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Section 8 Climatology general global circulation trade winds / monsoon Inter tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) tropical revolving

ving storms

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general global circulation

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NLS sec8 TB GLOBAL WIND CIRCULATION AND PRESSURE SYSTEMS IN JANUARY

NLS sec8 TB GLOBAL WIND CIRCULATION AND PRESSURE SYSTEMS IN JULY

Inter tropical convergence zone (ITCZ)

Area of low pressure where winds from the northern and southern hemisphere meets (convergence)

width: 200-300 km

Other names:

- doldrums
- equatorial trough - intertropical front

In ITCZ convergence and convection => strong rising air


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Position ITCZ Great seasonshift due to vertical position of sun at earth => over land bigger N-S variation

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Circulation in ITCZ

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Weather in ITCZ

Convection and convergence => Cbs => showers/thunderstorm


=> squall-lines

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Trade winds persistant wind(11-21 kn, 4 5 bft) from same direction during whole year 21 june ==> sun vertical over tropic of cancer (23N.)

21maart/21 september ==> sun vertical over equator

22 december ==>

sun vertical over tropic of capricorn (23S.)

==> where sun warms most, air above becomes most warm.
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where air is most warm low pressure will occur (temperatuur is inverse to pressure)

p 3e 1 RT 8p

area of low pressure around the world will arise, the Inter Tropicale Convergence Zne(ITCZ), with cumuliform clouds and showers. ITCZ moves south and north depending vertical position of sun to earth around 35N en S. position of subtropical high pressure systems
between subtropical high and ITCZ wind will develop
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H
NE-trade wind

Trade wind cumulus

23 N

21 mrt

21 sep

Lshowers L
Trade wind cumulus

SE-trade wind

23 S

H
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H
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Disturbing of trade winds


1. Easterly wave

Easterly wave => trough in isobars pattern => showers Most showers BEHIND trough*
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2 Monsoon
Shift in wind twice a year over at least 120

H
21 june

H L

H L

H L
NE-trade wind

23 N

SW-monsoon

23 S

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H
NE-trade wind

23 N
NE-monsoon

0
NW-monsoon 22 december

L
SE-trade wind

23 S

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this zne of low pressure is in reality not as parallel to a parallel but, due to difference in warming in land and water, more a waving or meandering pattern.

July
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januari
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Klimaat (Climate)
Wat is Klimaat? Een definitie: De gemiddelde toestand van het weer, berekend over een langere periode, meestal 30* jaar. Het wordt gekenmerkt door het gemiddelde van de temperatuur, de neerslag, de windrichting en de windsnelheid.

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Klimaat
Welke soorten klimaat?

Wit

= Polair

Paars = Subpolair Groen = Gematigd Geel = Subtropisch Bruin = Tropisch

Hoe lichter de kleur, hoe droger


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Klimaat
Variatie in ons gematigde klimaat: Deze variatie is zeer groot, het kan zo maar een paar dagen in januari 16C zijn en dan volgt een regenachtige zondag met + 14C* Een variatie van maar liefst 30C

Het langjarig gemiddelde is in januari ca 3Cen dt is het klimaat !! Gemiddelde*

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Het klimaatsysteem van Kppen*

Soorten Klimaten
A = Tropisch Regenklimaat B = Droogteklimaat C = Gematigd Zeeklimaat (=gematigd maritiem klimaat) D = Landklimaat (=continentaal klimaat) E = Poolklimaat

Kppen deelt verder in naar subklimaten Bv een droogteklimaat (B) in steppe- of woestijnklimaat. Etc.

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Tropical cyclone or Tropical Revolving Storm (TRS) Clusters or walls of big showers organizing around center of low warm low because of release energy from condensation in showers Most intense weather system on earth!!!
300 hPa 500 hPa 1000 hPa

Showers up to 16 km!

Cyclostrophic winds (Gradient wind sfc balances centrifugal force, Coriolis is nil)

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BOVENAANZICHT VAN EEN VOLWASSEN TROPISCHE CYCLOON MET EEN OOG IN HET CENTRUM

Deze afmeting kan maximaal bereikt worden, meestal zijn ze veel kleiner, straal zon 200 nm.

A
100 NM 200 NM 300 NM 400 NM

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WINDVERDELING IN EEN ROND EEN VOLWASSEN TROPISCHE CYCLOON

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TEMPERATUURVERDELING IN EN ROND EEN VOLWASSEN TROPISCHE CYCLOON

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3 Tropical Revolving Storm (TRS)

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hurricane

hurricane

typhoon

cyclone
cyclone

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tropical revolving storm :


frontless low pressure over tropical or subtropical seas with a closed isobarspattern and windvelocities of more than 63 kt.

Stadia: 1. Tropical disturbance cloudy, showers and gusts, relative less wind. 2. Tropical depression closed isobar pattern, cyclonic circulation, wind < 34kt
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3. Tropical storm - 34 kt < moderate ts < 47 kt, showers - 48 kt < severe ts < 63 kt, pressure < 1000 hPa, squall-lines and gusts > 63 kt.

4. Tropical Revolving Storm/Tropical Cyclone

wind > 63 kt, pressure in center average 960 hPa (lowest pressure ever 870 hPa)
dimension: < 400 Nm lot of rain( >1000 mm (=1000 litre/m2) a day)
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Eye of a tropical revolving storm


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5 categories of TRS, depending of pressure and wind wind:


Category Winds (kt) Rising of normal tide (Surge) 1-2 m 2-3 m 3-4 m 4-6 m >6 m pressure(hPa)

1 2 3 4 5

63-82 83-95 96-113 114-135 >135

>980 965-979 945-964 920-944 < 920

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CB tops in Tropical Cyclones: h

Height: 13-17 km !! (=Tropical tropopause)


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Necessary conditions for the formation of TRS 1. ITCZ > 6 from equator. Sufficient Coriolis!

2. seatemperature > 26 C.
3. Less windshift with height 4. ELR unstable to great height.

Lot of moist in air.

In South Atlantic Ocean and in the SE Pacific no excistance of condition 1 and 3 ==> no tropical revolving storms*
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names
2005 Arlene Bret Cindy Dennis Emily Franklin Gert Harvey Irene Jose Katrina Lee Maria Nate Ophelia Philippe Rita Stan Tammy Vince Wilma 2006

North atlantic ocean


2007 Andrea Barry Chantal Dean Erin Felix Gabrielle Humberto Ingrid Jerry Karen Lorenzo Melissa Noel Olga Pablo Rebekah Sebastien Tanya Van Wendy 2008 Arthur Bertha Cristobal Dolly Edouard Fay Gustav Hanna Ike Josephine Kyle Laura Marco Nana Omar Paloma Rene Sally Teddy Vicky Wilfred 2009 Ana Bill Claudette Danny Erika Fred Grace Henri Ida Joaquin Kate Larry Mindy Nicholas Odette Peter Rose Sam Teresa Victor Wanda 2010 Alex Bonnie Colin Danielle Earl Fiona Gaston Hermine Igor Julia Karl Lisa Matthew Nicole Otto Paula Richard Shary Tomas Virginie Walter

Alberto Beryl Chris Debby Ernesto Florence Gordon Helene Isaac Joyce Kirk Leslie Michael Nadine Oscar Patty Rafael Sandy Tony Valerie William

Katrina and Rita in 2011 replaced.


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Eastern North Pacific Names


2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Adrian Beatriz Calvin Dora Eugene Fernanda Greg Hilary Irwin Jova Kenneth Lidia Max Norma Otis Pilar Ramon Selma Todd Veronica Wiley Xina York Zelda

Aletta Bud Carlotta Daniel Emilia Fabio Gilma Hector Ileana John Kristy Lane Miriam Norman Olivia Paul Rosa Sergio Tara Vicente Willa Xavier Yolanda Zeke

Alvin Barbara Cosme Dalila Erick Flossie Gil Henriette Ivo Juliette Kiko Lorena Manuel Narda Octave Priscilla Raymond Sonia Tico Velma Wallis Xina York Zelda

Alma Boris Cristina Douglas Elida Fausto Genevieve Hernan Iselle Julio Karina Lowell Marie Norbert Odile Polo Rachel Simon Trudy Vance Winnie Xavier Yolanda Zeke

Andres Blanca Carlos Dolores Enrique Felicia Guillermo Hilda Ignacio Jimena Kevin Linda Marty Nora Olaf Patricia Rick Sandra Terry Vivian Waldo Xina York Zelda

Agatha Blas Celia Darby Estelle Frank Georgette Howard Isis Javier Kay Lester Madeline Newton Orlene Paine Roslyn Seymour Tina Virgil Winifred Xavier Yolanda Zeke

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Movement* and velocity

velocity = x latitude of tropical revolving storm(kts)


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Map of the cumulative tracks of all tropical cyclones during the 1985 2005 time period. The Pacific Ocean west of the International Date Line sees more tropical cyclones than any other basin, while there is almost no activity in the Atlantic Ocean south of the Equator.
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The dissipation stage 1. Seatemperature < 26C

2. Over land: increasing of friction => backing wind


=> more air in center => rising of pressure

less moist: potential energy cut off! 3. TRS approaches polair front in the warm air:
It induces a frontal low.
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Most dangerous quadrant northern hemisphere

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Frequency of TRS
maandelijks en jaarlijkse gemiddelde aantallen tropische cyclonen per oceaangebied oceaangebied Noordatlantische oceaan Grote Oceaan(oost) Grote Oceaan(west) Grote Oceaan(Australi) ZW-Indische Oceaan N-Indische Oceaan * minder dan 0,05 * jan * * feb * * mrt apr mei jun * * * * * jul aug sep okt 1,5 2,7 1,3 2,0 1,8 1,0 * 4,0 4,1 3,3 0,1 * * * * * 0,1 0,4 * nov dec jaar 0,3 * * 2,1 0,7 0,3 0,5 0,5 0,6 0,2 5,2 5,8 17,8 3,8 3,8 2,2

0,3 0,4 0,3 0,6 0,9 0,9 1,2 2,7 * * * 0,1

0,3 0,2 0,2 0,7 0,7 1,1 1,3 0,3 * 1,3 1,1 0,8 0,4 * * * 0,1

0,5 0,2 0,1 *

Conclusion: end of summer and autumn highest risk* NLS sec8 TB

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