OLERICULTURE

Topi c : Sol anacea cr ops (Chi lie and toma to)

Crop name : chilli

Introduction

Chilli is one of the popular vegetables among the peoples in Malaysia. It is originated from Mexico and South of America, but now cultivated over tropical climate state. Chilli also known as pepper or chilli, majority chilli plant is cultivated at lowland. In Peninsula Malaysia, main manufacturer of chilli areas is in Perak, Johor and Kelantan

Proposed cultivar
1. MARDI MC11: spicy  High yield (17-24 mt/ha)  Take out yield 10 week after cultivated  Can pick yield about 30 times for one season and fruiting continuously  Tolerant for Anthracnose disease (7% infection) and Choenophora shoot blight disease

2. MARDI MC12  Medium hot , has the simultaneous ripe property and mature early  High yield 15-25 mt/ha  Yield take out about 7 week after cultivated and very productive, matured early, disease resistant and interval to harvest 5 to 6 day once.

Soil Suitability / Weather
    

Suitable to cultivated in low plain, temperature between 22-40 °C medium rain amount between 1500 - 2000 mm / year The best temperatures is 28-29 °C Chilli is suitable in mostly soil type included bris soil, peat soil and ex-mine soil Suitable pH : 5.5 – 6.8

Cultural practices
   

Seedling preparation Cultivation at the farm Fertilization Water management

Seedling preparation

 

Prepared seedling boxes 60 cm x 30 cm x 10 cm for 100 seed Fill in seedling boxes with mixing soil medium (3:2:1). 3 portion of the topsoil, 1 portion of decay chicken dung and 1 portion of sand. 200 g/ha seed (if 50% of germination rate) Seed must be treated by herbicide poison eg. 3g thiram / 1000 g seed

Watering with fine water spray about 2 times each day Seedling boxes must be protected from over sunshine exposure and over rain amount. Transfer seedling to the farm 3 - 4 week after sowing. Exposed seedling for sunlight as long as 3 – 4 day before transfer process ( to harden seedling)

Land Preparation

 

Plough the soil about 15 to 22 cm depth. Prepared the bed with 1.2 cm wide and 22 – 30 cm high. Length of the bed according to the situation of the area. Distance of the bed is 45 cm. Mix as much as 25kg for 50 square meters area with the rotting chicken dung

LIMING

Liming - For the peat soil and full of acid, liming at the rate 2 tone/hectare per year. For very low acid soil (pH 3.5-3.7) liming at the rate 10-25 tone/hectare per year.

CULTIVATION

Seedling 4-7 week years old can change to the bed. Plants distance – 80cm x 80 or 90cm x 120cm for each row.

PROTECTING

Mulching - Using the dry grass or paddy straw for the
mulching.

Weed control
- Reduce / prevent weed – reduce competition source of

growth. - prevent light reaching ground - black plastic - Clean the bed from the weed with the soil, hoe or plough for the plant in the vase, pull the weed to protection.

FERTILIZATION

Fertilizer NPK green (15:15:15) or liquid fertilizer (15:30:15) using for base fertilizer. Fertilizer for the fruits NPKmg blue (12:12:12:17:2:TE) or liquid fertilizer for adult tree.

Total of fertilizer NPK and NPKmg which is using 1.8 – 2.5 tone/hectare and for the 4 timers fertilizer. NPK amount of fertilizer and NPKMg which is used are 1.8 – 2.5 tan / ha and divided into 4 rotation fertilization. Basic fertilize done once before or when crop converter followed up with 3 rotation top-fertilize. A total of 10 g fertilizer are being distributed around tree each 2 week.

WATER MANAGEMENT
1.Watering
- Using 2 times per day with ‘sprinkler’ system for early morning and the evening. - Also can using manual way. - Chili needs 3.5 liter water per day. 2.Distance around the bed need the drain with alternation about 75cm to exceed the water from stagnant flood. 3.Drainage is required if to face drainage problem

Pest management

Chilli Disease

Mosaic disease and leaf curly caused by virus (Tobacco leaf curl virus). Effective way to reduce this disease were having spraying trees with Malathion every month once to control insect. Sometimes wilt leaf caused by bacteria Pseudomonas solanacearum. All tree have been infected must be extracted and burn

Anthracnose Leaf Spot Red Hamama

Bacterial wilt Leaf mosaic

Leaf spot which is known as cercospora leaf spot originate from fungus Xanthomoas. Symptom: Leaf become hurt and riddle Red hamama - crinkled leaf, curly, leaf being small and tree stunt. Leaf will curve down. Leaf colour become silver and fall Anthracnose fruit - originate from fungus attack. spread quickly. Fallen and damaged fruit

INSECT AND DISEASE CONTROL
Disease Leaf spot Anthracnose fruit Leaf Flea Red Hamama Bent leaf and mosaic leaf Bacterial wilt Control Spray Benomyl (Fungicide) Spray mancozeb (Fungicide) Spray chlorphyrifos (Insecticide) Spray dicofol or malathion (a) (b) This disease spread out by leaf flea. Therefore, must control leaf flea. Dump and fire diseased tree

No effective chemical control. Dump and fire diseased tree

HARVERSTING

Harvesting can be make when the tree achieved 12 to 16 week. Average yield 16-20 tan/ha Harvesting can be make each 3 or 4 day once. harvesting can be made according to destination marketing (for eating fresh or to processed as product side) Chilli can be harvesting after 60-75 day after planting. (depend on variety)

Production Cost / hectare
Item Input material cost • Seed • Fertilizer
Chicken dung Lime NPK 12:12:17:2

quantity 0.5 kg @ RM50
5 ton @ RM120 2.5 ton @ RM100 30 bag @ RM43

cost ( RM ) 25.00
600.00 250.00 1290.00

• • • •

Chemical poison Silver shine plastic Basket Contingency

8% from total of material cost 40 roll @ RM70 160 pieces 10% from total of material cost

488.40 2800.00 480.00 659.34

Total amount I Input cost energy per day (p.e)@ RM15.00 • Soil preparation • Seedling • Transplant • To assemble supporter and wire • Watering • Weed controlling • Fertilization • Controlling pest and disease • Harvesting Total amount II Fix cost • Soil tax • Depreciation Watering equipment • Other planting material Total amount III Total production cost ( I+II+III ) 8 month @ RM 15/year 8 month @ RM 1600/year contract 25 energy per day 10 energy per day 2 energy per day 10 energy per day 12 energy per day 17 energy per day 30 energy per day 180 energy per day

7252.74 400.00 75.00 150.00 30.00 150.00 180.00 255.00 450.00 2700.00 4370.00 10.75 1066.75 120.00 1196.67 12839.41

Estimate farmer income and turn over price ( Example : Yield 15000kg / on price RM2.00 / kg )

Item b.Gross income c.Production cost d.Net income e.Return for each investment ( RM ) f.Break-even price ( production cost/kg)

Use family energy (RM) 30000.00 8849.41 21150.59 3.40 0.59

Use wage energy (RM) 30000.00 12839.41 17160.59 2.34 0.86

Crop name : Tomato

Intr oductio n
 fruit vegetable type  Short life expectancy  Originate from America South – tropical climate  In Malaysia - Cameron Highland, Johor.  Market– fresh and processed

Cr op R equir eme nt
 weather
   Suitable to high land >1000m Temperature 180 – 320c Rain at 460mm

 soil
 Suitable for various type of soil ( sands mixture, BRIS, peat )  Good drainage  pH 5.5 – 8.0

The proposed of Cultivar
Plant attribute Plant habit Cultivar L 24 Straight, leafy dan continuous (indetermin ate) MT 1 Straight, leafly, moderate, half continuous (semidetermina te) MT 11 leafly, half continuous (indeterminat e) Serdang 2 straight, leafly, half continuous (indetermin ate) King Kong ( F1) straight, half continuous (indeterminate)

Weight

Big Small (> 60 g/seed) (25-30 g/seed) red fresh Light red Fresh/process

Moderate Moderate (40-80 g/seed) (40-80 g/seed) Red fresh 15-28 tan/ha Red fresh 20-25 tan/ha

Big (100-150g/seed) Red fresh 25-30 tan/ha

Colour Used Crops

18-30 tan/ha 15-25 tan/ha

Cultural practices

Work programmer for tomato / hectare Activity Day
- 46 Seedling preaparation (for >10000 plant) Seed treatmeant spraying foliar fertilizer

Input material
Seedling box Plastic bag •beds
• •

Note Rate
70 10000 5 3g/1000g seed Based on label Saiz 60X60cm Saiz 12X12cm Saiz 100X15cm seed cultivation = deep 0.5cm spray one time for 1 week until transplant Spraying when need Rate of mineral soil Mix in beds -

-40 -30

Thiram Leaf fertilizer

-26 -16 -14 -7 -3

Disease, and pest control Area Cleaning Liming Base fertilizer Layout, bed preparation, close bed with plastic Transplant seedling Infill fertilization

Chemical poison tractor GML Chiken dung Tractor Plastik silver shine sapling sapling NPK 12:12:17:2

Based on label 3-5 tan/ha 5 tan/ha 40 roll

0 7 14

1 plant/ hole 300 kg/ha

0.6 X 0.6m distance broadcast fertilizer around plant

15

Disease, and pest control

Chemical poison Chemical poison NPK 12:12:17:2

Based on label

Need to prevent

27

Disease, and pest control

Based on label

Need to prevent

28

Fertilization ii

600 kg/ha

Sown fertilizer around plant

30

Weeds control

Chemical poison Wood support Chemical poison Chemical poison

Based on label

Weedicice spraying in between seed bed. Need to prevent

32 40

To fix support & wire Disease, and pest control

16000 trunk Based on label

42 54

To cut off/trim Disease, and pest control

Based on label

Remove sidebud and leafly. Need to prevent

55

Weeds control

Chemical poison NPK 12:12:17:2

Based on label

Weedicide spraying in between seed bed. Sown fertilizer surroundings plant Period of time = crops 30-45 day Need to prevent

56

Fertilization ii

600 kg/ha

56-60

Crops

Basket

-

68

Disease, and pest control

Chemical poison

Based on label

82

Disease, and pest control

Chemical poison

Based on label

Need to prevent

96

Disease, and pest control

Chemical poison

Based on label

Need to prevent

Seedling Preparation
  

 

Using a high quality seeds treated seed with fungicide (thiram) Plant seed at least 6 week under insect proof netted 10% more than the number of crops Three way seedling
1. 2. 3.

Polibeg seedling Box seedling bed seedling

Bed seedling
 Medium

7:3:2  Seed depth 0.5cm with the distance 5cm  dredge by dry soil to close seed  Shower bed and construct shading those made from transparent plastic

fertilization at seedling stage beginning at third week  Foliar fertilizer (foliar) characterized by NPK spray type  If there were pest infestation sign, spray with insecticide as chlorpyrifos

Land Preparation
Ground clearance  Tillage and bed preparation  Plough and tilth - depth as 22cm  Bed form 1.2m broad X 20 – 30cm high Liming  Do if pH's value land <5  1-2 week before seedling plant  Liming material – Ground Magnesium Limestone (GML)  Rate – 3 - 5 ton / ha

Cultivation At The Farm
Change seedling when 5-6 week after sow  Distance proposed is 60cm X 60cm  After a week, dead and unhealthy seedling must be infill.

Water Management
Irrigation system sprinkle is proposed  High efficiency and low workforce requirement  Cost between RM5000 – RM8000 / one hectare  Sprinkle diameter coverage 25 – 30m

Fertilization Rates of fertilization for tomatoes according to soil type
Fertilizer Type of soil Type Rate (Ton / ha / season) Time (MLT) Week after harvest -1* 2,4 & 8 -1* 2,4 & 8 Method

BRIS -Rudua -Baging

Chicken dung NPK 12:12:17:2 Chicken dung NPK 12:12:17:2

10 2 25 3

Mixing in soil surroundings plant

Ex- mine
-Sand

Chicken dung NPK 12:12:17:2 Chicken dung NPK 12:12:17:2 Chicken dung NPK 12:12:17:2

25 2 2 5 1.5

-1* 2,4 & 8 2,4 & 8 -1* 2,4 & 8

Mixing in soil surroundings plant mixing in soil surroundings plant mixing in soil surroundings plant

Peat Mineral

DISEASES MANAGEMENT
 Control

diseases and insect

 

Diseases name Part diseases Symptom

: fruit borer (Chloridea obsoleta F.) : Fruit, leaf, buds and flower : Death on young buds and flower : Use are chemical like thuringiensis, acephate after Collect all fruit and destroy

Control diseases Bacillus permethrin or 14 day. it

   

Insect name Part diseases Symptom Control diseases burn it all

: fruit fly(Bactrocera sp) : Fruit : Fruit hole. : Collect all fruit and

attractant

To control use an like methyleugenol

Diseases name Pathogen Part diseases Symptom

: Anthracnose : Colletotrichum sp : Fruit : Sunken spot with black specks Fruit drop, short shelf leaf High during rainy season

Control diseases -Use are healthy seeds - Destroy infected plants -Chemical spray before infection

Diseases name Pathogen Part diseases Symptom

: Club Rot : Sclerotium rolfsii / Rhizoctonia sp : Base of the tree : leaf look wilt Have a white spot at base of the tree finally base will be black and rotten

Control diseases - Good irrigation - Destroy the tree if get the diseases

Fruit disorder

Leaf disorder

Stem and flower disorder

WEED MANAGEMENT
 Reduce

weed prevention  Use mulching technique  For chemical control use
 Glufosinate-ammonium  Glyphosate

(0.5 kg/ha)

(0.6 kg/ha)

 Use

silver shine plastic

Estimate production cost
Production cost

Production cost include :
 

Fix cost – land tax, equipment Material cost – seed, fertilizer, poison (pesticide, weedicide, Fungicide, ect) Energy cost – wage

Item Input material cost • Seed • Fertilizer
Chicken dung Lime NPK 12:12:17:2

quantity 0.3 kg @ RM250
5 ton @ RM120 2.5 ton @ RM100 30 bag @ RM43

cost ( RM ) 75.00
600.00 250.00 1290.00

Production Cost per hectare

• • • • • •

Chemical poison Silver shine plastic Supporting stick Wire Raffia rope Contingency

8% from total of material cost 40 roll @ RM70 16000 stick @ RM0.40 15 roll @ RM43 6 roll @ RM4.50 10% from total of material cost

439.00 2800.00 320.00* 134.00** 27.00 593.00

Total amount I Input cost energy per day (p.e)@ RM15.00 • Soil preparation • Ridging • Planting • To assemble supporter and wire • Watering • Weed controlling • Fertilization • Creep of tree • Controlling pest and disease • Harvesting Total amount II Fix cosh • Soil tax • Watering equipment Total amount III Total production cost ( I+II+III ) 5 month @ RM 15/year 5 month @ RM 1800/year contract 12 energy per day 8 energy per day 20 energy per day 16 energy per day 8 energy per day 8 energy per day 6 energy per day 4 energy per day 30 energy per day

6529.30 230.00 180.00 120.00 300.00 240.00 120.00 120.00 90.00 60.00 450.00 1910.00 6.25 750.00 756.00 9195.55

Estimate farmer income and turn over price ( Example : Yield 16000kg / on price RM0.80 / kg )

Item

Use family energy (RM) 12800.00 7515.85 5284.15 1.70 0.47

Use wage energy (RM) 12800.00 9195.00 3604.15 1.39 0.57

• • • • •

Gross income Production cost Net income Return for each investment ( RM ) Break-even price ( production cost/kg)

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