An introduction

By Jacob Coverstone
Jcoverstone@aao.org I have no financial interest to disclose.

Objectives
Attendees will be able to:  Define Needs Assessment  Create and utilize an outline for conducting a Needs Assessment  Understand types of identified needs
 Normative  Relative  Expressed  Perceived

When do you conduct a Needs Assessment?  A Needs Assessment takes place before the activity is designed. .

C4.2. E2. C18. C19.  If you conduct a proper Needs Assessment. C3. C16. C22.3] . E2. C6. E2. C21.Why do you conduct a Needs Assessment?  The purpose of a Needs Assessment is to make decisions regarding priorities for the program.1. you will address or support 9 of the 22 Updated Criteria and 3 of 7 Essential Elements [C2.

Needs Assessments are about Evidence  Can you answer:  “what evidence do we have that our audience needs this education?”  “what evidence do we have that our solution will yield positive results?”  “what is the reason that we are offering education in this format?” .

“It depends on what the meaning of the word 'is' is” – Former President Bill Clinton  Definitions 1:  Gap  Need  Want  Assessment  Needs Assessment .

• Assessment is the evaluation of needs. . • Needs are contributing factors – What needs to be resolved to help close a gap.Definitions 1 • Gaps – The space between what currently exists and what should exist. – Needs often relate to barriers • Wants are possible solutions – A proposed means to filling the gap. barriers and resources.

and determining the methods to achieve improvement.Definitions 1. continued. . So important.  Needs Assessment is the process of identifying and measuring areas for improvement in a target audience. it has its own slide.

What goes into a Needs Assessment?  Normative data  Evaluations  Objectives  Opinion  Timelines  Barriers  Resources “What does it take to get your activity off the ground?” .

So… what is a Needs Assessment? Pre-Assessment Assessment Needs Assessment Action Plan .

“What do we know?”  This is the foundation of Gap Analysis  What is the current state?  Where should we be?  How does our region compare to others?  What’s new?  What’s important? .Phases of a Needs Assessment  Pre-Assessment  Data collection.

Phases of a Needs Assessment • Assessment – Evaluation of the data • What are our barriers? – • • Both internal and external What Needs have we identified? Are some gaps bigger than others? Consider both scope and severity – • • • What are our priorities? Do we have the resources to address them? Why do anything at all? .

Phases of a Needs Assessment • Action Plan – How are we going to translate what we have into what they need? • • Which Needs can we address? How are we overcoming barriers? – List additional barriers hindering progress • Have any areas been identified for follow-up or future opportunities for educational intervention? .

Gathering Data  Search for objective measures:  Scope: How many. or what percent. of patients are exposed/vulnerable/expected to suffer from…  Severity: What are the consequences?  Discomfort? Pain? Blindness? Can we do better?  Are there national standards for treatment?  .

and we're wearing sunglasses. The Blues Brothers . we got a full tank of gas.” . half a pack of cigarettes. it's dark.Assessment.Elwood Blues. an example: “It's 106 miles to Chicago.

 Needs (gaps) are identified in 4 ways:  Types of Need     Normative Relative Expressed Perceived .It's not what you know. it's how you know it.

authority.  Strength:  Allows planners to use objective targets Need levels change with time and must be re-evaluated  Weakness:  .Types of Need  Normative  Defined as falling below a standard criterion established by custom. or general consensus.

 Relative  Measured by the gap between the level of service between similar communities  Strength:  Can lead to a priority for distribution of limited resources Limits resource allocation to under-performing areas  Weakness:  .Types of Need. cont.

 Expressed  Defined in terms of the number of people who actually have sought help  Strength:   Focuses on situations where people have taken action Helps to determine barriers  Weakness:    Not all people with Needs seek help Loss of the bigger picture Misses latent Needs . cont.Types of Need.

 Perceived  Defined in terms of what people think their needs are or feel their needs to be  Strength:  Easy to come by Subjective Subject to the Dunning-Kruger effect  Weakness:   . cont.Types of Need.

.Problems must be translated into Needs  Strive to answer all 4 types of Need.  Each type of need paints a different picture of the gap.

Needs are translated into Objectives  But that’s another talk… .

the richer the planning process and the more effective the education.  A Needs Assessment is conducted before the activity is planned.  The more types of need you consider. “What gets measured gets managed” – Peter Drucker. .  Pre-Assessment is not enough.Remember  Want and Need are not synonyms.