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Viewed development as a way of how people adapt to the world

Cognitive Development
Piagets theory of cognitive development
assumes stage-like development

Information-processing approach
assumes continuous development focuses on basic mechanisms of cognition

Invariant sequence of development same order, cannot skip a stage

Qualitatively different from the next must learn a set of schemata at one stage to be able to pass to the next stage

Each cognitive development is unique

Each persons environment puts specific demands on that person Thus, cognitive growth processess of intellectual development by the specific kinds of experiences have

refers to the physical development that occurs over time and that directly impacts the childs nervous system Maturational readiness or biological programming
Determining when a child would move to the next stage Culture and environment could accelerate or retard growth

Role of maturation is important- pyhysical changes facilitate the progressive complexity of our mental structures
Experience is crucial major source of discoveries that lead to the modification of schemes

Schemas can be related to one another, sometimes in a hierarchy Vary with age We even remember and recall things via schemas, using them to encode memories.

A schema is a mental structure we use to organize and simplify our knowledge of the world around us. We have schemas about ourselves, other people, mechanical devices, food, and in fact almost everything.

Schemas affect what we notice, how we interpret things and how we make decisions and act. They act like filters, accentuating and downplaying various elements, classify things, forecast, predicting what will happen.

Become more self-aware, knowing your own schemas and why they are useful for you. When people try to change them, you can then more rationally understand whether your or their schemas are better.


Adapatation the process of adjusting in response to the environment by means of assimilation and accomodation To make sense of the new information or to solve the problems that confronts us


- the first process use when confronted with new experience - incorporation of new information into existing knowledge/schemes

Accommodation - modifying ones existing knowledge to adjust to new information


Equilibrium a state of cognitve balance between our understanding of the world and our experiences When our understanding can explain the events we observe, the world makes sense


Disequilibrium Veiw of the world did not match - when they cant, disequilibrium occurs, If we remain in equilibrium, we have no reason to change we are motivated to search for better explanations, to change to make sense of the new experience


Number of elements work alongside disequilibrium to motivate individuals to learn emotions, maturatiton, experiences and social interactions

Piaget stages of development cognitive development unfolds as the child passess through 4 distinct and qualitative different stages

Four Main Stages of Cognitive Development

Sensorimotor Stage (birth to approx. 2 years) Preoperational Stage (approx. 2 years to 7 years) Concrete Operational Stage (approx. 7 years to 12 years) Formal Operational Stage (approx. 12 years onwards) Each new stage reflects a better way of understanding (not just more knowledge).


Sensorimotor Stage
understanding of the cognitive world through
sensations touch,taste,sight,sound are constantly in use physical movements and action


object permanence
understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot directly be seen, heard, or touched


Preoperational Stage (2-7)

ability to represent the world mentally ability to think more symbolically Gradually develop the use of language E.g.
representation of objects in the world using scribbled designs prevalence of pretend play

inability to distinguish ones own perspective and someone elses perspective Views the world in the same they do They are the centre of everything


Egocentric dialogue
Lucy: My dad got a new car yesterday Nick: This is the biggest tower you can build with Lego Lucy: Its not noisy like our old one Nick: Im gonna get more Lego for my birthday Lucy: You can have a ride in our car if you like Nick: If I put this flag on top it will be a special castle

Teacher: Why the sun was shinning Child: Because it wants to Teacher: Why does it want to Child: Because I like to play outside

Centration playing to only one aspect of an object or situation Conservation principle that some characteristics of an object remain the same despite changes in appearance Reversibiliy the ability to perfom mental operations and then reverse ones thinking to return to the starting point

Animism preoperational thinkers attribute animistic (particularly, human) characteristics to all objects. They attribute life only to those bojects that move spontaneously


Kenn: Is water alive? Yes. Why?- It moves.Is fire alive? Yes, it moves Vel: Is the sun alive? Yes.- Why? It gives light. Is a candle alive? No. Why not? (Yes) Because it gives light. It is alive when it is giving light, but it isnt alive when it is not giving light.-Is a bicycle alive? No, when it doesnt go it isnt alive. When it goes it is alive

Where do boats go at night? to bed


Conservation of number


Which stick is longer?



Are the clay balls the same? Bigger?


Conservation of Volume



Grandpa, your cloud is the same as the clouds outside in the sky Grandpa, did you make the clouds Outside?


Transductive reasoning the child neither inductively nor deductively A child sees the wind blowing leaves, trees and paper. She might have arrived at the conclusion that she will be blown away, never to see again Somehow illogical and sometimes humourous conclusions are reached


Concrete Operational Stage (7-11)

children can:
manipulate internal representations of reversible actions and objects classify objects and events reason logically about concrete, specific events and objects

children cannot:
reason logically about abstract events

Formal Operational Stage (11 to adulthood)

ability to reason logically about abstract ideas and events Becomes more scientific in thinking hypothetico-deductive reasoning ability to formulate many alternative hypotheses in dealing with a problem and to check data and make appropriate decisions

Anological reasoning search for a solutions to situations that similar to the one on hand Deductive reasoning drawing conclusions by applying rules or principles, logically moving from a general rule or principle to a specific solution


Reflective abilities able to systematically generate all possibilities solutions to a problem Develop concern about social issues


Educational Implications
Listen closely to what children say and probe their responses rather than accepting them at face value Observe children closely as they participate in classroom activities in order to gain insights into their thinking


Be aware of possible limitations of childrens thinking at different ages

Be aware of individual differences among students

Structure activities that are meaningful to students. Try to make links between existing knowledge and new concepts.
Organise small-group collaborative learning activities



Solitary Play Play that occurs alone Parallel Play Play in which children engage in the same activity side by side but with very little interaction


Associative Play Play that is much like parallel play but with increased levels of interaction in the form of sharing, turntaking and general interest in what others are doing


Cooperative play occurs when children join together to achieve a common goal, such as building a large sand castle, blocks


Importance of play
Exercises their linguistic, cognitive and social skills and contributes to their general personality development Creativity Freely explore ways of thinking and acting