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Dr. Kar
U of Windsor
Dr. Kar
271 Essex Hall
Email: nkar@uwindsor.ca
Office Hour: Thursday, 12:002:00 pm
http://www.uwindsor.ca/users/n/nkar/88514.nsf
GA: TBA
B20 Essex Hall
Email: TBA & TBA
Office Hour: 
Course Text Book:
Electric Machinery Fundamentals by Stephen J. Chapman, 4
th
Edition,
McGrawHill, 2005
Electric Motor Drives – Modeling, Analysis and Control by R. Krishnan Pren.
Hall Inc., NJ, 2001
Power Electronics – Converters, Applications and Design by N. Mohan, J.
Wiley & Son Inc., NJ, 2003
Power System Stability and Control by P. Kundur, McGraw Hill Inc., 1993
Research papers
Grading Policy:
Attendance (5%)
Project (20%)
Midterm Exam (30%)
Final Exam (45%)
Course Content
Working principles, construction, mathematical modeling,
operating characteristics and control techniques for synchronous
machines
Working principles, construction, mathematical modeling,
operating characteristics and control techniques for induction
motors
Introduction to power switching devices
Rectifiers and inverters
Variable frequency PWMVSI drives for induction motors
Control of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) systems
Exam Dates
Midterm Exam:
Final Exam:
Term Projects
Group 1:
Student 1 (@uwindsor.ca)
Student 2 (@uwindsor.ca)
Student 3 (@uwindsor.ca)
Project Title:
Group 2:
Student 1 (@uwindsor.ca)
Student 2 (@uwindsor.ca)
Student 3 (@uwindsor.ca)
Project Title:
Group 3:
Student 1 (@uwindsor.ca)
Student 2 (@uwindsor.ca)
Student 3 (@uwindsor.ca)
Synchronous Machines
Construction
Working principles
Mathematical modeling
Operating characteristics
CONSTRUCTION
1. Most hydraulic turbines have to turn at low speeds
(between 50 and 300 r/min)
2. A large number of poles are required on the rotor
Hydrogenerator
Turbin
e
Hydro (water)
D
~
10
m
Non
uniform air
gap
N
S S
N
daxis
qaxis
SalientPole Synchronous Generator
SalientPole Synchronous Generator
Stator
CylindricalRotor Synchronous Generator
Stator
Cylindrical rotor
Damper Windings
Operation Principle
The rotor of the generator is driven by a primemover
A dc current is flowing in the rotor winding which
produces a rotating magnetic field within the machine
The rotating magnetic field induces a threephase
voltage in the stator winding of the generator
Electrical Frequency
Electrical frequency produced is locked or synchronized to
the mechanical speed of rotation of a synchronous
generator:
where f
e
= electrical frequency in Hz
P = number of poles
n
m
= mechanical speed of the rotor, in r/min
120
P n
f
m
e
=
Direct & Quadrature Axes
Stator
Uniform airgap
Stator winding
Rotor
Rotor winding
N
S
Turbogenerator
daxis
qaxis
PU System
Quantity Base
Quantity Actual
Value PU =
 
 
     
 
 
   
 
 
 
base
ohm
PU
base
base
base
base
base
base
base
base
base
base base base
base base base base base base
base
base
base
Z
Z
Z
V
I
Y
VA
V
S
V
I
V
Z X R
I V VA S Q P
V
VA
I
=
=
= = = = =
= = = =
=
2 2
Per unit system, a system of dimensionless parameters, is used for
computational convenience and for readily comparing the performance
of a set of transformers or a set of electrical machines.
Where ‘actual quantity’ is a value in volts, amperes, ohms, etc.
[VA]
base
and [V]
base
are chosen first.
Classical Model of Synchronous Generator
The leakage reactance of the armature coils, X
l
Armature reaction or synchronous reactance, X
s
The resistance of the armature coils, R
a
If saliency is neglected, X
d
= X
q
= X
s
I
a
E o
V
t
0
o
jX
s
jX
l
R
a
+
+
Equivalent circuit of a cylindricalrotor synchronous machine
Phasor Diagram
o

E
I
a
I
a
X
l
I
a
X
s
qaxis
V
t
I
a
R
a
daxis
The following are the parameters in per unit on machine rating of a 555
MVA, 24 kV, 0.9 p.f., 60 Hz, 3600 RPM generator
L
ad
=1.66 L
aq
=1.61 L
l
=0.15 R
a
=0.003
(a) When the generator is delivering rated MVA at 0.9 p. f. (lag) and rated
terminal voltage, compute the following:
(i) Internal angle δ
i
in electrical degrees
(ii) Per unit values of e
d
, e
q
, i
d
, i
q
, i
fd
(iii) Airgap torque T
e
in per unit and in Newtonmeters
(b) Compute the internal angle δ
i
and field current i
fd
using the following
equivalent circuit
Direct and Quadrature Axes
The direct (d) axis is centered magnetically in the center of the north
pole
The quadrature axis (q) axis is 90
o
ahead of the daxis
u: angle between the daxis and the axis of phase a
Machine parameters in abc can then be converted into d/q frame using u
Mathematical equations for synchronous machines can be obtained from
the d and qaxis equivalent circuits
Advantage: machine parameters vary with rotor position w.r.t. stator, u,
thus making analysis harder in the abc axis frame. Whereas, in the d/q
reference frame, parameters are constant with time or u.
Disadvantage: only balanced systems can be analyzed using d/qaxis
system
d and qAxis Equivalent Circuits
I
fd
X
fd
R
fd
X
l
p¢
d
I
kd1
I
md
V
td
R
a
I
d
X
kd1
X
md
R
kd1
¢
q
daxis
v
fd
+

p¢
fd
+
+ 

p¢
kd1
X
l
÷ ¢
d
p¢
q
I
kq1
I
mq
V
tq
R
a
I
q
X
kq1
X
mq
R
kq1
qaxis
+

p¢
kq1
I
md
=I
d
+I
fd
+I
kd1
I
mq
=I
q
+I
kq1
Small disturbances in a power system
o Gradual changes in loads
o Manual or automatic changes of excitation
o Irregularities in primemover input, etc.
Importance of steadystate stability
o Knowledge of steadystate stability provides valuable information about
the dynamic characteristics of different power system components and
assists in their design
 Power system planning
 Power system operation
 Postdisturbance analysis
Related Terms
o Generator Modeling using the d and qaxis equivalent circuits
o Transmission System Modeling with a RL circuit
o A Small Disturbance is a disturbance for which the set of equations
describing the power system may be linearized for the purpose of analysis
o SteadyState Stability is the ability to maintain synchronism when the
system is subjected to small disturbances
o Loss of synchronism is the usual symptom of loss of stability
o Infinite Bus is a system with constant voltage and constant frequency,
which is the rest of the power system
o Eigen values and eigen vectors are used to identify system steadystate
stability condition
The Flux Equations
( )
fd md kd md d l md d
i X i X i X X + + + ÷ =
1
¢
( ) ( )
fd md kd kd md d md kd
i X i X X i X + + + ÷ =
1 1 1
¢
( )
fd fd md kd md d md fd
i X X i X i X + + + ÷ =
1
¢
( )
1 kq mq q l mq q
i X i X X + + ÷ = ¢
( )
1 1 1 kq kq mq q mq kq
i X X i X + + ÷ = ¢
Rearranged Flux Linkage equations
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+ ÷ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
1
1
1
1
1
1
kq
q
fd
kd
d
kq mq mq
mq l mq
fd md md md
md kd md md
md md l md
kq
q
fd
kd
d
i
i
i
i
i
X X X
X X X
X X X X
X X X X
X X X X
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
The Voltage Equations
( )
q d a td d
i R v p ¢ ¢
e
+ + =
0
1
( )
1 1 1
0
1
kd kd kd
i R p ÷ = ¢
e
( )
fd fd fd fd
i R v p ÷ = ¢
e
0
1
( )
d q a tq q
i R v p ¢ ¢
e
÷ + =
0
1
( )
1 1 1
0
1
kq kq kq
i R p ÷ = ¢
e
……………..(1)
The Mechanical Equations
 
d q q d e
e m
I I T
T T
H dt
d
dt
d
¢ ¢
e e
e e
o
÷ =
÷ =
÷ =
2
0
0
where
……………..(2)
Linearized Form of the Machine Model
 
q d d q d q q d e
e m
kq kq kq
d
d q a tq q
f d f d f d f d
kd kd kd
q
q d a td d
I I I I T
T T
H
i R
i R v
i R v
i R
i R v
¢ ¢ ¢ ¢
e
e
e o
¢
e
e
e
¢
¢ ¢
e
¢
e
¢
e
e
e
¢
¢ ¢
e
A ÷ A ÷ A + A = A
A ÷ A = A
A = A
A ÷ = A
A ÷ A ÷ A + A = A
A ÷ A = A
A ÷ = A
A + A + A + A = A






0 0 0 0
0
1 1 1
0
0
0
0
0
1 1 1
0
0
0
0
2
1
1
1
1
1
……………..(3)
Terminal Voltage
The d and qaxis components of the machine terminal voltage
can be described by the following equations:
where, V
t
is the machine terminal voltage in per unit.
The linearized form of V
td
and V
tq
are:
o
o
cos
sin
t tq
t td
V v
V v
=
=
………………………….(4)
o o
o o
A  ÷ = A
A  = A
0
0
sin
cos
t tq
t td
V v
V v
……………………….…(5)
Substituting ∆V
td
and ∆V
tq
in the flux equations:
 
q d d q d q q d e
e m
kq kq kq
d
d q a t q
f d f d f d f d
kd kd kd
q
q d a t d
I I I I T
T T
H
i R
i R V
i R v
i R
i R V
¢ ¢ ¢ ¢
e
e
e o
¢
e
e
e
¢
¢ o o ¢
e
¢
e
¢
e
e
e
¢
¢ o o ¢
e
A ÷ A ÷ A + A = A
A ÷ A = A
A = A
A ÷ = A
A ÷ A ÷ A + A  ÷ = A
A ÷ A = A
A ÷ = A
A + A + A + A  = A






0 0 0 0
0
1 1 1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1 1 1
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
sin
1
1
1
cos
1
……..(6)
Rearranging the flux equations in a matrix form:
         U B I R X S X A + A + A =
(
¸
(
¸
A

 
(
¸
(
¸
A
A
= A
m
f d
T
v
U
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
A
A
A
A
A
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
A
1
1
kq
q
fd
kd
d
I
I
I
I
I
I
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
=
(
¸
(
¸
A








e
o
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
1
1
kq
q
f d
kd
d
X
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
A
e
o
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
1
1
kq
q
f d
kd
d
X
where,
………………...…..(7)
and…
 
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
=
0 0 0
2
0
2
0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
sin 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
cos 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
H
I
H
I
V
V
S
d
q
d t
q t
e
e
¢ o e e
¢ o e e
 
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷
÷
÷
=
0
2
0
2
0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0
1 0
0
1 0
0
0
H H
R
R
R
R
R
R
d
q
kq
a
kd
a
f d
¢ e
¢ e
e
e
e
e
e
 
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
H
B
2
0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0
0
0
e
e
Flux Linkage Equations (from the d and qaxis equivalent circuits)
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) (
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+ ÷ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
1
1
1
1
1
1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
kq
q
f d
kd
d
kq mq mq
mq l mq
f d md md md
md kd md md
md md l md
kq
q
f d
kd
d
i
i
i
i
i
X X X
X X X
X X X X
X X X X
X X X X
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) (
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
A
A
A
A
A
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+ ÷ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
A
A
A
A
A
1
1
1
1
1
1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
kq
q
f d
kd
d
kq mq mq
mq l mq
f d md md md
md kd md md
md md l md
kq
q
f d
kd
d
i
i
i
i
i
X X X
X X X
X X X X
X X X X
X X X X
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
Linearized flux linkage equations:
and thus,
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
 
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+ ÷ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
A
A
A
A
A
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+ ÷ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
+ ÷
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
A
A
A
A
A
÷
÷
e
o
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
e
o
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
kq
q
f d
kd
d
reac
kq
q
f d
kd
d
kq mq mq
mq l mq
f d md md md
md kd md md
md md l md
kq
q
f d
kd
d
kq mq mq
mq l mq
f d md md md
md kd md md
md md l md
kq
q
f d
kd
d
X
X X X
X X X
X X X X
X X X X
X X X X
X X X
X X X
X X X X
X X X X
X X X X
i
i
i
i
i
………………………………………...(8)
        
          
          
      U B X A
U B X X R S
U B X X R X S
U B I R X S X
reac
reac
A + A =
A + A + =
A + A + A =
A + A + A =
(
¸
(
¸
A
÷
÷

1
1
        X X X
i
i
i
i
i
I
reac
kq
q
f d
kd
d
reac
kq
q
f d
kd
d
A =
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
A
A
A
A
A
= A
÷ ÷ 1
1
1
1
1
1
e
o
¢
¢
¢
¢
¢
        
1 ÷
+ =
reac
X R S A
where,
: from (8)
: inserting (8) into (7)
: system state matrix
………..(9)
System to be Studied
Infinite Bus
Generator
V
t
I
t
System State Matrix and Eigen Values
        
1 ÷
+ =
reac
X R S A
1
ì
2
ì
u
o
e j
System State Matrix:
Eigen Values: e o ì ì j ± ÷ =
2 1
,
Eigen Values
o Eigen values are the roots of the characteristic equation
o Number of eigen values is equal to the order of the characteristic
equation or number of state variables
o Eigen values describe the system response ( ) to any disturbance
      U B X A X A + A =
(
¸
(
¸
A

t
e
1
ì
Analyzing the Eigen Values of the System State Matrix
o Compute the eigen values of the system state matrix, A
o The eigen values will give necessary information about the steadystate
stability of the system
o Stable System: If the real parts of ALL the eigen values are negative
Example:
o A system with the above eigen values is on the verge of instability
0005 . 0
0 . 2 15 . 0 ,
3
2 1
÷ =
± ÷ =
ì
ì ì j
Machine Parameters
Machine parameters Per unit values
daxis magnetizing reactance, X
md
1.189
qaxis magnetizing reactance, X
mq
0.7164
Armature leakage reactance, X
l
0.100
Field circuit leakage reactance, X
fd
0.276
First daxis damper circuit leakage reactance, X
kd1
0.181
First qaxis damper circuit leakage reactance, X
kq1
0.193
Armature winding resistance, R
a
0.0186
Field winding resistance, R
fd
0.0058
First daxis damper winding resistance, R
kd1
0.062
First qaxis damper winding resistance, R
kq1
0.052
Salientpole synchronous generator
3kVA, 220V, 4pole, 60 Hz and 1800 r/min
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