1) Cable internet access - very fast access offered through your cable television company 2) DSL - Digital Subscriber Line access offered through your local telephone company 3) Fiber Optic access - if available - offered through your telephone company 4) Satellite internet access - used primarily in rural areas where cheaper alternatives are not available 5) Wireless internet access - offered through a PDA or cell phone, a rapidly growing area of internet service


Through the use of a cable modem you can have a broadband Internet connection that is designed to operate over cable TV lines. Cable Internet works by using TV channel space for data transmission, with certain channels used for downstream transmission, and other channels for upstream transmission. Because the coaxial cable used by cable TV provides much greater bandwidth than telephone lines, a cable modem can be used to achieve extremely fast access. Cable speeds range from 512 Kbps to 20 Mbps


Internet over Satellite (IoS) allows a user to access the Internet via a satellite that orbits the earth. A satellite is placed at a static point above the earth's surface, in a fixed position. Because of the enormous distances signals must travel from the earth up to the satellite and back again, IoS is slightly slower than high-speed terrestrial connections over copper or fiber optic cables. Typical Internet over Satellite connection speeds (standard IP services) average around 492 up to 512 Kbps.

Wireless Internet Connections


is also commonly known as wireless networking or an 802.11 network WiFi is short for wireless fidelity



Wireless fidelity and is meant to be used generically when referring of any type of 802.11 network Wi-Fi product use radio frequency 2.4GHz for 802.11b or 11g, 5GHz for 802.11a Formerly, the term "Wi-Fi" was used only in place of the 2.4GHz 802.11b standard, in the same way that "Ethernet" is used in place of IEEE 802.3.


How Wi fi works

One wireless router can allow multiple devices to connect to the Internet. A wireless network uses radio waves, just like cell phones, televisions and radios do. A computer's wireless adapter translates data into a radio signal and transmits it using an antenna. A wireless router receives the signal and decodes it. It sends the information to the Internet using a physical, wired Ethernet connection.

The higher frequency allows the signal to carry more data.


Wireless adapters can plug into a computer's PC card slot or USB port.


Linksys WAP54G 802.11b/g Wireless Access Point

Cisco Aironet 1242AG (AIR-AP1242AGA-K9) (AIRAP1242AGAK9) 802.11a/b/g Wireless Access Point


Building a Wireless Network


new laptops and many new desktop computers come with built-in wireless transmitters. If your laptop doesn't, you can buy a wireless adapter that plugs into the PC card slot or USB port. Desktop computers can use USB adapters, or you can buy an adapter that plugs into the PCI slot inside the computer's case. Many of these adapters can use more than one 802.11 standard.

When you turn your computer on in a WiFi hotspot, the computer will inform you that the network exists and ask whether you want to connect to it .


A wireless router uses an antenna to send signals to wireless devices and a wire to send signals to the internet.

A wireless router allows you to use wireless signals or Ethernet cables to connect your computers to one another, to a printer and to the Internet. Most routers provide coverage for about 100 feet (30.5 meters) in all directions, although walls and doors can block the signal. If your home is very large, you can buy inexpensive range extenders or repeaters to increase your router's range.

How to "Go Wireless"

In order to set up a computer with a wireless Internet connection, you need to buy a network card (802.11a, 802.11b, or 802.11g) and install it in your existing desktop or laptop computer find a hotspot is the access point for wireless networks, which connects the computer to the Internet Each hotspot can handle from 10 to 100 network cards at once, depending on the quality of the access point. you can find hotspots in many restaurants, cafs, hotels, airports and libraries

How Does Wireless Work

An access point (AP) with an antenna is physically connected to a conventional wired Ethernet network and serves as a bridge to the wireless network . In order to indicate its presence to wireless clients in its listening area, an AP announces itself broadcasting a Service Set Identifier (SSID) approximately 10 times per second .

The SSID identifies the name of the network. PCs that are within range and equipped with a wireless network interface card can receive the SSID, associate with the WLAN and request an IP address that will allow them to connect to the local network, surf the Internet, and view network folders.


To keep your network private, you can use one of the following methods:
Wired Equivalency Privacy (WEP) uses 64-bit or 128-bit encryption. 128-bit encryption is the more secure option. Anyone who wants to use a WEPenabled network has to know the WEP key, which is usually a numerical password


WiFi Protected Access (WPA) is a step up from WEP and is now part of the 802.11i wireless network security protocol. As with WEP, WPA security involves signing on with a password. Most public hotspots are either open or use WPA or 128-bit WEP technology.


Media Access Control

(MAC) address filtering is a little different from WEP or WPA. It doesn't use a password to authenticate users - it uses a computer's physical hardware. Each computer has its own unique MAC address. MAC address filtering allows only machines with specific MAC addresses to access the network. You must specify which addresses are allowed when you set up your router. This method is very secure, but if you buy a new computer or if visitors to your home want to use your network, you'll need to add the new machines' MAC addresses to the list of approved addresses.


they have in common is that they are all high-speed connections and they provide the customer with always online service.


A high-speed connection transmitting / receiving data at a rate of 256 Kbits/s or more is considered to be a broadband Internet connection (although most cable and DSL broadband connections tend to average 512 Kbits/s). Broadband Internet access allows for a continuous connection to the Internet without the hassle of having to log on or sign on to a carrier. Simply start up your computer and open the browser to begin surfing the Web faster than ever before

Important Things to Remember About DSL Services

1. DSL Broadband is an Internet connection that shares the same cable as your telephone. It still provides you with always on Internet access without having to dial-up.


2. One of the main perks of DSL is that, since

each subscriber has high-speed Internet through their own phone line, they are not sharing bandwidth with anyone else and therefore, the quality of their Internet connection is not compromised during peak usage times (5 p.m. 11 p.m.).

3 DSL is distance sensitive, meaning that the

farther away from the central office you are, the less desirable your connection will be.

Video on Demand

best part about Fiber Optics is the introduction of Video on Demand, which will allow subscribers to download and save popular video. Fiber Optic connections also excel in the area of highdefinition television, so your HDTV will have plenty of channels to choose from.



Short form very small aperture terminal, an earthbound station used in satellite communications of data, voice and video signals. VSAT consists of two parts, a transceiver that is placed outdoors in direct line of sight to the satellite and a device that is placed indoors to interface the transceiver with the end user's communications device, such as a PC



Typical applications for interactive VSAT networks are: computer communications; reservation systems; database enquiries; billing systems; file transfers; electronic mail; video conferencing; point of sale transactions;

credit checks and credit card verification;

stock control and management.

Bluetooth Operation
Bluetooth networking transmits data via low-power radio waves. It communicates on a frequency of 2.45 gigahertz (actually between 2.402 GHz and 2.480 GHz, to be exact). This frequency band has been set aside by international agreement for the use of industrial, scientific and medical devices (ISM).

Bluetooth device to about 10 meters (32 feet), cutting the chances of interference between your computer system and your portable telephone or television. Even with the low power, Bluetooth doesn't require line of sight between communicating devices.
Bluetooth can connect up to eight devices simultaneously

Bluetooth uses a technique called spread-spectrum frequency hopping that makes it rare for more than one device to be transmitting on the same frequency at the same time. In this technique, a device will use 79 individual, randomly chosen frequencies within a designated range, changing from one to another on a regular basis.

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is comprised of digital telephony and data-transport services offered by regional telephone carriers. ISDN involves the digitization of the telephone network, which permits voice, data, text, graphics, music, video, and other source material to be transmitted over existing telephone wires. The emergence of ISDN represents an effort to standardize subscriber services, user/network interfaces, and network and internetwork capabilities. ISDN applications include highspeed image applications additional telephone lines in homes to serve the telecommuting industry, high-speed file transfer, and videoconferencing. Voice service is also an application for ISDN.

There are two types of ISDN:

Basic Rate Interface (BRI) -- consists of two 64-Kbps B-channels and one D-channel for transmitting control information.
Primary Rate Interface (PRI) -consists of 23 B-channels and one D-channel (U.S.) or 30 B-channels and one D-channel (Europe).

ISDN BRI Service The ISDN Basic Rate Interface (BRI) service offers two B channels and one D channel (2B+D). BRI B-channel service operates at 64 kbps and is meant to carry user data; BRI Dchannel service operates at 16 kbps and is meant to carry control and signaling information, although it can support user data transmission under certain circumstances.


ISDN PRI Service ISDN Primary Rate Interface (PRI) service offers 23 B channels and 1 D channel in North America and Japan, yielding a total bit rate of 1.544 Mbps (the PRI D channel runs at 64 kbps). ISDN PRI in Europe, Australia, and other parts of the world provides 30 B channels plus one 64-kbps D channel and a total interface rate of 2.048 Mbps.


ISDN BRI Service The ISDN Basic Rate Interface (BRI) service offers two B channels and one D channel (2B+D). BRI B-channel service operates at 64 kbps and is meant to carry user data; BRI Dchannel service operates at 16 kbps and is meant to carry control and signaling information, although it can support user data transmission under certain circumstances. The D channel signaling protocol comprises Layers 1 through 3 of the OSI reference model. BRI also provides for framing control and other overhead, bringing its total bit rate to 192 kbps. ISDN PRI Service ISDN Primary Rate Interface (PRI) service offers 23 B channels and 1 D channel in North America and Japan, yielding a total bit rate of 1.544 Mbps (the PRI D channel runs at 64 kbps). ISDN PRI in Europe, Australia, and other parts of the world provides 30 B channels plus one 64-kbps D channel and a total interface rate of 2.048 Mbps.