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Section 9 FLIGHT HAZARD

1. Icing 2. Turbulence 3. Windshear 4. Thunderstorms 5. Hazards in mountainous areas

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shear fog (vis) Icing MTI

Welke Hazards zijn hier eventueel aanwezig?


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1. Icing

loss of performance
large increase in fuel consumption

difficulty with aircraft control


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Conditions for ice accretion on the ground and during the flight

Meteorological factors

Aerodynamic factors

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Meteorological factors

1. temperature of the outside air in clouds < 0 C


2. supercooled water content of the cloud

3. duration of the flight in the clouds where there is a risk of icing


4. droplet and crystal size distribution*

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droplet and crystal size distribution

Smaller drops easely follow stream lines


Bigger drops dont. (and hit the surface!)*
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The formation of ice accretion in clouds depends on the quantity and on the size of the supercooled water drops above the freezing level the temperature.

the lower the temperature, the smaller the droplet that can exist in supercooled form

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The supercooled water content depends on the temperature. Between 0C and -13C *: almost only supercooled water drops (large and small). Between -13C and -23C: the large supercooled water drops freeze on ice nuclei (= ice) small supercooled water drops dont. Mix* Between -23C and -40C: Only small supercooled water drops can exist Below -40C there is no more supercooled water available for ice accretion*
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Aerodynamic factors speed of the aircraft the faster the aircraft, the greater the risk of ice deposit*. temperature of the aircraft's surface shape (thickness) of the aircraft cell part (wings, antenna,.) the smaller the curvature, the greater the risk of ice deposit

angle of attack*
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Carburettor icing *

caused by
1. the sudden temperature drop as latent heat is absorbed when fuel evaporates 2. due to adiabatic cooling following the pressure reduction as air is accelerated through the carburettor venturi

most critical range of temperature is from 3C and +15C (warm air can contain more moist)
in cloud or in clear air
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The supercooled water drops in different clouds stratiform clouds only light icing between 0C / -13C
Except: - Sc formed by convetion over sea in winter (Old Sc) - Sc formed by spreading out of CU below subsidence inversion - in an active front - in orographic clouds cumuliform clouds TCU/CB mod/sev icing between 0C / -23C

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The types of ice accretion

The formation of a deposit of ice on objects: directly from water vapour, by sublimation* (deposition) ( gas ice)
by the freezing of liquid water drops ( liquid ice)

Types: 1. Clear ice or glaze (IJzel)


2. Rime ice (Ruige Rijp)

3. Mixed ice or cloudy ice (Mixed ijs)


4. Hoar frost (Rijp)
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1. Clear ice or glaze (IJzel*)


Conditions of formation: - large, supercooled water drops (mainly precipitation) - temperatures between FZL* and -18C Aspect of clear ice: - transparent, translucent, glassy appearance - high weight - great adhesion to the frame, cannot be broken away easily

Formation of clear ice: - CU, CB and NS at temperatures just below freezing


- in supercooled rain (T < 0C)
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Clear ice

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extremely dangerous form of clear ice occurs in the so-called ice triangle => rain ice caused by freezing rain usually ahead of a warm front sev icing in only a few minutes

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Remarks:
Cold layer at sfc 2 FZLs (Ice triangle at sfc)

Cold layer 2500` thick


Supercooled drops and/or snow
Ca 5000ft

Becoming warm rain


Ca 2000ft

FZRA

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Main dangers of clear ice can grow rapidly and it is difficult to remove if shaken off it flies away in large lumps, which may damage the surface or may strike the fan and compressor blades when it occurs on the propeller, may lead to serious vibration.

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2. Rime ice (Ruige Rijp) Conditions of formation: - small supercooled water drops Cloud drops! (clouds withlow LWC) - low temperatures (well below 0C)

Aspect of rime ice:

- white opaque deposit - little weight - low density, easy to remove

Formation of rime ice : - in top of CB or in Ns


- in freezing fog (with wind!)

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Main dangers of rime ice: little weight but it alters the aerodynamic characteristics of the wings and it may block the air intakes.
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Eventueel Weerplaatjes/ sneeuw en rijp dec 2007

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FZFG FZBR

FZRA

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3. Cloudy ice or mixed ice mixed ice - formed when supercooled water droplets are of various sizes or are intermingled with snow or ice particles. large range of drop sizes at any temperatures between 0 and -40C

difficult to remove and, because of its roughness, may seriously increase the drag of the aircraft

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4. Hoar frost (Rijp) Conditions of formation: Aspect of hoar frost: - in clear air - T sfc < frost point of the air - white, crystalline deposit - little weight

Formation of hoar frost: by deposition of water vapour directly in ice. the only icing where no liquid water is involved..! occurs frequently on parked aircraft during a clear night when the temperature of airframe surface falls below 0C* in flight, if the aircraft moves rapidly into a warmer and damp layer of air by descent or from ascent into an inversion May occur on bottom sfc of wings holding fuel T<0 on parked aircraft after landing
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hoar frost

Main dangers of hoar frost: some loss of radio facilities, frost on the windscreen before landing. frost on the airframe may increase the stalling speed.
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Rijp

?
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Martinair kist op Tunis bij T=28 en Td=22

Intensity of Icing Light. ( ) problem if flight is prolonged more than one hour in the environment, use de-icing/anti-icing equipment

Moderate. (

) short encounter becomes potentially hazardous and use of de-icing/anti-icing equipment is necessary or a diversion is necessary to escape the icing conditions.
) rate of accumulation is such that de-icing/anti-icing equipment fails to remove or control the hazard. Immediate diversion is necessary
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Severe. (

Dangers of aircraft icing

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Increase in weight Loss of lift, deformation of aerodynamic characteristics. Increase in drag. The stall speed of an ice covered aircraft may be 20 to 30 percent higher than normal. Loss of power, carburettor icing Loss of control, icing on control surface hinges Loss of thrust, propeller icing Loss of vision, windscreen freezing Loss of communication, icing of aerials Pitot tube icing Unbalance of aircraft, unbalance of propellers

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Dangerous zones of icing in clouds and fronts Convective clouds


Between FZL and -23oC
Between -23oC and -40oC Below -40C

moderate or severe icing - clear ice/ cloudy ice


light icing - rime ice small risk of light icing

Non-frontal stratified clouds, St, Sc, Ac


Between FZL and -10oC Below -10oC moderate icing light icing

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Frontal clouds
Warm front non-active 0 to -10C < -10C risk of mod icing risk of light icing 0 to -10C < -10C Cold front risk of mod icing risk of light icing

with embd CB
active 0 to -15C < -15C risk of mod (sev) icing risk of light icing 0 to -23C risk of mod to sev icing -23 to -40C risk of light icing

Icing at above 0 C tanks of an aeroplane on the ground contain fuel that has a temperature below zero, moisture condensation
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Ground de-icing and anti-icing de-icing: removing ice formations

anti-icing: preventing new accretions from forming freezing point depressant (FPD) fluids
take care of holdover time*

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Recommendations Know the level of icing for which your airplane is certified and never intentionally exceed that level. Never leave the ground with ice or snow adhering to any part of the airframe. Never fly in known icing conditions with any anti-icing or deicing components inoperable. When you observe ice on the wings, assume that there is even more ice on the tail and that it will have a more profound effect. Use de-icing and anti-icing components strictly according to Sectie9 TB 43 manufacturer's recommendations.

Use significant weather chart (SWC).

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Use significant weather chart (SWC). Mod Icing btn FL180 en XXX onderkant SWC !!

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2. Turbulence
Definition: Turbulence is short-period and small-scale oscillations in wind. It is very unorganised atmospheric motion including gusts and lulls in the wind Aviation definition of the turbulence:

Variations in the wind along the aircraft flight path of a pattern, intensity and duration that disturb the aircrafts attitude about its major axis but do not significantly alter its flight path.
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The ICAO turbulence definition Very low below 0.05g Light oscillations

Low 0.05 to 0.2g Choppy; slight, rapid, rhythmic bumps or cobblestoning nothing spoiled
Moderate 0.2 to 0.5g Strong intermittent jolts coffee spoiled Severe 0.5 to 1.5g Aircraft handling made difficult stewardess spoiled Very severe above 1.5g Increasing handling difficulty, structural damage possible. aircraft spoiled *

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Types of turbulence: Convective turbulence

Mechanical or frictional turbulence


Orographic turbulence

Wake turbulence
Clear air turbulence

Frontal turbulence

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1. Convective turbulence results from convection dry thermals or CU CB severe turbulance under, in and above

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2. Mechanical or frictional turbulence due to obstructions such as steep hills, ridges, buildings,

trees or cliffs along the seashore or inland waters


expected when wind speeds are higher than 20kts

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SCHUIFSPANNINGSTURBULENTIE DOOR HWS

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DE STRUCTUUR VAN DE WIND Hoe dichter bij de grond:

Hoe meer variatie in richting en snelheid.

De ruwheid* is
zichtbaar aan het karakter van de wind.
TIJD
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wind

G
E B O U W

Op afstand 30 x H nog 25% verstoring op hoogte H


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3. Orographic turbulence
mountainous areas are often turbulent in areas with marked mountain waves (MTW) Ac lenticularis

*
Ac lenticuaris

Stable!!!

Rotor cloud
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4. wake turbulence wing-tip vortices very hazardous, especially during take-offs and landings * persistent for 5 minutes or even more

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Wing-tip vortices
Walk away from generating aircraft with wind

Hazards:
In flight: possible sudden roll over! On ground: mainly small aircraft too close behind big one (wide body)*

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5. Clear air turbulence: CAT


clear air turbulence occurs in the free atmosphere away from any visible convective activity mostly associated with a jet stream

in the dense cirrus clouds along jet streams CAT may also occur*

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CAT with upper level trough and ridge

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CAT with CB clouds*

USA: keep clear of CB 30 miles.

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Mountain waves (MTW)


Also without Ac lenticularis (clear air)

Height of MTW up to 20 km! *

Effect of MTW up to > 1000 km downwind

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6. Frontal turbulence

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Intensities of turbulence
LIGHT

- slight erratic changes in altitude and/or attitude - slight strain against seat belts or shoulder straps - no difficulty is encountered in walking - changes in altitude and/or attitude - definite strain against seat belts or shoulder straps - unsecured objects are dislodged - food service and walking are difficult - large, abrupt changes in altitude and/or attitude - aircraft momentarily out of control - forced violently against seat belts or shoulder straps - unsecured objects are tossed about - food service and walking are impossible

MODERATE

SEVERE

EXTREME

- aircraft is violently tossed and is practically impossible to control - may cause structural damage
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WINDSHEAR
Definition: change in windspeed and/or wind direction over short distance

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VERTICALE WINDSCHERING (VWS) is de verandering van de horizontale windsnelheid en/of richting per lengte-eenheid tussen twee verticaal boven elkaar staande punten. VWS is dus een snelle verandering over een korte afstand van de horizontale wind in een verticaal vlak.

H O O G T E

Horizontaal vlak

Horizontaal vlak

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HORIZONTALE WINDSCHERING (HWS) De verandering van de horizontale windsnelheid en/of richting per lengte-eenheid tussen twee punten, die beiden in hetzelfde horizontale vlak liggen.

HWS is dus een snelle verandering over korte afstand van de horizontale wind in een horizontaal vlak.
HORIZONTALE LENGTE HORIZONTALE LENGTE

Voetbalveld.

HORIZONTALE BREEDTE

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SCHERING VAN DE VERTICALE WIND (SVW) De verandering van de verticale windsnelheid en/of -richting per lengte-eenheid tussen twee punten, die in hetzelfde horizontale vlak liggen.

SVW is dus een snelle verandering over korte afstand van de verticale windcomponent in een horizontaal vlak.
HOOGT E HOOGT E BODEM
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WINDSCHERINGSVARIATIES TOEGEPAST OP DE LUCHTVAART Windschering (windshear) is de variatie in grootte van de windvector of zijn componenten langs en dwars op de vliegroute. Men onderscheidt: Head- of tailwindshear , de variatie in sterkte van de neus- of staartwind-component; Crosswindshear, de variatie van de dwarswindcomponent en Vertical windshear, de variatie van de verticale windcomponenten.
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Types of windshear
1. Nocturnal type; occurs during the night and in the early morning in undisturbed radiation weather 2. Synoptic type; usually associated with fronts, but they also occur otherwise

3. Orographic type; caused by orographic influences


4. Thunderstorm type; in and near thunderstorms associated with gust fronts, downbursts, microbursts, macrobursts, outbursts

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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OtnL4KYVtD E&feature=related
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Shear on Inversions!

25018 kt 21008 kt

Wind

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NACHTELIJK WINDMAXIMUM, een voorbeeld van vws


X 1000 100 ft ft xx1000 ft

Top inversie

DAG

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http://www.metacafe.com/watch/30410/boeing_747_extreme_landing/

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Synoptic type associated with cold and warm fronts

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FRONTALE WINDSCHERING, een ander voorbeeld van VWS

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the sea-breeze front

What shear?

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Orographic type
mountain waves may lead to severe turbulence and windshear

Thunderstorm type thunderstorms and cumulonimbus can cause the most severe windshears all kinds of windshear can happen

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MOUNTAIN WAVES (STANDING WAVES)

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GEBIED MET BERGGOLVEN

Strong winds (>30 kts) Perpendicular to mountains Stable atmosphere


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DRY ROTOR

Axis?
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STERKTE VAN DE WINDSCHERING De ICAO geeft de volgende kwalificatie van de sterkte van windschering: Zwakke windschering bij 0 - 4 kt /100 ft Matige windschering Sterke windschering Zware windschering bij 5 - 8 kt /100 ft bij 9 - 12 kt /100 ft bij 12 kt /100 ft

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Thunderstorm type thunderstorms and cumulonimbus can cause the most severe windshears all kinds of windshear can happen

Downdrafts, microbursts, macroburst, gustfront, rollcloud etc

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DE DOWNDRAUGHT ( Amerikaans: downdraft)

In de onderste helft en onder de bui kan een krachtige neerwaartse stroming ontstaan. De algemene term ervoor is downdraught. De algemene term van de voor de luchtvaart gevaarlijke vorm heet downburst.

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ONTSTAANSOORZAKEN VAN DE DOWNDRAUGHT In de wolk : Afkoeling van de lucht door het smelten van ijsvormige neerslagelementen onder het 0 0c-niveau. Meesleuren van de lucht tussen de neerslag-elementen. Onder de wolk: Afkoeling van de lucht door het verdampen van de vloeibare neerslagelementen. Meesleuren (drag) van de lucht tussen de neerslagelementen.

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SOORTEN DOWNDRAUGHT MACROBURST: Een krachtige neerwaartse stroming met een doorsnede > 4 km. Komt voor in het gebied met de zwaarste neerslag. Kan in een groot gebied tornado-achtige schade aanbrengen. Aan de grond kan de windsnelheid oplopen tot 130 kt. De levensduur varieert, vanaf het moment dat de grond is bereikt, van 5 tot 20 minuten.
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SOORTEN DOWNDRAUGHT (vervolg 1) MICROBURST: Een zeer krachtige neerwaartse stroming met een doorsnede 4 km. Komt voor in het gebied met de zwaarste neerslag. De verticale snelheid kan 30-60 ft boven de grond 10002000 ft/min (5-10 m/s) bereiken. Aan de grond kan de windsnelheid oplopen tot >160 kt. De levensduur varieert, vanaf het moment dat de grond is bereikt, van 2 tot 5 minuten.
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SOORTEN DOWNDRAUGHT (vervolg 2) MIDAIR MICROBURST: Een microburst die het aardoppervlak niet bereikt en de luchtstroming daar niet benvloedt. DROGE MICROBURST: Een microburst uit een bui met een hoge basis, waarvan de regen verdampt voordat die het aardoppervlak kan bereiken. De microburst bereikt het aardoppervlak echter wel.

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FOOTPRINT VAN EEN DOWNBURST UIT EEN STATIONAIRE BUI

Gustfront van de horizontaal uitstromende koude lucht

Omtrek bui
Centrum downburst

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FOOTPRINT VAN EEN DOWNBURST UIT EEN BEWEGENDE BUI

Gustfront van de horizontaal uitstromende koude lucht

Omtrek bui Downburst centrum

Bewegingsrichting

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EVOLUTIE VAN EEN DOWNBURST

Onderkant van de bui

10 Verlopen tijd in minuten

15

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WINDSCHERINGSDETECTIE Er zijn drie operationele windscherings-systemen in gebruik op de grond: Low Level Windshear Alert System ( LLWAS) De windprofiler, een Doppler-radar SODAR, een akoestische radar In gebruik of in ontwikkeling voor airborne systemen: Doppler-radar Infrarood detectiesysteem Laser detectie systeem

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horizontal windshear vertical windshear


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GET OUT !!!!

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Effect of windshear on flight: Windshear is the variation of the components of the wind vector along and perpendicular to the flight route. Head windshear / tail windshear: variation of the windspeed of the head/tail wind.

Shearing of vertical wind: variation of the vertical wind.


Cross windshear: variation of the wind component perpendicular to the flight route.

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Windshear in practice:

Often simplified to Negative or Positive Shear

Positive: performance increase, more lift, greater IAS Negative: performance decrease, less lift, smaller IAS.

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THUNDERSTORMS (onweersBUI*)
USA STORM is een BUI !!!!!

a thunderstorm is a CB accompanied by thunder and lightning.

Conditions for thunderstorm development


1. Most of cloud must be above the FZL => WBF 2. atmosphere must be unstable , at least 10.000 ft, strong updraft, 10-35 m/s 3. top of the clouds above the level of -20C (not necessary in the tropics) 4. Sufficient lifting forces 5. adequate supply of moisture from below
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lifting forces can be caused by: - local differential heating over land, solar insolation and formation of thermal lows - night time radiation cooling from the top - orographic effects (lifting) - frontal activity (frontal lifting) - low level convergence, along a trough for example - due to differential advections: cold air advection aloft and warm air advection in low levels.
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Life cycle of an individual thunderstorm cell

Single Cumulonimbus cells rarely exceed a few km in diameter

The life cycle of an individual cell is in the order of 30 minutes

In the individual cell three stages of development can be recognised:

1. Cumulus stage 2. Mature stage 3. Dissipating stage

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1. Cumulus stage

only updrafts

no precipitation
10-15min duration

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1. Cumulus stage
CU and TCU Only updrafts

No precip.
Higher FZL in CLD

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2. Mature stage

greatest activity of the storms and thunderstorms up- and downdrafts precipitation
downburst and outburst gust front hail, turbulence, lightning and gusts Max vertical speeds 30 40 m/s
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2. Mature stage both down and updrafts often tilted!*

FZL higher in updrafts


1) Warm air updraft 2) Release of latent heat FZL lower in downdrafts 1) Drag of cold upper air

2) Melting and evaporation need energy


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3. Dissipating stage downdrafts dominate

precipitation decreases
and finally stops no more lightning turbulence inside the cloud will rapidly decrease
Clouds dissolve Anvil- Ci clouds often remain longtime
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Classification of thunderstorms Air mass thunderstorms


Thermal thunderstorms, a result of irregular local heating of the surface. Uplift due to solar radiation. Cold mass thunderstorms: thunderstorms or night/ winter thunderstorms over sea and coastal areas. They often occur at the rear of a cold front. The temperature in the higher layers is low, causing a steep environmental lapse rate. Orographic thunderstorms: when moist potentially unstable air is forced to rise against a mountain range, it becomes statically unstable.

Prefrontal thunderstorms: in unstable airmass ahead of a kata cold front (fast running front), generally organised along a squall line.
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Example Pre-frontal TS

Sly warm flow over W Eur


Very high temperatures over France

Often Thermal Low before Coldfront arrives

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Frontal thunderstorms
When the warm air in the warm sector is unstable, the forced lifting along the frontal surface may lead to the formation of embedded cumulonimbus in the frontal clouds along the front at the surface. They are not random but organised along a line along the surface front. They are associated with active cold fronts.

Convergence thunderstorms
These thunderstorms are observed along the ITCZ, an E-ly wave, a trough and if the airmass is potentially unstable there is also a risk of thunderstorms along the sea-breeze front.*

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Frontal thunderstorms

stratiform

Mostly on Coldfronts
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Convergence thunderstorms

L
CB

surface Trough Trough


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Convergence thunderstorms May develop near/in: 1. ITCZ

2. Troughs
3. Lows 4. Easterly Waves 5. Cyclonic cols 6. Etc

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Frequency of thunderstorms
Thunderstorms are wide spread, around 50 000 thunderstorms

per day !! The frequency of thunderstorms over land is highest in summer during daytime; over sea the frequency is highest in winter during the late night.* The frequency of occurrence changes from one region to another
- In Polar areas: - Between latitudes 70-80: - In mid-latitude: - In subtropical areas: - Near equator: nearly no thunderstorms 1 day a year with thundery weather. 32 days with thundery weather. only 10 days 136 days Sectie9 TB with thundery weather.
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Thunderstorm Classification
Single cell/ Airmass Multi cell

Super cell
Squall lines

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Single cell or Airmass TS Lifetime to 1 hour

3 to 8 km diameter

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Multi cell TS
Upper wind Oldest Cell

New cells Movement

By growing new cells on forward right side, system moves to the right of upper winds!
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Multi cell TS

Anvils up to 100 km away Up to 300 x 300 km! Lifetimes up to 12 hours


Often called MCC or MCS (depending on size) (Mesoscale Convective Complex or System)
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Fig. 8.49 Schematic of an idealized multicell storm developing in an environment

with strong vertical shear in the direction of the vertically averaged wind. The
vertical profile of equivalent potential temperature e in the environment is shown at the left, together with the wind profile. Arrows in the right panel denote motion relative to the moving storm. Sectie9 TB
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Super cell
Acts as a Low Rotation

Very big
Very active ONE CELL Tornados Rare in Europe

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Fig. 8.56 Structure of a typical tornadic supercell storm. Motion of the warm air is relative to the ground. [Based on NOAA National Severe Storm Laboratory publications and an unpublished manuscript by H. B. Bluestein. From R. A. Houze, Cloud Dynamics, Academic Press (1993) p. 279.]
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Supercell 26 juli 1983 moving NNE Bigger than the Netherlands

Hail at 07.00 Lt Den Helder golfball size


Well developed Low on sfc charts 2,5 m water upset Harlingen*

Developing MCC
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Squall lines

Squall= sudden wind icrease to >16 kts lasting 1 min at least More or less closed LINE of active CBs moving in one direction
>200 km long

Gustfront up to max 32 km in front of Squall line!!


Rotor/Arcus cloud

Sand or dust rotor


Next cross section A-B
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cross section A-B

09024 Cold air from shower giving gustfront Warm air to shower to feed CB 24032G46 Gustfront
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Squall lines
formed near: 1. cold fronts 2. troughs 3. ITCZ Squall lines develop mostly in hot summer weather along lines of convergence or pre-frontal convergence. When all active TS condition are met.*

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The gust front


Outflow of cold air in a (thunder)shower dangerous for aircraft on takeoffs and landings HWS and VWS 24 to 32km ahead of the storm centre

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Rolwolk!

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GET OUT!
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Hail
Hail is a form of precipitation which consists of balls or irregular lumps of ice (hailstones). Hailstones on Earth usually consist mostly of water ice and measure between 5 and 50 millimetres in diameter, with the larger stones coming from severe thunderstorms.[1] Hail is always produced by cumulonimbi (thunderclouds), usually at the front of the storm system, and is composed of transparent ice or alternating layers of transparent and translucent ice at least 1 mm thick. Small hailstones are less than 5 mm in diameter, and are reported as SHGS. Unlike ice pellets, they are layered and can be irregular and clumped together. Wikipedia

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Hail development:

1) Precip partical enters updraft


2) Riming starts above FZL 3) Heavier particle falls down, melts partialy below FZL 4) Enters updrafts againriming 5) Etc etc Second posibility: Riming hailstone stays at same level Updraft = fallspeed growing by riming
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Hail development:

Melting and freezing, Melting and freezing

Thats why a hailstone is layered..!


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Hail
due to strong updraft a melting snowflake will go up and down for several times and freeze due to riming proces Hailstones can achieve a large size and can be met at any height in the cloud(45.000 ft) and outside the cloud!!!!

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Flying below anvil close to CB dangerous for hail!!


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Hail
From a pea to a grapefruit !!!

6 cm Nederland

17 cm

Max ca. 20 cm.USA

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Hagelfeiten. De grootste hagelsteen die in de wereld viel had een doorsnede van 17,8 centimeter. De hagelsteen viel op 22 juni 2003 in Aurora (Nebraska). De steen kwam met een snelheid van 160 kilometer per uur neer.

De zwaarste hagelsteen viel op 3 september 1970 in Coffeyville (Kansas) en woog 757 gram. Het ijsblok wordt bewaard in een vriezer in Boulder en staat vermeld in het Guinness Book of World Records. Van de hagelsteen is een plastic replica gemaakt, zodat iedereen het kan zien.
Ook een grote hagelsteen viel in Potter (Nebraska) op 6 juli 1928 en was 13,7 centimeter. Ooggetuigen zeiden dat tussen de individuele hagelstenen 3 tot 4.5 meter ruimte zat. In juli 1990 werd Denver (Colorado) door zware hagel getroffen. Hier was voor $625 miljoen recordschade. Idem ca. 15 jaar geleden in Munchen
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Large hailstones can cause enormous damage to aircraft

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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wZr8jXo1Uso

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The anvil Top of CB Anvil points in the direction of the winds in the top of the CBs, and so indicates the direction of the cell motion

anvil

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Electricity in the atmosphere

There is always some weak electrical charge in atmosphere In clouds the ice particles make the difference

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Electricity in the atmosphere PRINCIPLE*

* *

*
collides with

Small positive rise

++++ ++++

*
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Large negative fall

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Sometimes an aircraft is a bridge/trigger for discharge to the ground: Selftriggering effect *

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Words to know 1) Stepped leader

2) Leader
3) Streamer 4) Return stroke Blz 9-42
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Lightning damage on propellor tip


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(Airborne) Radar

To high

To high

Proper tilt is essential

To low

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Shadowing

radar

CB1

CB2

On the scope: Only CB1 CB1

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Attenuation

radar

By absorbtion of radar energy, false backside

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Turbulence: in and close to Rotors*


in and close to Lenticularis in waves
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Downbursts, micro- and macro

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Famous:

Fujita and Caracena 1977


1) Eastern 902

2) Eastern 66

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Tornados

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Tornados

Neerslaggebied Groen/geel

Let op: echos in de vorm van boog of komma (Eng Hook Echo)
Tornado mogelijk GET OUT!!!

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Tornados Twister, wervelwind, zware windhoos etc A tornado is defined as a violently rotating column of air extending from a thunderstorm to the ground. Warm air moves UP !!! Diameter 10 to 100 m normaly Max around 2 km!! Rotating windspeed: 100 to 150 m/s (550 km uur) Damaging path: 10 km average Low pressure inside (900 hPa avg)*

Waterspout (little tornado over warm water)


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Tornados

Whole CB system rotates


Most Tornados rotate (99%) Cyclonic (Coriolis)* Whole world knows Tornados

Mostly in the Tornado Alley USA

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Tornados

Tornado Alley
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CBs need moisture and heat, so mainly form over agricultural areas
Tropical jungles are not hot enough. Desserts are not moist enough.
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Tornado from Tornado Alley

Let op schuine stand ! Moerdijk F28*

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Tornadoes in Nederland?

1) Borculo augustus 1925 de cycloon van Borculo 3 doden


2) Neede 1927 3) Tricht 1967 4) Ameland 1972 10 doden 7 doden 4 doden

5) Moerdijk ongeluk 1981 F28 verongelukt 2 slurven onder bui

6) Ameland 1992 1 dode*


7) Plus nog ca. 25 kleinere windhozen, waterhozen, downbursts etc. met schade per jaar!

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Bron KNMI
Tornado van Tricht

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Rotation speed of air defines Fujita scale: (for Tornados)


Fujita schaal F0 64-117 km/u 118180 km/u 181251 km/u 252330 km/u 331417 km/u 418509 km/u Schade aan schoorstenen, takken breken af Schade aan daken, autos worden van weg afgeduwd Bomen worden ontworteld, caravans vernield Daken en muren worden weggerukt, autos worden opgetild Huizen worden vernield en autos gegooid Huizen worden van fundamenten gelicht
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F1

F2

F3

F4

F5

Dustdevils (Wind- of stofhoos) In Australia: Willy Willy

Only Thermals (often Dry thermals = no cloud) ( droge thermiek of Blau thermiek) Dustdevils can cause gusts up to 35 kt ! *
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Dustdevil boven verbrande aarde

Let op: altijd mooi weer


Foto: T.A. de Boer.

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