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INTRODUCTION TO CHLOR ALKALI PLANT

By: C.S.Babu AVP (CA)

Contents

Overview of Chlor Alkali Industry in India Introduction of Chlor Alkali Plant (RIL(DMD)) Process Description Process Control

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OVERVIEW OF CHLOR ALKALI INDUSTRY IN INDIA

Overview of Chlor Alkali Industry in India


Region wise distribution of Chlor Alkali Industries In India
14 12 10 8 6 4 2

Ref: AMAI

No. of Industry

Total Chlor Alkali Plants in india 34 Total Production Capacity 29.11 Lacs MTPA as on 31.03.2008

0 Region East West North South

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Major Chlor Alkali Plants in India


Reliance Industries Ltd, Dahej G A C L, (Vadodara, Dahej) GRASIM, Nagda DCM (Kota, Jhagadia) UPL Unit -5, Jhagadia Indian Rayon, Veeraval Punjab Alkalies & Chemicals Limited, Nangal Chemfab Alkalies, Pondicheri TATA Chemicals Ltd, Mithapur
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Types of Manufacturing Process


Process based Plant Distribution in India
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Membrane Cell Process Mercury Cell Process Diaphragm Cell Process Other

No. of Industry

25 20 15 10 5 0
Technology

Direct oxidation of HCl with Oxygen or Air


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Mercury

Membrane

Diaphragm

INTRODUCTION OF CHLOR ALKALI PLANT RIL(DMD)

Chlor Alkali Plant (CA)


Date of Commissioning 31st March, 1997 Designed Capacity


Caustic 133600 MTA Chlorine 118500 MTA

Capacity Expansion

Caustic 165600 MTA Chlorine 140000 MTA

Date of Capacity Expansion 10th Nov 2004 Process Licensor: UHDE, Gmbh Engg. Contractor: Uhde India Limited
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Caustic Concentration Unit (CCU)


Process Licensor: Bertrams Engg. Contractor : Kilburn engg. Designed Capacity:


Caustic Flakes: 150MT/Day Caustic Prills : 150 MT/Day

Date of Commissioning: 31st August,1998

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Major Equipments in the Plant


Electrolysers Chlorine, Hydrogen & Air Compressor Rectiformers Refrigeration units ( Ammonia Compression & VAR) Centrifuges, clarifier, filters Caustic Evaporation Unit (CEU) Caustic Concentration Unit (CCU) Prilling tower
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Awards Won

Fourth place in Green Rating of Caustic Chlorine Industry by CSE.

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Major Records Achieved

Daily

494 MT

Monthly
Yearly

:
:

15170 MT
164524 MT

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Manpower

Total Supervisory Non supervisory Process Maintenance

: : : : :

130 50 80 70 60

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PROCESS DESCRIPTION

Major Products & Byproducts

Products

Caustic Chlorine Hydrogen 30 %HCl Sodium Hypochlorite Spent Acid


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By Products

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Feed Stock Option & Sourcing


Major raw material is industrial grade salt. It is sourced from salt suppliers from the local areas such as

Gandhar Dahej Jambusar Nada Bhavnagar


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UTILITIES

Cooling Water Chilled water DM Water Filter Water MP Steam LP Steam LP Condensate Plant Air Instrument Air Nitrogen Power
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Chemical Consumption

Barium Carbonate Sodium Carbonate Sodium Hydroxide Sodium By Sulphite Alfa Cellulose Flocculent Sugar 25 % HCl 98 % Sulphuric Acid
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Process Overview
98% H2SO4

Salt chemicals

Primary Brine

Secondary Brine

Cl2 Treatment

HCl Unit

CHLORINE CAUSTIC

S Rectifo rmer Power

H2 Unit G CELL

HCL
HYPO

HOUSE
Waste Air Dechlorination

HYDROGEN 78% H2SO4

Utilities

Anolyte Dechlorination

Catholyte system

CEU Waste water Treatment L CCU

SOLID WASTE
LIQUID WASTE SCRUBBED NON TOXIC GAS

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Primary & Secondary Brine Unit


Salt Handling & Storage Brine Saturation Brine Precipitation Brine Clarification Brine Filtration Brine Polishing Secondary Brine Purification Pure Brine Heat Conditioning Chlorate Destruction Unit Anolyte Dechlorination Catholyte Section
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Cell House

Electrolysers

Series of Cell Elements


Cathode Pan Anode Pan Membrane

Electrolyser Work Shop

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Chlorine System

Chlorine Cooling Chlorine Drying Chlorine Compression Chlorine Liquefaction Chlorine Evaporation Chlorine Storage

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Hydrogen System

Hydrogen Cooling Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen Compression

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Caustic Evaporation & Concentration Unit


Multiple Effect Evaporation Caustic Concentration Caustic Flaking Caustic Prilling

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Other Units

HCl Synthesis Unit Waste Air dechlorination Unit Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Unit Ammonia Compression Refrigeration System

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PROCESS CONTROL

Advance Process Control Features


DCS by Tata Honeywell, TDC 3000 PC-PLC by Tata Honeywell Siemens PLC for burner Siemens PLC for chlorine compressor Allen Bradley PLC for Rectiformers

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ENERGY CONSERVATION

Energy Conservation Features


Membrane cell technology Heat recovery interchangers VAR Captive use of Hydrogen Partial bypassing of chlorine liquefier

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ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

Environmental Consideration

WAD is designed to take care of 10 minutes of total chlorine production.

Extra dump tank 18% Caustic in WAD section


HCl vent gases are treated with 18% caustic.. O2 analyser in molten salt furnace stack.

Operating philosophy is to keep minimum Cl2 inventory. only i.e. Approximately 50 MT. SLF for solid waste. Neutralizations and circulation facilities in effluent pit. Two PH analysers are also present. Chlorine Detectors
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Wastes Management
Waste Generated Brine Sludge Waste Disposal Option Secured & Simple Landfill Cell

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Liquid Effluent Neutralization Pit at Plant & CETP Waste & Used Oil Incineration Oily & Cotton Waste Incineration Gaseous Waste Chlorine HYPO Stack HCl HCL Stack Molten Salt Molten Salt Furnace Stack 6/8/2013 Hydrogen Hydrogen Stack

SAFETY

Potential Chemical Hazards

In CA Plant we handle Hazardous Chemicals as listed below.


Caustic (32%,48%,98.5% solid) Chlorine 98% Sulphuric Acid 78% Sulphuric Acid 30% HCL Ammonia Sodium Hypochlorite Hot Brine

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Potential Fire Hazards


Hydrogen Ammonia Molten Salt Dowtherm Oil Lubrication oils and Diesel Plastic Piping Electric Short Circuit
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Process Safety Consideration


Trips / Interlocks by DCS for process plant. HCl furnace interlocks are hardwired. Cl2 compressor interlocks are hardwired. N2 purging in molten salt furnace stack. N2 purging in HCl furnace - after tripping.

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Process Safety Consideration


Process design for safe startup, operation and S/D. Remote Control operation for chlorine supply to VCM. Specific measures taken to avoid explosion in cell house between hydrogen & chlorine. On line analyser provided for hydrogen in chlorine sniff gas. N2 purging system whenever electrolyser is cutout. implemented for avoiding popping. This was based on M/s UHDE recommendation.
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Process Safety Consideration


Fire water network provided in the entire plant. Fire and smoke detection alarm system. Cl2 detectors in plant area (26 nos). H2 detectors in cell house, H2 area. Safety showers provided at various locations. Breathing air line provided in critical Cl2 areas. Cl2 safety valve vents connected to WAD

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Mechanical Safety Consideration

Suitable MOC used for corrosive services: Cell house : Pans - Titanium /Nickel Suitable plastic metallurgy for wet chlorine / caustic services. For dry chlorine service - LTCS/ Carbon steel. PVC - FRP piping for H2SO4 service. PVDF for chlorate destruction. Ti/Ni / Haste alloy-C for exchanger. Safety valves with rupture disc with failure indication in DCS in chlorine service after compressor. Pumps are double mechanical seal in caustic ,Hypo and H2SO4 service.
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Safety Consideration for Chlorine Handling & Storage


5 bullets with always one bullet kept as spare. Alternate measuring devices for level. Automatic closure of liquid chlorine inlet at high level. Remote operated on/off valves. Bellow seal valves in chlorine service. Double safety valves along with rupture disks to prevent high pressure.
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Safety Consideration for Waste Air Dechlorination Unit


Three stage scrubbing. Dumping of caustic from overhead tank incase of fast temperature increase. Dosing based on redox. UPSV to prevent higher vacuum. Remote operated auto standby system. Emergency power supply includes DG set.
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COST ECONOMICS

Cost of Production
Sr. No. Description 1 2 3 Raw Material By Product (Credit) Catalyst & Chemicals Amount (Rs / MT) 603 236 403

4
5

Utilities
Consumables Total

3942
396 5109

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SALES & DISTRIBUTION

Sales & Distribution


Chlrone Caustic Lye Caustic Flakes 30 % HCL Sodium Hypochlorite Spent Acid Hydrogen Vinyal Chloride Monomer Plant PTD PTD Marketing Department Marketing Department Marketing Department Internal consumption by CA plant & sent to GCU & HDPE Plant
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End Users

Viscose Manufacture Pulp and paper industries Soaps and detergents Chemical industry Nitrite and Nitrate Manufacture Alumina Industry RIL market share is 10%.
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Thank you
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