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Global Conflicts

Motivations behind War


For a state to execute the war they must have the support of the leadership , its military forces and its people. Psychological theories see war as an extension of extension of animal behavior, such as territoriality and competition.

Economic Angle to Warfare


Another school of thought argues that war can be seen as a growth of economic competition in a competitive international system. In this view wars begin as a pursuit of markets for natural resources and for wealth. While this theory has been applied to many conflicts, such counter arguments become less valid as the increasing mobility of capital and information level the distributions of wealth worldwide, or when considering that it is relative, not absolute, wealth differences that may fuel wars. Some centrist , capitalist , world leaders, including Presidents of the United States and US Generals, expressed support for an economic view of war.

Factors Ending War


The three main issues those end a War are as mentioned below. Death-toll Protest of people Loss of Property and money

Evolution of Weapons:
From Warring Humans to Warring Machines.

Prehistoric Era-400000 years ago

Very simple weapon used. early hominids may have first used weapons five million years ago. Prevalent Technology: Woodworking & Stone working. Typical Weaponry: wooden clubs, spears and unshaped stones. Typical examples:1)ATLATL 2) Schoeninger Speer.

Weaponry of The Ancient & Classical Age 3000 BC-476 AD


Technologies: Metallurgy & Animal Domestication. Features: 1. The use of metal. 2. The domestication of horse 3. The invention of the spoked wheel. 4. Cavalry developed once horses were bred to support the weight of a man. 5. Siege weapons such as the battering ram, catapult and ballista and repeating crossbow.

Weapons From The Middle Ages: 500 AD-1700 AD


Technological Innovations: The introduction of gunpowder. Cannon replaced the trebuchet as the premier siege weapon.
Typical Weapons: Muskets Cannons Pikes Rudimentary Rockets.

Weaponry of The Early Modern Age: 1700 AD -World-War 1.


Prevalent Technologies: Warship propulsion changed from sail power to fossil fuel-powered steam engines. Rifled artillery, such as howitzers were able to destroy any fortifications. Flame throwers Air warfare Poison gas Battery & Artillery.

Weapons in the Modern Age(WW2-Today)


Weaponry; including ships, vehicles, aircraft, artillery, rocketry, small arms, and biological, chemical and atomic weapons. Logistical support; vehicles necessary for transporting soldiers and supplies. Communications and intelligence; including devices used for navigation, communication, remote sensing and espionage.

Future Weapons.
Weapons for the future battlefield.

PRECISION GUIDED WEAPONS

SMART BOMB
A smart bomb is essentially an ordinary dumb bomb with a few major modifications. In addition to the usual fuze and explosive material, it has:
an electronic sensor system built-in control system set of adjustable flight fins battery

Smart Bombs :The Way They Work.

When a plane drops a smart bomb, the bomb becomes a particularly heavy glider. It doesn't have any propulsion system of its own, like a missile does, but it does have forward velocity . It also has flight fins that generate lift and stabilize its flight path. The control system and adjustable fins give the bomb a way to steer itself as it glides through the air while the sensor system and control system track the designated target on the ground.

Smart Bombs :The Way They Work.


The sensor system feeds the control system the relative position of the target, and the control system steers it toward the target. This adjustment process continues until the smart bomb reaches its target, and the fuze mechanism sets off the explosive. Smart bombs generally have: 1. Proximity fuzes, which set off the explosive just before the bomb reaches the target, 2. Impact fuzes, which set off the explosive when the bomb actually hits something.

Precision-guided munitions
Precision-guided munitions (PGMs, smart munitions, smart bombs, guided bomb units or GBUs) are guided weapons intended to precisely hit a specific target, and to minimize damage to things other than the target.

Thus, even if some bombs miss, fewer air crews are put at risk and the harm to civilians and the amount of collateral damage may be somewhat reduced.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF PGMs


.
Radio-controlled weapons Infrared-guided weapons
Laser-guided weapons IR Imaging/Electro-Optical Guided Weapons Millimeter-wave radar Satellite-guided weapons

SATELLITE-GUIDED WEAPONS
The problem of poor visibility does not affect satellite-guided weapons such as Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM) and Joint Stand-Off Weapon (JSOW) They make use of the United States' GPS system for guidance. This weapon can be employed in all weather conditions, without any need for ground support. The precision of these weapons is dependent both on the precision of the measurement system used for location determination and the precision in setting the coordinates of the target. The JSOW critically depends on intelligence information. However, if the targeting information is accurate, satellite-guided weapons are significantly more likely to achieve a successful strike in any given weather conditions .

LASER GUIDED WEAPONS


world's first laser-guided bomb, the BOLT-117, in 1968,developed by USA. All such bombs work in much the same way, relying on the target being illuminated, or "painted," by a laser target designator on the ground or on an aircraft. The laser designator sends its beam in a series of encrypted pulses so the bomb cannot be confused by an ordinary laser, and also so multiple designators can operate in reasonable proximity. There are two basic families of laser-guided bombs: the Paveway II and the Paveway III. The Paveway III guidance system is more aerodynamically efficient and so has a longer range, however it is more expensive. Paveway II 500-pound LGBs (such as GBU-12) are a cheaper lightweight PGM suitable for use against vehicles and other small targets. Paveway III 2000-pound penetrator (such as GBU-24) is a more expensive weapon suitable for use against high-value targets.

SPACE WARFARE SYSTEM

A space system has three segments, each of which, in principle, offers opportunities for attack to an enemy. The system comprises
the satellite, perhaps the constellation of satellites in orbit; the up and down links to and from the orbiting vehicle, commands from the ground stations and information flow from the satellite; and the ground station that controls the behavior of the satellite and distributes its information to the users.

THEORITICAL SPACE WEAPONRY

Modern military operations in space primarily concern either the vast tactical advantages of satellite-based surveillance, communications, and positioning systems or mechanisms used to deprive an opponent of said tactical advantages. Communications satellites may be useful in warfare when they are designed to jam, sabotage, and outright destroy enemy satellites, and conversely to protect friendly satellites against such attacks. To this end, the US other countries is researching groups of small, highly mobile satellites called "microsats" and "picosats" nimble enough to maneuver around and interact with other orbiting objects to repair, sabotage, hijack, or simply collide with them.

Directed-Energy Weapons

Weapon systems that fall under this category include lasers, linear particle accelerators or particle-beam based weaponry, microwaves and plasmabased weaponry. Particle beams involve the acceleration of charged or neutral particles in a stream towards a target at extremely high velocities, the impact of which creates a reaction causing immense damage. Most of these weapons are theoretical or impractical to implement currently, aside from lasers which are starting to be used more widely in terrestrial warfare.

Anti-Satellite Weaponry
Anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) are space weapons designed to incapacitate or destroy satellites for strategic military purposes. Currently, only the United States, the former USSR (now Russia) and the People's Republic of China are known to have developed these weapons. On January 11, 2007, China destroyed an old orbiting weather satellite

Demonstration Of Anti Sat-missile

Stealth Technology
The invisible weapon

How Stealth Technology works.


1) Radar Absorbent Materials: a) Carbon fiber composites b) Magnetic ferrite-based substance RAM reduces the radar cross section making the object appear smaller

How Stealth Technology works.


2)Vehicular Shape
A stealth aircraft, unlike conventional aircrafts, is made up of completely flat surfaces and very sharp edges. When a radar signal hits a stealth plane, the signal reflects away at an angle.This is also true for land & naval platforms.

How Stealth Technology works.


3)IR Signature:
An exhaust plume contributes a significant infrared signature. The jet exhaust is vented above the wing surface in order to shield it from observers below, as in the B-2 Spirit. Another means of reducing the IR signature is to have a non-circular tail pipe (a slit shape) in order to minimize the exhaust crosssectional volume and maximize the mixing of the hot exhaust with cool ambient air

Comparison of radar signature of Stealth & Non Stealth Aircraft.

Case Studies
Stealth in Action

How Stealth empowers Marine Vehicles.


Sea Shadow was built in 1985 and used in secret but normal service until her public debut in 1993, to examine the application of stealth technology on naval vessels.

Sea Shadow has a SWATH hull design. Below the water are submerged twin hulls, each with a propeller, aft stabilizer, and inboard hydrofoil.

How Stealth empowers Land Vehicles

The Shadow RST-V is a 4x4 hybrid electric drive vehicle with integrated stealth and survivability features
The hybrid electric drive system enables the vehicle to operate in stealth, hybrid and engine only modes. In stealth mode the Shadow can be powered by battery only which provides a significant reduction in acoustic and thermal signatures.

Stealth in Aircrafts

The B-2's low observability originates from stealth technology exploited for the F-117. Additionally, the B-2's composite materials, special coatings and flying wing design, which reduces the number of leading edges, contribute to its stealth characteristics. The engines are buried within the wing to conceal the induction fans and hide their exhaust

Stealth in Missiles.

The AGM-129B incorporates body shaping and forward swept wings to reduce the missile's radar cross section. The engine air intake is flush mounted on the bottom of the missile to further improve radar cross section. The jet engine exhaust is shielded by the tail and cooled by a diffuser to reduce the infra-red signature of the missile. To reduce electronic emissions from the missile it used inertial navigation and terrain contour matching TERCOM .

Unmanned Combat Vehicles


Machine replaces Man

Need For Combat Robots


Major Kenneth Rose of the US Army's Training and Doctrine Command outlined some of the advantages in robotic technology in warfare:[ "Machines don't get tired. They don't close their eyes. They don't hide under trees when it rains and they don't talk to their buddies ... A human's attention to detail on guard duty drops dramatically in the first 30 minutes ... Machines know no fear." Increasing attention is also paid to how to make the robots more autonomous, with a view of eventually allowing them to operate on their own for extended periods of time, possibly behind enemy lines.

Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles

An unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV) is an experimental class of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAVs) e.g. EADS Barracuda & BAe TARANIS(in picture). They differ from ordinary UAVs, because they are designed to deliver weapons (attack targets) possibly with a great degree of autonomy. The elimination of the need for an onboard human crew in a combat aircraft that may be shot down over enemy territory has obvious advantages for personnel safety. In addition, much equipment necessary for a human pilot is eliminated enhancing range , payload & maneuverability.

Unmanned Combat Ground Vehicles

SWORDS or the Special Weapons Observation Reconnaissance Detection System, is a weaponized robot on TALON chassis. There are a variety of different weapons that can be placed on the SWORDS: M16 rifle, 5.56 mm SAW M249, 7.62 mm M240 machine gun, .50 cal M82 Barrett rifle, a six barreled 40 mm grenade launcher or quad 66 mm M202A1 FLASH incendiary weapon.

Case Study: The Talon

Unmanned Combat Water Vehicles

The Protector unmanned surface vehicle (USV) is the only operational combat USV that exists today.
The Protector offers enhanced interception capabilities. It is equipped with a Mini-Typhoon stabilized weapon system. The Protector is remotely controlled and can be operated with guidance from a commander and operator located ashore or aboard a manned vessel

Electronic Warfare
The Battle Of Beams.

Need For ECM


Electronic countermeasures (ECM) includes any sort of electrical or electronic device designed to trick or deceive radar, sonar, or other detection systems like IR (infrared) and Laser. It may be used both offensively or defensively in any method to deny targeting information to an enemy. The system may make many separate targets appear to the enemy, or make the real target appear to disappear or move about randomly. Offensive ECM often takes the form of jamming. Defensive ECM includes using blip enhancement of missile terminal homers.

Strategies for using ECM


Basic RADAR ECM strategies are (1) RADAR interference: Interference techniques include jamming and deception. Jamming is accomplished by a friendly platform transmitting signals on the RADAR frequency to produce a noise level sufficient to hide echos. Deception may use a transponder to mimic the RADAR echo with a delay to indicate incorrect range. (2) Target modifications: Transponders may increase return echo strength to make a small decoy appear to be a larger target& use of RADAR absorbing coatings and modifications of the surface shape to enhance reflections from a decoy.

ECM ATTACK

Strategies for using ECM


(3) Changing the electrical properties of air: Dispersal of small aluminum strips called chaff is a common method of changing the electromagnetic properties of air to provide confusing RADAR echos.

Case Study

PREW would consist of "an ad hoc sparse array consisting of multiple airborne and/or ground nodes. The 40-plus nodes would be able to point and focus their jamming power on an area perhaps 100m across - as DARPA says, a street corner - from as far as 20km without affecting reception in adjacent areas. It would create a bubble of sat nav denial wrapped around an enemy missile or autonomous vehicle

FUTURE FORCE WARRIOR

SALIENT FEATURES
The Future Force Warrior concept envisions the radical use of technologies. The combat gear will consist of four main parts : The Helmet Warrior Physiological Status Monitoring System Liquid body armor, and the Exoskeleton

The Helmet
It will employ a voice-activated, drop-down screen in the helmets visor to access information without having to put downtheir weapons. The screen can display maps and real-time video provided by scout teams, satellites, or planes. A GPS tracker can also be used in the helmet.

WARRIOR PHYSIOLOGICAL STATUS MONITORING SYSTEM


This layer lies closest to the body which monitors physiological conditions such as :Core body temperature Skin temperature, heart rate Body position (standing or sitting) Hydration levels. This data is monitored by the soldier, medics and commanding officers who might be miles away.

LIQUID BODY ARMOR


This will be the successor of the kevlar vests. The magnetorheological fluid transforms from liquid to solid in just milliseconds when a magnetic field or electrical current is applied to it. The current causes the iron particles to lock into a uniform polarity and stack on top of each other, creating an impenetrable shield.

THE POWERED EXOSKELETON


It uses nanotechnology to mimic the action of human muscles, flexing open and shut when stimulated by an electrical pulse. Increases overall lifting ability by 25 to 35 percent. Also aids in providing stability. It merges structure, power, control,actuation and biomechanics.

F-INSAS
FUTURISTIC INFANTRY SOLDIER AS A SYSTEM
F-INSAS includes a fully networked allterrain, all-weather personal-equipment platform. Enhanced firepower and mobility for the digitalised battlefield of the future. Weight of soldier is reduced to 50%

F-INSAS EQUIPMENTS
1.NIGHT VISION GOGLES 2.BODY ARMOUR 3.COMBAT HELMET 4.PDA COMMUNICATOR 5.DATA CARD 6.GPS 7.DUAL CALIBER ASSAULT RIFLE 8.GRENADE LAUNCHER

9. LASER RANGE FINDER

URBAN WARFARE

DRONE
It has 2.2 metre wingspan 5.5 kg maximum take off weight. Fly for 2 hours at 20-40 km/hr with a colour CCD camera or a thermal image sensor.

SKY LARK DRONE

THE SPY ARROW


It is a micro-drone with a polystyrene body. Its low inertia resulting from its weight of only 500gm reduces damage to the airframe in case of heavy landing. Its speed varies between 30-100 km/hr. It provides real time GPS georeferenced image produced by the infrared payload.

FAN COPTER

An electronically powered drone with counter rotating rotors. Weight-1.5 kg Maximum speed 50 km/hr CCD Camera of very high resolution Used generally in the perching modei.e. landing it on the top of a building for strategic surveillance.

GROUND ROBOTS
The I-Robot Packbot is equipped with two swivelling reapers which allows it to move on any type of rough terrain and climb stairs. CCD camera with x300 zoom Continuosly rotating head with LED illuminators. 2-way audio system Laser system

The VIPER equipped with Galileo wheels-having morphing ability i.e adapt its config to wheel or track

A Matilda Robot equipped with door breaching system

CORNER SHOTS

The Cornershot System allows to shoot behind the corner with a 9mm pistol. In future they can be mounted over the assault rifles and images can be send via bluetooth.

MARS-MULTI PURPOSE AIMING REFLEX SIGHT

It combines reflex day sight aiming capacity with night IR laser aiming

Holographic vision mounted over multi-purpose sight

1. 360-degree operationfor maximum effect.Antenna, linked to transmitter unit, can be mounted on vehicle (Automatic target tracking). 2. Antenna sealed against dust and can withstand bullet fire 3. Invisible beam of millimetre-wave energy can travel over 500m 4. Heat energy up to 54C (130F) penetrates less than 0.5mm of skin

ADS PORT & ADS PORT &SHIP SHIP APPLICATIONS APPLICATIONS

ADS DEPLOYED ON SMALL CONTAINER SHIP

ANTENNA & TRANSMITTER LOCATION CONCEPTS

BOARDING PARTY OVERWATCH OPERATIONAL CONCEPT

CHEMICAL WARFARE

Chemical

warfare

Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons to kill, injure, or incapacitate an enemy.

This type of warfare is distinct from the use of conventional weapons or nuclear weapons because the destructive effects of chemical weapons are not primarily due to theirexplosive force. With proper protective equipment and contamination control, chemical weapons are of limited strategic use, due to their modern ineffectiveness. Chemical contamination will generally dissipate to safe levels within 48 to 72 hours.

Classes
Chemical weapons are inert agents that come in four categories: choking blister

blood
nerve The agents are organized into several categories according to the manner in which they affect the human body. The names and number of categories varies slightly from source to source, but in general, types of chemical warfare agents are as follows:

HOW DOES IT WORK

Release toxic gases or liquids that attack the bodys nerves, blood, skin or lungs They may produce surface effects such as tears, blistering, or vomiting, or cause hallucinations or loss of nervous control.

BIOLOGICAL WARFARE

Biological Warfare

Biological warfare (BW), also known as germ warfare, is the use of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, other disease-causing biological agents, or the toxins produced by them as biological weapons (or bioweapons).

FUTURISTIC BIO WEAPONS


SIX PATHS TO ENHANCE BIOTHREATS
BINARY BIOLOGIC WEAPONS DESIGNER GENES GENE THERAPY AS A WEAPON STEALTH VIRUSES HOST-SWAPPING DISEASES DESIGNER DISEASES

PROCEDURE OF ATTACK: Biological agents contain either living organisms or their derivatives, such as toxins, which cause disease or death. Living organisms (microbial pathogens), require incubation periods of 24 hours to 6 weeks between infection and appearance of symptoms. This incubation period places limits on their battlefield utility, giving a significant impact many weeks after the initial attack (eg by causing a long-term pandemic). Likewise, this delayed incubation period may mean that a biological attack can be completed before those on the ground have realised that it has occurred, or even take place entirely covertly, the effects being confused with a natural outbreak of disease.

DESTRUCTION POWER
Biological warfare can also specifically target plants to destroy crops or defoliate vegetation. The United States and Britain discovered plant growth regulators (i.e., herbicides) during the Second World War, and initiated an herbicidal warfare program that was eventually used in Malaya and Vietnam in counter insurgency. Though herbicides are chemicals, they are often grouped with biological warfare as bioregulators in a similar manner as biotoxins. Scorched earth tactics or destroying livestock and farmland were carried out in the Vietnam war and Eelam War in Sri Lanka.

PATHOGENS
POTENTIAL VIRAL AGENTS

DISEASES
SMALL POX, YELLOW FEVER EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS And INFLUENZA

EFFECTIVENESS
GENETICALLY MODIFIED TO INCREASE THEIR EFFECTIVENESS.

POTENTIAL BACTERIAL ANTHRAX AGENTS MELOIDESIS PNEUMONIC PLAGUE GLANDERS


TOXIC AGENTS
BOTULINUM MASCULAR

WITHIN 1-5 DAYS THEY ARE FATAL WITHOUT SWIFT TREATMENT

RICCIN
MYCOTOXIN

PARALYSIS INFECTING NERVOUS SYSTEMS NAUSEA,VOMITING, DIARRHOEA

INSTANTANEOUS
DEATH OR DELAYED EFECT ON HUMAN and ANIMAL BODY

Effect of Mutagen

NUCLEAR WARFARE

How nuclear bomb works

Effect of Nuclear Warfare


The energy released from a nuclear weapon comes in four major categories: Blast 40-60% of total energy Thermal radiation 30-50% of total energy Ionizing radiation 5% of total energy Residual radiation (fallout) 5-10% of total energy

Effect of Nuclear Warfare


Although a nuclear weapon is capable of causing the same destruction as usual explosives through the effects of blast and thermal radiation, release much larger amounts of energy in a much shorter period of time.

Effect of Nuclear Warfare

Cyber warfare
Cyber warfare, (also known as cyber war), is the use of computers and the Internet in conducting warfare in cyberspace

21st Century Battlefield

The 21st century battlefield is comprised of many components that include the Internet and all things that connect from a computer to the Internet. This would include: web servers, enterprise information systems, client server systems, communication links, network equipment, and the desktops and laptops in businesses and homes. The terrain also encompasses information systems like the electrical grids, telecommunication systems, and various corporate and military robotics systems as per futuristic aspects are concerned .

Tactics:
Cyber espionage: Cyber espionage is the act or practice of obtaining secrets (sensitive, proprietary or classified information) from individuals, competitors, rivals, groups, governments and enemies also for military, political, or economic advantage using illegal exploitation methods on internet, networks, software and /or computers. Web Vandalism: Attacks that deface web pages, or denial-of-service attacks. Propaganda: Political messages can be spread through or to anyone with access to the internet or any device that receives digital transmissions from the Internet to include cell phones , TV etc by means of jamming. Attacking critical infrastructure: Power, water, fuel, communications, commercial and transportation are all vulnerable to a cyber attack.

Futuristic Aspects:
Cracking the records of Government, economic headquarters etc. Unethical Variations on the database, thus changing the rudiments of a system. Use of malicious software inside the firmware. Attacking automated electrical power transmission center. Removing the uplink frequency of satellite communication when some navigation is going on.

Recent Attacks on USA:

Moonlight Maze is the U.S. government's designation given to a series of alleged coordinated attacks on American computer systems in 1999. The attacks were traced to a computer in Moscow . It was claimed that these hackers had obtained large stores of data that might include classified naval codes and information on missile guidance systems, though it was not certain that any such information had in fact been compromised.
Titan Rain was the U.S. government's designation given to a series of

coordinated attacks on American computer systems since 2003. The attacks were labeled as Chinese in origin.
Harbor" in which an "unknown foreign power broke into all of the high tech agencies, all of the military agencies, and downloaded terabytes of information.

In 2007, the United States government suffered an "an espionage Pearl

Case Study 1:

Attacking automated electrical power transmission center.

Case Study 2:

Getting control of automated Military Aircraft

Case Study 3:
Russian Cyber attack on Georgian cyber system.
Attacks on Georgian official websites , including that of the President Mikheil Saakashvili making a slideshow portraying him with Hitler. abuse public lists of email addresses of Georgian politicians for spamming and targeted attacks

Case study 3(contd)


Most of the Government sites were down due to the attack.

Georgias Ministry of Foreign Affairs undertaking a desperate step in order to disseminate real-time information by moving to a Blog spot account.

Case study 4@Traffic Hacking

Survey by McAfee:
The Internet security company McAfee stated in their 2007 annual report that approximately 120 countries have been developing ways to use the Internet as a weapon and target financial markets, government computer systems and utilities.

The report from McAfee says that China is at the forefront of the cyber war. China has been accused of cyber-attacks on India and Germany and the United States. china denies knowledge of these attacks. China has the highest number of computers that are vulnerable to be controlled.

Cyber counterintelligence
On April 7, 2009, The Pentagon announced they spent more than $100 million in the last six months responding to and repairing damage from cyber attacks and other computer network problems.

On April 1, 2009, U.S. lawmakers are pushing for the appointment of a White House cyber security "czar" to dramatically escalate U.S. defenses against cyber attacks, crafting proposals that would empower the government to set and enforce security standards for private industry for the first time.

Information Warfare
Information warfare is the use and management of information in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. Information warfare may involve collection of tactical information, assurance(s) that one's own information is valid, spreading of propaganda or disinformation to demoralize the enemy and the public, undermining the quality of opposing force information and denial of information-collection opportunities to opposing forces. Form of unconventional warfare

Forms of Information Warfare


Information warfare can take many forms: Television and radio transmission(s) can be jammed. Television and radio transmission(s) can be hijacked for a disinformation campaign. Logistics networks can be disabled. Enemy communications networks can be disabled or spoofed. Stock exchange transactions can be sabotaged, either with electronic intervention, leaking sensitive information or placing disinformation.

Concept of Information Warfare

Signal Jamming

Case study:
Jamming radar signals to occupy military aircrafts.

Technological and behavioral aspects:


Technological Signals Radar Infra red, laser Computers Database Statistics Analytic methods Human Behavior Culture Will to fight Leadership Beliefs Cohesion Economic Propaganda

Consequences:
Global conflicts War among nations. Political handover Economic warfare

PEACE THE
OMNIPOTENT WEAPON.
The Best Weapon To Combat Global Conflicts.

We make war that we may live in peace.Aristotle

I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones. Albert Einstein