Advanced Power Systems

Dr. Kar
U of Windsor


Dr. Kar
271 Essex Hall
Email: nkar@uwindsor.ca
Office Hour: Thursday, 12:00-2:00 pm
http://www.uwindsor.ca/users/n/nkar/88-514.nsf


GA: TBA
B20 Essex Hall
Email: TBA & TBA
Office Hour: -----



Course Text Book:
 Electric Machinery Fundamentals by Stephen J. Chapman, 4
th
Edition,
McGraw-Hill, 2005
 Electric Motor Drives – Modeling, Analysis and Control by R. Krishnan Pren.
Hall Inc., NJ, 2001
 Power Electronics – Converters, Applications and Design by N. Mohan, J.
Wiley & Son Inc., NJ, 2003
 Power System Stability and Control by P. Kundur, McGraw Hill Inc., 1993
 Research papers

Grading Policy:

Attendance (5%)
Project (20%)
Midterm Exam (30%)
Final Exam (45%)
Course Content
 Working principles, construction, mathematical modeling,
operating characteristics and control techniques for synchronous
machines
 Working principles, construction, mathematical modeling,
operating characteristics and control techniques for induction
motors
 Introduction to power switching devices
 Rectifiers and inverters
 Variable frequency PWM-VSI drives for induction motors
 Control of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) systems
Exam Dates
 Midterm Exam:

 Final Exam:
Term Projects

Group 1:
Student 1 (---@uwindsor.ca)
Student 2 (---@uwindsor.ca)
Student 3 (---@uwindsor.ca)
Project Title:

Group 2:
Student 1 (---@uwindsor.ca)
Student 2 (---@uwindsor.ca)
Student 3 (---@uwindsor.ca)

Project Title:

Group 3:
Student 1 (---@uwindsor.ca)
Student 2 (---@uwindsor.ca)
Student 3 (---@uwindsor.ca)


Synchronous Machines
 Construction
 Working principles
 Mathematical modeling
 Operating characteristics



CONSTRUCTION
1. Most hydraulic turbines have to turn at low speeds
(between 50 and 300 r/min)

2. A large number of poles are required on the rotor
Hydrogenerator
Turbin
e
Hydro (water)
D

~

10

m
Non-
uniform air-
gap
N
S S
N
d-axis
q-axis
Salient-Pole Synchronous Generator
Salient-Pole Synchronous Generator
Stator
Cylindrical-Rotor Synchronous Generator
Stator
Cylindrical rotor
Damper Windings
Operation Principle
The rotor of the generator is driven by a prime-mover


A dc current is flowing in the rotor winding which
produces a rotating magnetic field within the machine


The rotating magnetic field induces a three-phase
voltage in the stator winding of the generator
Electrical Frequency
Electrical frequency produced is locked or synchronized to
the mechanical speed of rotation of a synchronous
generator:




where f
e
= electrical frequency in Hz
P = number of poles
n
m
= mechanical speed of the rotor, in r/min
120
P n
f
m
e
=
Direct & Quadrature Axes
Stator
Uniform air-gap
Stator winding
Rotor
Rotor winding
N
S
Turbogenerator
d-axis
q-axis
PU System
Quantity Base
Quantity Actual
Value PU =
| |
| |
| | | | | |
| |
| |
| | | |
| |
| |
| |
base
ohm
PU
base
base
base
base
base
base
base
base
base
base base base
base base base base base base
base
base
base
Z
Z
Z
V
I
Y
VA
V
S
V
I
V
Z X R
I V VA S Q P
V
VA
I
=
=
= = = = =
= = = =
=
2 2
Per unit system, a system of dimensionless parameters, is used for
computational convenience and for readily comparing the performance
of a set of transformers or a set of electrical machines.
Where ‘actual quantity’ is a value in volts, amperes, ohms, etc.
[VA]
base
and [V]
base
are chosen first.
Classical Model of Synchronous Generator

 The leakage reactance of the armature coils, X
l
 Armature reaction or synchronous reactance, X
s
 The resistance of the armature coils, R
a
 If saliency is neglected, X
d
= X
q
= X
s
I
a

E o
V
t
0
o
jX
s
jX
l
R
a

+





+





Equivalent circuit of a cylindrical-rotor synchronous machine
Phasor Diagram
o
|
E
I
a
I
a
X
l

I
a
X
s

q-axis
V
t

I
a
R
a

d-axis
The following are the parameters in per unit on machine rating of a 555
MVA, 24 kV, 0.9 p.f., 60 Hz, 3600 RPM generator

L
ad
=1.66 L
aq
=1.61 L
l
=0.15 R
a
=0.003

(a) When the generator is delivering rated MVA at 0.9 p. f. (lag) and rated
terminal voltage, compute the following:

(i) Internal angle δ
i
in electrical degrees
(ii) Per unit values of e
d
, e
q
, i
d
, i
q
, i
fd
(iii) Air-gap torque T
e
in per unit and in Newton-meters

(b) Compute the internal angle δ
i
and field current i
fd
using the following
equivalent circuit

Direct and Quadrature Axes
 The direct (d) axis is centered magnetically in the center of the north
pole
 The quadrature axis (q) axis is 90
o
ahead of the d-axis
 u: angle between the d-axis and the axis of phase a
 Machine parameters in abc can then be converted into d/q frame using u
 Mathematical equations for synchronous machines can be obtained from
the d- and q-axis equivalent circuits
 Advantage: machine parameters vary with rotor position w.r.t. stator, u,
thus making analysis harder in the abc axis frame. Whereas, in the d/q
reference frame, parameters are constant with time or u.
 Disadvantage: only balanced systems can be analyzed using d/q-axis
system
d- and q-Axis Equivalent Circuits
I
fd

X
fd

R
fd
X
l


d

I
kd1

I
md

V
td

R
a

I
d

X
kd1

X
md

R
kd1

¢
q

d-axis
v
fd
+
-

fd
+
+ -
-

kd1
X
l

÷ ¢
d


q

I
kq1

I
mq

V
tq

R
a

I
q

X
kq1

X
mq

R
kq1

q-axis
+
-

kq1
I
md
=-I
d
+I
fd
+I
kd1
I
mq
=-I
q
+I
kq1
Small disturbances in a power system
o Gradual changes in loads
o Manual or automatic changes of excitation
o Irregularities in prime-mover input, etc.
Importance of steady-state stability
o Knowledge of steady-state stability provides valuable information about
the dynamic characteristics of different power system components and
assists in their design
- Power system planning
- Power system operation
- Post-disturbance analysis
Related Terms
o Generator Modeling using the d- and q-axis equivalent circuits
o Transmission System Modeling with a RL circuit
o A Small Disturbance is a disturbance for which the set of equations
describing the power system may be linearized for the purpose of analysis
o Steady-State Stability is the ability to maintain synchronism when the
system is subjected to small disturbances
o Loss of synchronism is the usual symptom of loss of stability
o Infinite Bus is a system with constant voltage and constant frequency,
which is the rest of the power system
o Eigen values and eigen vectors are used to identify system steady-state
stability condition
The Flux Equations
( )
fd md kd md d l md d
i X i X i X X + + + ÷ =
1
¢
( ) ( )
fd md kd kd md d md kd
i X i X X i X + + + ÷ =
1 1 1
¢
( )
fd fd md kd md d md fd
i X X i X i X + + + ÷ =
1
¢
( )
1 kq mq q l mq q
i X i X X + + ÷ = ¢
( )
1 1 1 kq kq mq q mq kq
i X X i X + + ÷ = ¢
Rearranged Flux Linkage equations
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ ÷ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

1
1
1
1
1
1
kq
q
fd
kd
d
kq mq mq
mq l mq
fd md md md
md kd md md
md md l md
kq
q
fd
kd
d
i
i
i
i
i
X X X
X X X
X X X X
X X X X
X X X X
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
The Voltage Equations
( )
q d a td d
i R v p ¢ ¢
e
+ + =
0
1
( )
1 1 1
0
1
kd kd kd
i R p ÷ = ¢
e
( )
fd fd fd fd
i R v p ÷ = ¢
e
0
1
( )
d q a tq q
i R v p ¢ ¢
e
÷ + =
0
1
( )
1 1 1
0
1
kq kq kq
i R p ÷ = ¢
e
……………..(1)
The Mechanical Equations
| |
d q q d e
e m
I I T
T T
H dt
d
dt
d
¢ ¢
e e
e e
o
÷ =
÷ =
÷ =
2
0
0
where
……………..(2)
Linearized Form of the Machine Model
| |
q d d q d q q d e
e m
kq kq kq
d
d q a tq q
f d f d f d f d
kd kd kd
q
q d a td d
I I I I T
T T
H
i R
i R v
i R v
i R
i R v
¢ ¢ ¢ ¢
e
e
e o
¢
e
e
e
¢
¢ ¢
e
¢
e
¢
e
e
e
¢
¢ ¢
e
A ÷ A ÷ A + A = A
A ÷ A = A
A = A
A ÷ = A
A ÷ A ÷ A + A = A
A ÷ A = A
A ÷ = A
A + A + A + A = A
-
-
-
-
-
-
0 0 0 0
0
1 1 1
0
0
0
0
0
1 1 1
0
0
0
0
2
1
1
1
1
1
……………..(3)
Terminal Voltage
The d- and q-axis components of the machine terminal voltage
can be described by the following equations:
where, V
t
is the machine terminal voltage in per unit.

The linearized form of V
td
and V
tq
are:
o
o
cos
sin
t tq
t td
V v
V v
=
=
………………………….(4)
o o
o o
A - ÷ = A
A - = A
0
0
sin
cos
t tq
t td
V v
V v
……………………….…(5)
Substituting ∆V
td
and ∆V
tq
in the flux equations:
| |
q d d q d q q d e
e m
kq kq kq
d
d q a t q
f d f d f d f d
kd kd kd
q
q d a t d
I I I I T
T T
H
i R
i R V
i R v
i R
i R V
¢ ¢ ¢ ¢
e
e
e o
¢
e
e
e
¢
¢ o o ¢
e
¢
e
¢
e
e
e
¢
¢ o o ¢
e
A ÷ A ÷ A + A = A
A ÷ A = A
A = A
A ÷ = A
A ÷ A ÷ A + A - ÷ = A
A ÷ A = A
A ÷ = A
A + A + A + A - = A
-
-
-
-
-
-
0 0 0 0
0
1 1 1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1 1 1
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
sin
1
1
1
cos
1
……..(6)
Rearranging the flux equations in a matrix form:
| || | | || | | || | U B I R X S X A + A + A =
(
¸
(

¸

A
-
| |
(
¸
(

¸

A
A
= A
m
f d
T
v
U
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

A
A
A
A
A
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

A
1
1
kq
q
fd
kd
d
I
I
I
I
I
I
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
=
(
¸
(

¸

A
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
e
o
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
1
1
kq
q
f d
kd
d
X
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

A
e
o
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
1
1
kq
q
f d
kd
d
X
where,
………………...…..(7)
and…
| |
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷ ÷ ÷
=
0 0 0
2
0
2
0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
sin 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
cos 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
H
I
H
I
V
V
S
d
q
d t
q t
e
e
¢ o e e
¢ o e e
| |
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
÷
÷
=
0
2
0
2
0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0
1 0
0
1 0
0
0
H H
R
R
R
R
R
R
d
q
kq
a
kd
a
f d
¢ e
¢ e
e
e
e
e
e
| |
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
H
B
2
0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0
0
0
e
e
Flux Linkage Equations (from the d- and q-axis equivalent circuits)
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) (
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ ÷ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

1
1
1
1
1
1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
kq
q
f d
kd
d
kq mq mq
mq l mq
f d md md md
md kd md md
md md l md
kq
q
f d
kd
d
i
i
i
i
i
X X X
X X X
X X X X
X X X X
X X X X
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) (
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

A
A
A
A
A
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ ÷ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

A
A
A
A
A
1
1
1
1
1
1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
kq
q
f d
kd
d
kq mq mq
mq l mq
f d md md md
md kd md md
md md l md
kq
q
f d
kd
d
i
i
i
i
i
X X X
X X X
X X X X
X X X X
X X X X
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
Linearized flux linkage equations:
and thus,
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
| |
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ ÷ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

A
A
A
A
A
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ ÷ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

A
A
A
A
A
÷
÷
e
o
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
e
o
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
kq
q
f d
kd
d
reac
kq
q
f d
kd
d
kq mq mq
mq l mq
f d md md md
md kd md md
md md l md
kq
q
f d
kd
d
kq mq mq
mq l mq
f d md md md
md kd md md
md md l md
kq
q
f d
kd
d
X
X X X
X X X
X X X X
X X X X
X X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X X
X X X X
X X X X
i
i
i
i
i
………………………………………...(8)
| || | | || | | || |
| || | | || | | | | || |
| | | || | | || | | || |
| || | | || | U B X A
U B X X R S
U B X X R X S
U B I R X S X
reac
reac
A + A =
A + A + =
A + A + A =
A + A + A =
(
¸
(

¸

A
÷
÷
-
1
1
| | | | | | | | X X X
i
i
i
i
i
I
reac
kq
q
f d
kd
d
reac
kq
q
f d
kd
d
A =
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

A
A
A
A
A
= A
÷ ÷ 1
1
1
1
1
1
e
o
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
| | | | | || | | |
1 ÷
+ =
reac
X R S A
where,
: from (8)
: inserting (8) into (7)
: system state matrix
………..(9)
System to be Studied
Infinite Bus

Generator

V
t
I
t
System State Matrix and Eigen Values
| | | | | || | | |
1 ÷
+ =
reac
X R S A
1
ì
2
ì
u
o
e j
System State Matrix:
Eigen Values: e o ì ì j ± ÷ =
2 1
,
Eigen Values
o Eigen values are the roots of the characteristic equation


o Number of eigen values is equal to the order of the characteristic
equation or number of state variables
o Eigen values describe the system response ( ) to any disturbance


| || | | || | U B X A X A + A =
(
¸
(

¸

A
-
t
e
1
ì
Analyzing the Eigen Values of the System State Matrix
o Compute the eigen values of the system state matrix, A
o The eigen values will give necessary information about the steady-state
stability of the system
o Stable System: If the real parts of ALL the eigen values are negative

Example:

o A system with the above eigen values is on the verge of instability
0005 . 0
0 . 2 15 . 0 ,
3
2 1
÷ =
± ÷ =
ì
ì ì j
Machine Parameters
Machine parameters Per unit values
d-axis magnetizing reactance, X
md
1.189
q-axis magnetizing reactance, X
mq
0.7164
Armature leakage reactance, X
l
0.100
Field circuit leakage reactance, X
fd
0.276
First d-axis damper circuit leakage reactance, X
kd1
0.181
First q-axis damper circuit leakage reactance, X
kq1
0.193
Armature winding resistance, R
a
0.0186
Field winding resistance, R
fd
0.0058
First d-axis damper winding resistance, R
kd1
0.062
First q-axis damper winding resistance, R
kq1
0.052
Salient-pole synchronous generator
3kVA, 220V, 4-pole, 60 Hz and 1800 r/min

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