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A mat foundation is primarily a shallow foundation. In essence, it is an expanded continuous footing and is usually analyzed in the same way.
Mat foundations are sometimes referred to as raft foundations (especially in the UK).
and/or on relatively weak soils where q < 150 kPa. 2. or to install mechanical systems. Basements may be required to build several levels of parking. The Engineer wishes to minimize the differential settlement in variable soils.Why we select Mat foundations? 1. The area covered by the individual footings exceeds 50% of the structural plan area. etc. The Engineer wishes to take full advantage of the soil’s increasing bearing capacity with depth by excavating basements. access to a subway station. and thereby seek a fully or a partially compensated foundation. The building requires a deep basement and below the phreatic surface (WT). 4. 3. This is usually the case for buildings higher than 10-stories. 2 . or if pockets of extremely weak soils are known to be present.
Expansive soils. 1. mainly from the Montmorillite/Smectite group. sandy glacial deposits.Problem Soils That May Necessitate the Use of Mat Foundations. Problems involved are excessive settlements. 3 . Densification occurs by the movement of grains to reduce the volume. Typically includes shallow subsidence. containing swelling clays. In arid and Semiarid region. Collapsing soils such as the settlement of loose sands and silts. and low shear strength. 3. low bearing capacity. which increase in volume when absorbing water and shrink when loosing it. Highly plastic clays in some glacial deposits and in coastal plains and offshore areas there can be significant amounts of compressible soils. Semi-arid and semi-humid areas with swelling clays are the most severe because the soil moisture active zone has the greatest thickness under such conditions. May occur in sandy coastal plain area. Climate is closely related to the severity of the problem. Foundation supports should be placed below the active soil zone. and alluvial deposits. 2. Compressible soils occur in highly organic soils including some glacial deposits and certain flood plain areas.
Types of Mat foundations 6 .
Types of Mat foundations 7 .
Compensated mat foundation 9 .
Analysis of Rigid Mats The analysis of a mat by assuming that it is rigid simplifies the soil pressures to either a uniform condition or varying linearly. Hence. 11 . the corner stress is. This is attained by not permitting R (the resultant force) to fall outside the kern of the mat.
Analysis and Design Procedure for Rigid Mats 12 .
Analysis and Design Procedure for Rigid Mats 13 .
5 m by 21. 15 .5 m mat shown in the figure.Example Using the Independent Strip Method. analyze and design the 16.
Solution 20 .
Solution 23 .