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Napoleon Bonaparte Emperor of France 1769 - 1821

Learning Objectives for the Unit


Describe Napoleon Bonapartes rise to power Identify the characteristics of Napoleon Recognize the military tactics that Napoleon used to conqueror and annex land Analyze the painting by Jacque Louis David, Napoleon in his Study List the political reforms that Napoleon established in French Society Describe the rise and fall of Napoleon causes for the downfall and defeat at Waterloo

Napoleons Rise to Power


Military Training 9 yrs Lieutenant 20 yrs. Old

Brigadier General 24 yrs. Old Capture of Toulon Military Success 1795 Saves the Directory nicknamed the Savior of France

Napoleon Gains Political Control


1798 Egyptian Campaign is a failure Arrives in France to find out he is still a hero of France 1799 Plans to overthrow Directory and later names himself first consul

Napoleon in his Study by Jacque Louis David


Characteristics of Napoleon Bonaparte
Determined Power Hungry Military Genius Dedicated to his Work Meticulous Self- Sufficient Demanding Highly Respected by his

Soldiers

Josephine & Napoleon


Napoleon truly loved Josephine While Napoleon was on his Military Campaigns she was unfaithful to him However, he did take her back for a period of time.

Military Strategies
Napoleon Bonaparte
Adapted to battle field Use tactics that would

work best Make offensive moves Keep the army wellsupplied and encourage them that they will win the fight!

Napoleons Tactics Military Genius


Divide and Conquer Split the enemy in two and flank them from one side. The enemy will be literally half the size after the one side is annihilated Reconnaissance Search for gaps Concentrate artillery fire on these gaps Napoleon increased the use of artillery

Napoleon Building an Empire


Annexed Land added areas to France Netherlands, Belgium, parts of Italy, and Germany Napoleon conquered most of Europe

Was this enough for Napoleon?

Coronation of Napoleon Bonaparte


Napoleons actions during the Coronation were very symbolic He took the crown off of the Pope and placed it on himself Symbolized that he does not owe his success to anyone

Napoleons Problems with Great Britain


Battle of Trafalgar Goal End trade between England and Europe Heratio Nelson British admiral of Navy Great Britains Navy was too strong

The Napoleonic Code Political Reforms in France


Equality of all in the eyes of the law No recognition of birthright (nobility) Freedom of Religion Freedom to find an occupation of choice Strengthened the role of the family
Emphasis on the husband/father as the head of

the family

Napoleonic Code Strengths and Weaknesses


Strengths
Guaranteed civil

Weaknesses
Women could not vote Wife owed obedience

liberties Continued the social aims towards the French Revolution Protected the interest of the middle class

to her husband Minors had few rights Males were given more freedoms than Women in French Society

Napoleon in Power
Order, Security, and Efficiency
Concordat of 1801 Peace with the Church
Recognizes Catholic Church and religious toleration

Napoleonic Code Reflects Enlightenment ideas


All MEN are Equal The state is more important than one man Order and Authority over individual rights.

Economic Reforms in France Controlled prices Improved Transportation Public Schools Abolished Serfdom

Napoleons Empire 1812

Napoleons Downfall
Russian Campaign
Failure (500,000 lives) Lacked Supplies Harsh Russian Winter

Napoleon Exiled to island of Elba Forced to abdicate the throne to King Louis XVIII

Napoleon Invades Russia

Napoleon Escapes from Elba Last 100 Days


Napoleon escapes from Elba and returns to France Rebuilds Military Soldiers are Loyal to Napoleon not the King King Louis XVIII flees and Napoleon regains power

Battle of Waterloo - 1815


Town in Belgium named Waterloo Napoleons army short lived triumph British and Prussian forces crushes France Napoleon forced to exile in St. Helena

Success or Failure? Hero or Villain?


Won many victories at the tactical and strategic level Strategic Greed may have caused his downfall Rise of Nationalism in French Society

Napoleon the True Leader


Morale Napoleon knew his soldiers on a first name basis He gained their respect by fighting!
All men who value life more than the glory of the

Control mans imagination & you control their heart and soul..
Napoleon Bonaparte

nation and the esteem of their comrades should not be members of the French army. If you should see for the moment uncertain of victory, your emperor will be on the front line.

Legacy of the Revolution


Influenced other countries to demand:
Constitution Individual Rights Liberty and Equality Strong beliefs in

Nationalism Desire to break away from foreign rule

Other Influences of the Napoleonic Era and French Rev


Serfdom and Feudalism abolished everywhere (ex. Russia) Religious Toleration ^ Modern Warfare nations at arms Louisiana Purchase LA fights for indepen. In France Public Schools Merit Law codes (civil rights National bank Public Works Draft for national

army