Chp.12 Cont.
–
Examples
to design Footings
Example
Design a square footing to support a 18 in. square
column tied interior column reinforced with 8 #9
bars. The column carries an unfactored axial dead
load of 245 k and an axial live load of 200 k. The
base of the footing is 4 ft. below final grade and
allowable soil pressure is 5 k/ft
2
Use f
c
= 3 ksi and
f
y
= 60 ksi
Example 1
Assume a depth of footing. (2 ft or 24 in.) The
weight of concrete and the soil are:
2 3
c
lb/ft 300
in. 12
ft. 1
* in. 24 * lb/ft 150 = = = d W ¸
2 3
s s s
lb/ft 200
in. 12
ft. 1
* in. 24 ft 4 * lb/ft 100 =


.

\

÷ = = d W ¸
Example 1
The effective soil pressure is given as:
2 2
2 2 2
s c s eff
k/ft 5 . 4 lb/ft 4500
lb/ft 200 lb/ft 300 lb/ft 5000
¬ =
÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ = W W q q
Example 1
Calculate the size of the footing:
ft 10 Use ft 94 . 9 footing of Side
ft 98.9
k/ft 5 . 4
k 445
footing of Area
k 445 k 200 k 245 Loads Actual
2
2
¬ =
= =
= + = + = LL DL
Example 1
Calculate net upward pressure:
( ) ( )
2
2
n
ft k / 6.83
ft 00 1
k 83 6
pressure upward Net
k 683 k 200 1.7 k 245 4 . 1
7 . 1 4 . 1 Loads Actual
= =
= + =
+ =
q
LL DL
Example 1
Calculate the depth of the reinforcement use # 8 bars
with a crisscrossing layering.
( )
in. 5 . 19
in 0 . 1 5 . 1 in 3 in. 24
5 . 1 cover
b
=
÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ =
d
d h d
Example 1
Calculate perimeter for twoway shear or
punch out shear. The column is 18 in.
square.
( )
( )
( ) ft 125 . 3
in 12
ft 1
in. 5 . 19 in. 18
in. 150 in. 5 . 19 in. 18 4
4
o
=


.

\

+ = +
= + =
+ =
d c
d c b
Example 1
Calculate the shear V
u
( )
( ) k 616 ft 125 . 3 k/ft 6.83 k 683
2
2
2
n u u
= ÷ =
+ ÷ = d c q P V
1
ft 10
ft 10
= = 
The shape parameter
Example 1
Calculate d value from the shear capacity according to
11.12.2.1 chose the largest value of d
d b f V
0 c
c
c
4
2


.

\

+ =

d b f V
0 c c
4 =
d b f
b
d
V
0 c
o
s
c
2


.

\

+ =
o o
s
is 40 for interior, 30 for edge
and 20 for corner column
Example 1
The depth of the footing can be calculated by using
two way shear
( ) ( )
in. 1 . 19
in 150 4000 4 0.85
k 1
lb 1000
k 616
4
0 c
u
=


.

\

= =
b f
V
d

Example 1
The second equation b
o
is dependent on d so use the
assumed values and you will find that d is smaller and
o = 40
( )
( ) ( )
in. 6 . 10
in 150 4000 2
in 150
in 9.5 1 40
0.85
k 1
lb 1000
k 616
2
40
0 c
o
u
=


.

\

+


.

\

=


.

\

+
=
b f
b
d
V
d

Actual (d =14.02324 in.)
b
o
=128.93 in
Example 1
The depth of the footing can be calculated
by using oneway shear
( )
( )( ) k 3 . 179 ft 625 . 2 ft 10 k/ft 83 . 6
2 2
2
2 n u
= =


.

\

÷ ÷ = d
c L
l q V
ft 625 . 2
in 12
ft 1
in 5 . 19
2
in 12
ft 1
in 18
2
ft 10
2 2
=





.

\



.

\

÷


.

\

÷ =


.

\

÷ ÷ d
c L
Example 1
The depth of the footing can be calculated by using
oneway shear
in. 9 . 13
ft 1
in 12
ft 10 4000 2 0.85
k 1
lb 1000
k 3 . 179
2
c
u
=


.

\



.

\



.

\



.

\

= =
b f
V
d

The footing is 19.5 in. > 13.9 in. so it will work.
Example 1
Calculate the bending moment of the footing at the
edge of the column
ft 25 . 4
2
in 12
ft 1
in 18
2
ft 10
2 2
=





.

\



.

\

÷ =


.

\

÷
c L
( )
( )
( ) ft  k 8 . 616 ft 10
2
ft 25 . 4
ft 25 . 4 k/ft 83 . 6
2
2 2
2 2
n u
= =


.

\

÷


.

\

÷ = b
c L
c L
q M
Example 1
Calculate R
u
for the footing to find µ of the footing.
( ) ( )
ksi 1622 . 0
in 5 . 19 * in 120
ft 1
in. 12
* ft  k 8 . 616
bd
R
2
2
u
u
=


.

\

= =
M
Example 1
From R
u
for the footing the µ value can be found.
( )
( )
( )
( )
0031 . 0
ksi 60
ksi 4 04632 . 0
04632 . 0
04632 . 0
2
ksi 4 9 . 0
ksi 1622 . 0
7 . 1 4 7 . 1 7 . 1
0
7 . 1
7 . 1 59 . 0 1
c
y
2
c
u
2
c u
= = ¬ =
=



.

\



.

\

÷ ÷
=
= + ÷ ¬ ÷ =
µ
µ
e

e e e e
f
f
f
R
f R
Example 1
Compute the area of steel needed
( )
2
s
in 23 . 7 in. 5 . 19
ft 1
in. 12
ft 10 00309 . 0 =


.

\



.

\

= = bd A µ
The minimum amount of steel for shrinkage is
( )( )
2
s
in 18 . 5 in. 24 in. 120 0018 . 0 0018 . 0 = = = bh A
The minimum amount of steel for flexure is
( )( )
2
y
s
in 8 . 7 in. 9.5 1 in. 120
60000
200
200
=


.

\

= = bd
f
A
Use :
Example 1
Use a #7 bar (0.60 in
2
) Compute the number of bars
need
bars 13 Use 13
in 60 . 0
in 8 . 7
2
2
b
s
¬ = = =
A
A
n
Determine the spacing between bars
( )
( )
in 5 . 9
12
in 3 2  in 120
1
cover * 2
= =
÷
÷
=
n
L
s
Example 1
Check the bearing stress. The bearing strength N
1
, at
the base of the column, 18 in x 18 in.,  = 0.7
( ) ( )( ) ( ) k 771 in 18 ksi 4 85 . 0 7 . 0 85 . 0
2
1 c 1
= = = A f N 
The bearing strength, N
2
, at the top of the footing is
1
1
2
1 2
2 N
A
A
N N s =
Example 1
The bearing strength, N
2
, at the top of the footing is
( ) k 1542 k 771 2 2 2 6.67
ft 25 . 2
ft 100
1 2
2
2
1
2
= = = ¬ > = = N N
A
A
( )
2
2
1
2
2
2
ft 25 . 2
in. 12
ft 1
in 18
ft 100 ft 10
=


.

\



.

\

=
= =
A
A
Example 1
P
u
=683 k < N
1
, bearing stress is adequate. The
minimum area of dowels is required.
( )
2
2
1
in 62 . 1 in 18 * 005 . 0 005 . 0 = = A
Use minimum number of bars is 4, so use 4 # 8 bars
placed at the four corners of the column.
Example 1
The development length of the dowels in compression
from ACI Code 12.3.2 for compression.
( )( )
in 19 Use in 97 . 18
psi 4000
psi 60000 in 1 02 . 0
02 . 0
c
y b
d
¬ = = =
f
f d
l
The minimum l
d
, which has to be greater than 8 in., is
( )( ) in 8 in 18 psi 60000 in 1 0003 . 0 0003 . 0
y b d
> = = = f d l
Example 1
Therefore, use 4#8 dowels in the corners of
the column extending 19 in. into the column
and the footing. Note that l
d
is less than the
given d = 19.5 in., which is sufficient
development length.
Example 1
The development length, l
d
for the #7 bars for the
reinforcement of the footing.
( )( )
in 5 . 41
psi 4000 20
in 875 . 0 psi 60000
20 20
c
b y
d
c
y
b
d
= = = ¬ =
f
d f
l
f
f
d
l
There is adequate development length provided.
in 48
2
in 18
in 3
2
in 120
2
cover
2
d
= ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
c L
l
Example 1  Final Design
Example 2
Design a footing to support a 18 in. square column
tied interior column reinforced with 8 #9 bars.
The column carries an unfactored axial dead load
of 245 k and an axial live load of 200 k. The base
of the footing is 4 ft. below final grade and
allowable soil pressure is 5 k/ft
2
Use f
c
= 3 ksi and
f
y
= 60 ksi. Limit one side of the footing to 8.5 ft.
Example 2
Assume a depth of footing. (2 ft or 24 in.) The
weight of concrete and the soil are:
2 3
c
lb/ft 300
in. 12
ft. 1
* in. 24 * lb/ft 150 = = = d W ¸
2 3
s s s
lb/ft 200
in. 12
ft. 1
* in. 24 ft 4 * lb/ft 100 =


.

\

÷ = = d W ¸
Example 2
The effective soil pressure is given as:
2 2
2 2 2
s c s eff
k/ft 5 . 4 lb/ft 4500
lb/ft 200 lb/ft 300 lb/ft 5000
¬ =
÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ = W W q q
Example 2
Calculate the size of the footing:
ft 12 Use ft 64 . 11
ft 5 . 8
ft 98.9
footing of Side
ft 98.9
k/ft 5 . 4
k 445
footing of Area
k 445 k 200 k 245 Loads Actual
2
2
2
¬ = =
= =
= + = + = LL DL
Example 2
Calculate net upward pressure:
( ) ( )
( )( )
2
n
ft k / 6.70
ft 2 1 ft .5 8
k 83 6
pressure upward Net
k 683 k 200 1.7 k 245 4 . 1
7 . 1 4 . 1 Loads Actual
= =
= + =
+ =
q
LL DL
Example 2
Calculate the depth of the reinforcement use # 8 bars
with a crisscrossing layering.
( )
in. 5 . 19
in 0 . 1 5 . 1 in 3 in. 24
5 . 1 cover
b
=
÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ =
d
d h d
Example 2
( )
( )( ) k 4 . 206 ft 625 . 3 ft .5 8 k/ft 7 . 6
2 2
2
2 n u
= =


.

\

÷ ÷ = d
c L
l q V
ft 625 . 3
in 12
ft 1
in 5 . 19
2
in 12
ft 1
in 18
2
ft 12
2 2
=





.

\



.

\

÷


.

\

÷ =


.

\

÷ ÷ d
c L
V
u
=150.7 k in
short direction
The depth of the footing can be calculated
by using the oneway shear (long direction)
Example 2
The depth of the footing can be calculated by using
oneway shear design
in. 8 . 18
ft 1
in 12
ft .5 8 4000 2 0.85
k 1
lb 1000
k 4 . 206
2
c
u
=


.

\



.

\



.

\



.

\

= =
b f
V
d

The footing is 19.5 in. > 18.8 in. so it will work.
Example 2
Calculate perimeter for twoway shear or
punch out shear. The column is 18 in.
square.
( )
( )
( ) ft 125 . 3
in 12
ft 1
in. 5 . 19 in. 18
in. 150 in. 5 . 19 in. 18 4
4
o
=


.

\

+ = +
= + =
+ =
d c
d c b
Example 2
Calculate the shear V
u
( )
( ) k 6 . 617 ft 125 . 3 k/ft 6.7 k 683
2
2
2
n u u
= ÷ =
+ ÷ = d c q P V
41 . 1
ft 8.5
ft 12
= = 
The shape parameter
Example 2
Calculate d from the shear capacity according to
11.12.2.1 chose the largest value of d.
d b f V
0 c
c
c
4
2


.

\

+ =

d b f V
0 c c
4 =
d b f
b
d
V
0 c
o
s
c
2


.

\

+ =
o o
s
is 40 for interior, 30 for edge
and 20 for corner column
Example 2
The depth of the footing can be calculated for the
two way shear
( )
in. 8 . 15
in 150 4000
41 . 1
4
2 0.85
k 1
lb 1000
k 6 . 617
4
2
0 c
u
=


.

\



.

\

+


.

\

=


.

\

+
=
b f
V
d


Example 2
The third equation b
o
is dependent on d so use the assumed
values and you will find that d is smaller and o = 40
( )
( ) ( )
in. 64 . 10
in 150 4000 2
in 150
in 9.5 1 40
0.85
k 1
lb 1000
k 6 . 617
2
40
0 c
o
u
=


.

\

+


.

\

=


.

\

+
=
b f
b
d
V
d

Actual (d =14.032 in.)
b
o
=128.173 in
Example 2
The depth of the footing can be calculated by using
the two way shear
( ) ( )
in. 14 . 19
in 150 4000 4 0.85
k 1
lb 1000
k 6 . 617
4
0 c
u
=


.

\

= =
b f
V
d

Example 2
Calculate the bending moment of the footing at the edge of
the column (long direction)
ft 25 . 5
2
in 12
ft 1
in 18
2
ft 12
2 2
=





.

\



.

\

÷ =


.

\

÷
c L
( )
( )
( ) ft  k 8 . 784 ft .5 8
2
ft 25 . 5
ft 25 . 5 k/ft 7 . 6
2
2 2
2 2
n u
= =


.

\

÷


.

\

÷ = b
c L
c L
q M
Example 2
Calculate R
u
for the footing to find µ of the footing.
( )
ksi 2428 . 0
in 5 . 19 *
ft 1
in 12
ft 8.5
ft 1
in. 12
* ft  k 8 . 784
bd
R
2
2
u
u
=


.

\



.

\



.

\

= =
M
Example 2
Use the R
u
for the footing to find µ.
( )
( )
( )
( )
00469 . 0
ksi 60
ksi 4 07036 . 0
07036 . 0
07036 . 0
2
ksi 4 9 . 0
ksi 2428 . 0
7 . 1 4 7 . 1 7 . 1
0
7 . 1
7 . 1 59 . 0 1
c
y
2
c
u
2
c u
= = ¬ =
=



.

\



.

\

÷ ÷
=
= + ÷ ¬ ÷ =
µ
µ
e

e e e e
f
f
f
R
f R
Example 2
Compute the amount of steel needed
( )
2
s
in 33 . 9 in. 5 . 19
ft 1
in. 12
ft 5 . 8 00469 . 0 =


.

\



.

\

= = bd A µ
The minimum amount of steel for shrinkage is
( )( )
2
s
in 41 . 4 in. 24 in. 102 0018 . 0 0018 . 0 = = = bh A
The minimum amount of steel for flexure is
( )( )
2
y
s
in 63 . 6 in. 9.5 1 in. 102
60000
200
200
=


.

\

= = bd
f
A
Example 2
Use A
s
=8.36 in
2
with #8 bars (0.79 in
2
). Compute
the number of bars need
bars 12 Use 8 . 11
in 79 . 0
in 33 . 9
2
2
b
s
¬ = = =
A
A
n
Determine the spacing between bars
( )
( )
in 73 . 8
11
in 3 2  in 102
1
cover * 2
= =
÷
÷
=
n
L
s
Example 2
Calculate the bending moment of the footing at the edge of
the column for short length
ft 5 . 3
2
in 12
ft 1
in 18
2
ft .5 8
2 2
=





.

\



.

\

÷ =


.

\

÷
c L
( )
( )
( ) ft  k 5 . 492 ft 12
2
ft 5 . 3
ft 5 . 3 k/ft 7 . 6
2
2 2
2 2
n u
= =


.

\

÷


.

\

÷ = b
c L
c L
q M
Example 2
Calculate R
u
for the footing to find µ of the footing.
( )
ksi 1079 . 0
in 5 . 19 *
ft 1
in 12
ft 12
ft 1
in. 12
* ft  k 92.5 4
bd
R
2
2
u
u
=


.

\



.

\



.

\

= =
M
Example 2
Use R
u
for the footing to find µ.
( )
( )
( )
( )
00203 . 0
ksi 60
ksi 4 0305 . 0
0305 . 0
0305 . 0
2
ksi 4 9 . 0
ksi 1079 . 0
7 . 1 4 7 . 1 7 . 1
0
7 . 1
7 . 1 59 . 0 1
c
y
2
c
u
2
c u
= = ¬ =
=



.

\



.

\

÷ ÷
=
= + ÷ ¬ ÷ =
µ
µ
e

e e e e
f
f
f
R
f R
Example 2
Compute the amount of steel needed
( )
2
s
in 72 . 5 in. 5 . 19
ft 1
in. 12
ft 12 00203 . 0 =


.

\



.

\

= = bd A µ
The minimum amount of steel for shrinkage is
( )( )
2
s
in 22 . 6 in. 24 in. 144 0018 . 0 0018 . 0 = = = bh A
The minimum amount of steel for flexure is
( )( )
2
y
s
in 36 . 9 in. 9.5 1 in. 144
60000
200
200
=


.

\

= = bd
f
A
Example 2
Use A
s
=9.36 in
2
with #6 bar (0.44 in
2
) Compute the
number of bars need
bars 22 Use 3 . 21
in 44 . 0
in 36 . 9
2
2
b
s
¬ = = =
A
A
n
Calculate the reinforcement bandwidth
83 . 0
1 41 . 1
2
1
2
ent reinforcem Total
bandwidth in ent Reinforcem
=
+
=
+
=


.

\


Example 2
The number of bars in the 8.5 ft band is 0.83(22)=19 bars .
So place 19 bars in 8.5 ft section and 2 bars in each in
(12ft 8.5ft)/2 =1.75 ft of the band.
bars 2 Use 5 . 1
2
19 22
2
bars band  bars # Total
bar # outside ¬ =
÷
= =
Example 2
Determine the spacing between bars for the band of 8.5 ft
( )
in 67 . 5
18
in 102
1
= =
÷
=
n
L
s
Determine the spacing between bars outside the band
in 9
2
3in  in 1 2 cover
= =
÷
=
n
L
s
Example 2
Check the bearing stress. The bearing strength N
1
, at
the base of the column, 18 in x 18 in.,  = 0.7
( ) ( )( ) ( ) k 771 in 18 ksi 4 85 . 0 7 . 0 85 . 0
2
1 c 1
= = = A f N 
The bearing strength, N
2
, at the top of the footing is
1
1
2
1 2
2 N
A
A
N N s =
Example 2
The bearing strength, N
2
, at the top of the footing is
( ) k 1542 k 771 2 2 2 6.67
ft 25 . 2
ft 100
1 2
2
2
1
2
= = = ¬ > = = N N
A
A
( )
2
2
1
2
2
2
ft 25 . 2
in. 12
ft 1
in 18
ft 100 ft 10
=


.

\



.

\

=
= =
A
A
Example 2
P
u
=683 k < N
1
, bearing stress is adequate. The
minimum area of dowels is required.
( )
2
2
1
in 62 . 1 in 18 * 005 . 0 005 . 0 = = A
Use minimum number of bars is 4, so use 4 # 8 bars
placed at the four corners of the column.
Example 2
The development length of the dowels in compression
from ACI Code 12.3.2 for compression.
( )( )
in 19 Use in 97 . 18
psi 4000
psi 60000 in 1 02 . 0
02 . 0
c
y b
d
¬ = = =
f
f d
l
The minimum l
d
, which has to be greater than 8 in., is
( )( ) in 8 in 18 psi 60000 in 1 0003 . 0 0003 . 0
y b d
> = = = f d l
Example 2
Therefore, use 4#8 dowels in the corners of
the column extending 19 in. into the column
and the footing. Note that l
d
is less than the
given d = 19.5 in., which is sufficient
development length.
Example 2
The development length, l
d
for the #8 bars
( )( )
in 4 . 47
psi 4000 20
in 0 . 1 psi 60000
20 20
c
b y
d
c
y
b
d
= = = ¬ =
f
d f
l
f
f
d
l
There is adequate development length provided.
in 60
2
in 18
in 3
2
in 144
2
cover
2
d
= ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
c L
l
Example 2
The development length, l
d
for the #6 bars
( )( )
in 5 . 28
psi 4000 25
in 75 . 0 psi 60000
25 25
c
b y
d
c
y
b
d
= = = ¬ =
f
d f
l
f
f
d
l
There is adequate development length provided.
in 39
2
in 18
in 3
2
in 102
2
cover
2
d
= ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
c L
l
Example 2  Final design
12 #8 23 #6