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KULIAH 4: PERKEMBANGAN

PEMIKIRAN SAINTIFIK & KAEDAH SAINTIFIK

Penciptaan atau Teori Evolusi


Tuhan Menciptakan Manusia 1. Hidupan sel tunggal muncul dari air/lautan 2. Hidupan sel tunggal menjelma menjadi tumbuhan dan binatang (reptilia) 3. Sesetengah reptilia menjelma menjadi mamalia 4. Mamalia (beruk) menjelma menjadi manusia

Charles Darwin 1809-1882


Menerbitkan buku pada tahun 1859 bertajuk On the Origin of Species. Menggunakan pendekatan evolusi (kemajuan dari satu peringkat ke peringkat yang seterusnya) untuk menerangkan kewujudan manusia. Berdasarkan kajian fosil, beliau mengatakan bahawa hidupan akan berubah berdasarkan adaptation dan natural selection.

AGAMA
Sumber Pengetahuan Pendekatan Aktiviti Kitab & Tafsiran Kepercayaan Diterima & Diamalkan

FALSAFAH
Renungan Spekulatif Pemikiran Pemikiran oleh Individu Penghujahan Secara Logik Menghasilkan Pernyataan Umum yang Diterima Akal

SAINS
Penyelidikan Empirikal Ketidakpercayaan (Skepticism) Kerja Kumpulan (Paradigma) Penghujahan Secara Logik & Bukti Empirikal Menghasilkan Penerangan Spesifik Tentang Alam Nyata

Perkembangan Serba lengkap/Benar Matlamat Memberi Pengajaran

Falsafah dan Kepercay aan

Geometry dan matematik

Bahasa sebagai falsafah

Falsafah Yunani

Sains, falsafah & kepercayaan

Sains Eropah

Sains Islam

Ciri-ciri Kaedah Saintifik

Konflik Antara Ahli Sains & Gereja Katholik

Ahli Geometri Yunani Euclid (sekitar 300 S.M)

Ahli Matematik Yunani Pythagoras (570 - 490 S.M.)

HUBUNGAN ANTARA TIGA BIDANG ILMU


SISTEM KEPERCAYAAN (TERMASUK AGAMA) FALSAFAH (RASIONAL) SAINS

ADAKAH SAINS DAN AGAMA SEMESTINYA BERKONFLIK?

PERISTIWA BERSEJARAH: REVOLUSI SAINTIFIK DI EUROPAH KURUN KE-15 DAN KE-16 & KEMUNCUALAN KAEDAH SAINTIFIK

Penulis drama Yunani Aristophanes (446 - 386 B.C.)


Youth ages, immaturity is outgrown, ignorance can be educated, and drunkenness sobered, but stupidity remains forever. Muda-mudi menjadi tua, kebudakan menjadi kematangan, kejahilan dapat dididik, mabuk menjadi sedar, tetapi kebodohan kekal abadi.

Perkembangan Revolusi Saintifik


FASA 4 FASA 1 Aristotle (ahli falsafah Yunani) Mengandaik an Matahari & Semua Planet Mengelilingi Bumi (Tahun) FASA 2 Ptolemy (Ahli matematik Yunani) Melakarkan Model yang Sewajar, Lengkap dengan Kiraan Matematik FASA 3 Niklaus Copernicus (Ahli Matematik) Melakarkan Model Cakerawala yang Heliocentric) Galileo memperjuangkan Model Sistem Cakerawala yang Heliocentric)

FASA 4 Isaac Newton Dan Teori Graviti

Aristotle and Ptolemy


Kesan Pengaruh Yunani: Nama-nama Planet Pengajaran Aristotle: Aristotles belief in a (1) geocentric universe and his belief that (2) the weight of a falling object is proportional to is acceleration. The influence of Aristotlelian philosophy. [The problem of philosophy and science.] Claudius Ptolemy, 2nd century Greek matematik, under the strong influence of Aristotlelian philosophy writes the Mathematical Syntaxis. The book provides a rational and empirical basis for a geocentric universe. Percubaan Ahli Sains Islam (dan juga ahli sains Eropah) untuk membetulkan model geocentric Ptolemy.

The Catholic Church and the Western Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries
Penerangan tentang Institusi ini: Semasa dan Dalam Sejarah

The Inquisition
The Inquisitions by the Catholic Church in Western Europe drive against heresy during the 15th and 16th centuries. Tens of thousands of people were jailed and sometimes even tortured and executed if they were suspected of committing heresy.
The Witch Hunts

Niklaus Copernicus (1473-1543)


Official Church teaching in the 15th and 16th century was still based on a geocentric universe. Copernicus, a monk in the Catholic Church, writes On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres, which in contradiction to Ptolemys Mathematical Syntaxis depicts the solar system as heliocentric. The book was finished by 1530 but was first published in 24 May 1543. There were only ten Copernicans between 1543 and 1600, among one Gallileo Gallilei, a professor at the University of Pisa, Italy.

Galileo Gallilei (1564-1642)


In 1589, Galileo becomes professor of mathematics at the University of Pisa, Italy. Conducts experiments in Pisa to show students the error of Aristotles belief that speed of an objects fall its proportional to its weight. Galileos contract not renewed in 1592. In 1592, joins the University of Padua and builds a telescope in 1609 to study the heavens. Publishes his work and predicts victory for the Copernican theory.

Galileos Experiment, Pisa, Italy.

Galileo (cont)
Reactions from Pisan academics and priests denouncing that Galileos belief in a heliocentric universe is heretical In 1624, Galileo begins a book he wishes to call Dialogue on the Tides in which he discusses the Ptolemaic and Copernican hypotheses. In 1630, the book was licensed for printing by Catholic Church censors at Rome, but they altered the title to Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems. Published 1632.

Hero of the Scientific Revolution


Galileo called up by the Inquisition. Was compelled in 1633 to renounce his claim and was sentenced to life imprisonment (later commuted to permanent house arrest). The Dialogue ordered to be burned, and he sentence against him was to be read publicly in every university.

Isaac Newton (1642-1727) and the Scientific Revolution


In 1687, Isaac Newtons Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy provided a final justification for a heliocentric universe. Newtons principle of F (force) = M (mass) x A (acceleration) [F=ma] provided the underlying cause for a heliocentric universe.

Ciri-Ciri Kaedah Saintifik


1. Logik 2. Empirisisme 3. Sebab Pokok (Sebab Mendalam) 1. Model Copernicus 2. Bukti Melalui Pemerhatian Teleskop (Galileo) 3. Teori Graviti (F=ma)

Ptolemaic (Greek) Cosmology

Islamic Cosmology

COPERNICAN COSMOLOGY