CAM Systems & CNC Machine Overview - Lecture 3

Overview to Computer Aided Manufacturing ENGR-2963 - Fall 2005 Class Manager - Sam Chiappone

History

1955 - John Parsons and US Air Force define a need to develop a machine tool capable of machining complex and close tolerance aircraft parts with the same quality time after time (repeatability). MIT is the subcontractor and builds the machine for the project.

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Intro to CAM Chiappone

History: Continued
 

1959 - MIT announces Automatic Programmed Tools (APT) programming language 1960 - Direct Numerical Control (DNC). This eliminates paper tape punch programs and allows programmers to send files directly to machine tools

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Intro to CAM Chiappone

History: Continued
 

1968 - Kearney & Trecker machine tool builders market first machining center 1970’s - CNC machine tools & Distributed Numerical Control 1980’s - Graphics based CAM systems introduced. Unix and PC based systems available

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Intro to CAM Chiappone

History: Continued
 

1990’s - Price drop in CNC technology 1997 - PC- Windows/NT based “Open Modular Architecture Control (OMAC)” systems introduced to replace “firmware” controllers.

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Intro to CAM Chiappone

Control Systems  Open-Loop Control – Stepper motor system – Current pulses sent from control unit to motor – Each pulse results in a finite amount of revolution of the motor001” is possible Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

and lower maintenance costs Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone . a lower torque motor  Open-Loop Advantages – Less complex. Less costly.Control Systems  Open-Loop Limitations – Control unit “assumes” desired position is achieved – No positioning compensation – Typically.

Control Systems  Closed-Loop Control – Variable DC motors .Servos – Positioning sensors -Resolvers » Feedback to control unit » Position information compared to target location » Location errors corrected Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

Control Systems  Closed-Loop Advantages – DC motors have the ability to reverse instantly to adjust for position error – Error compensation allows for greater positional accuracy (.. stepper motors  Closed-loop limitations – Cost Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .0001”) – DC motors have higher torque ranges vs.

No contouring capability Straight cut control .Three Basic Categories of Motion Systems    Point to Point .multiple axis’s controlled simultaneously Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .one axis motion at a time is controlled for machining Contouring .

Three Basic Categories of Motion Systems Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone . NC Machine Tools  Computer Numerical Control (CNC) . and response to input is determined by an on-board computer system at the machine tool.CNC vs.A numerical control system in which the data handling. control sequences.

CNC  Advantages – – – – – Increased Program storage capability at the machine tool Program editing at the machine tool Control systems upgrades possible Option -resident CAM system at machine tool Tool path verification Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

NC  Numerical Control (NC) . Limited programming capability at the machine tool. These types of systems are referred to as “hardwire controls” and were popular from the 1950’s to 1970’s.A control system which primarily processes numeric input. Limited logic beyond direct input. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

Machining Centers  A machining center can be defined as a machine tool capable of: – Multiple operation and processes in a single set-up utilizing multiple axis – Typically has an automatic mechanism to change tools Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

Machining Centers – Machine motion is programmable – Servo motors drive feed mechanisms for tool axis’s – Positioning feedback is provided by resolvers to the control system Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

” Machine may have multiple spindles. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone . external treading. cross-hole drilling.A turning center capable of OD turning.Machining Centers  Example . engraving. All in machining is accomplished in one “set-up. and milling.

Machining Centers Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone . These features are then used to generate a cutter location (CL) file. arcs. and points which define the overall part geometry locations.Programming Methods  Automatically Programmed Tools (APT) – A text based system in which a programmer defines a series of lines.

MIT. and the US Airforce – Still used today and accounts for about 5 -10% of all programming in the defense and aerospace industries Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .Programming Methods-APT – Developed as a joint effort between the aerospace industry.

Programming Methods-APT – Requires excellent 3D visualization skills – Capable of generating machine code for complicated part programs » 5 axis machine tools Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

GORT/LN1.90  Cutter Commands   TLRT.20.0 C1=Circle/Center.TANTO.L5 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .Programming Methods-APT  Part definition    P1=Point/12.Radius.C1 GOFWD/C1.3 LN1=Line/C1. ATANGL.TANTO.P1.

Programming Methods-CAM  Computer Aided Machining (CAM) Systems – – – – Graphic representation of the part PC based Integrated CAD/CAM functionality “Some” built-in expertise  Speed & feed data based on material and tool specifications Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

Programming Methods-CAM – – – – – Tool & material libraries Tool path simulation Tool path editing Tool path optimization Cut time calculations for cost estimating Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

Programming Methods-CAM – Import / export capabilities to other systems » Examples:  Drawing Exchange Format (DXF)  Initial Graphics Exchange Standard (IGES) Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

The Process CAD to NC File  Start with graphic representation of part – Direct input – Import from external system » Example DXF / IGES – 2D or 3D scan » Model or Blueprint (At this point you have a graphics file of your geometry) Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

The Process CAD to NC File  Define cutter path by selecting geometry – Contours – Pockets – Hole patterns – Surfaces – Volume to be removed (At this point the system knows what you want to cut) Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

Pocket mill zig-zag. inside-out » Rough and finish parameters (At this point the system knows how you want to cut the part) Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone . spiral.The Process CAD to NC File  Define cut parameters – Tool information » Type. Rpm. Feed – Cut method » Example .

The Process CAD to NC File   Execute cutter simulation – Visual representation of cutter motion Modify / delete cutter sequences (At this point the system has a “generic” cutter location (CL) file of the cut paths) Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

etc. – G & M function capabilities Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .feed rates. tool changer. rpm’s.The Process CAD to NC File   Post Processing – CL file to machine specific NC code Filters CL information and formats it into NC code based on machine specific parameters – Work envelope – Limits .

Output: NC Code  Numerical Control (NC) Language – A series of commands which “direct” the cutter motion and support systems of the machine tool. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

Output: NC Code        G-Codes (G00. G02.Y. G81) Coordinate data (X. G1.Tool call S .Program sequence number T .Spindle command Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .Z) Feed Function (F) Miscellaneous functions (M13) N .

5 N09 G02 X-10.Output: NC Code  NC Program Example – – – – – – – – – – N01G90 G80 N03 GOO T12 M06 N05 GOO X0 Y0 Z.1 F10 S2500 M13 N07 G1Z-. I0J0F20 N13 X0Y10 N17 X10Y0 N19 X0Y-10 N21 X-10Y0 N23 M2 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

Example of CNC Programming  What What Must Be Done To Drill A Hole On A CNC Vertical Milling Machine Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

) X & Y Rapid To Hole Position Front View Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .Tool Home Top View 1.

100” Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .) Turn On Spindle Front View .) Z Axis Rapid Move Just Above Hole 3.) Turn On Coolant 4.Top View 2.

Top View 5.) Z Axis Feed Move to Drill Hole Front View Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

Top View 6.) Rapid Z Axis Move Out Of Hole Front View Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

) X&Y Axis Rapid Move Home Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .Top View 7.) Turn Off Coolant Front View 9.) Turn Off Spindle 8.

1 M08 N020 G01 Z-.5 N025 G00 Z.0 Y1.1 M09 N030 G91 G28 X0 Y0 Z0 N035 M30 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .Here’s The CNC Program! Tool At Home Top View Front View O0001 N005 G54 G90 S600 M03 N010 G00 X1.0 N015 G43 H01 Z.75 F3.

Tool At Home Top View O0001 O0001 Number Assigned to this program Front View Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

Tool At Home Top View O0001 N005 G54 G90 S600 M03 N005 G54 G90 S600 M03 Sequence Number Fixture Offset Absolute Programming Mode Spindle Speed set to 600 RPM Spindle on in a Clockwise Direction Front View Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

0 Y1.0 in. from Zero Y Coordinate 1.0 Rapid Motion X Coordinate 1.0 in.0 G00 X1.0 Y1. from Zero Front View Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .Top View O0001 N005 G54 G90 S600 M03 N010 G00 X1.

0 N015 G43 H01 Z.1 M08 Tool Length Compensation Specifies Tool length compensation Z Coordinate .0 Y1.1 in.1 M08 G43 H01 Z.Top View O0001 N005 G54 G90 S600 M03 N010 G00 X1. from Zero Flood Coolant On Front View Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

Top View O0001 N005 G54 G90 S600 M03 N010 G00 X1.0 N015 G43 H01 Z.0 Y1.5 Straight Line Cutting Motion Z Coordinate -.75 F3. Front View Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone ./min. from Zero Feed Rate set to 3.5 G01 Z-.1 M08 N020 G01 Z-.75 in.5 in.75 F3.

from Zero Coolant Off Intro to CAM Chiappone Front View Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute .Top View O0001 N005 G54 G90 S600 M03 N010 G00 X1.1 in.5 N025 G00 Z.0 Y1.1 M09 G00 Z.0 N015 G43 H01 Z.1 M09 Rapid Motion Z Coordinate .1 M08 N020 G01 Z-.75 F3.

Y0.Top View O0001 N005 G54 G90 S600 M03 N010 G00 X1. Z0 X.75 F3.1 M09 N030 G91 G28 X0 Y0 Z0 G91 Incremental Programming Mode G28 Zero Return Command X0.& Z Coordinates at Zero Front View Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .5 N025 G00 Z.0 Y1.Y.1 M08 N020 G01 Z-.0 N015 G43 H01 Z.

0 Y1.5 N025 G00 Z.1 M09 N030 G91 G28 X0 Y0 Z0 N035 M30 M30 End of Program Intro to CAM Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute .1 M08 N020 G01 Z-.75 F3.0 N015 G43 H01 Z.Top View Front View O0001 N005 G54 G90 S600 M03 N010 G00 X1.

Canned Cycles Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .Output: NC Code .

CAD to NC Code Import File DXF IGES Geometry Direct input Post Process CL File Tool Path Generation What you want to cut How you want to cut Tool Type Rpm’s – Feeds Method Canned cycles Cut direction NC Code N1 G80 G90 N3 G0 T01 M06 N5 G0 X0 Y0 OEM Custom Language Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

Advantages of CNC Machine Tools     Ease of part duplication Flexibility Repeatability Quality control through process control Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

Advantages of CNC Machine Tools     Accommodates simple to complex parts geometry Improved part aesthetics Increased productivity Technology costs are decreasing Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

Advantages of CNC Machine Tools      Reduced set-up time Reduced lead times Reduced inventory Better machine utilization Job advancement opportunities Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

conventional cutting.Climb milling requires about 10 .Advantages of CNC Machine Tools  CNC machine tools are more rigid than conventional machine tools – $$$.15 % less horsepower vs. but requires a ridged machine tool with no backlash – Increased Rpm’s and feeds Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Intro to CAM Chiappone .

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