GE 106 Spring 2009

Indonesia…first to go?
“Small island states are the countries likely to be most vulnerable to climate variability and long-term climate change, particularly extreme weather and climate events and sea-level rise.”
-World Health Organization, 2005

Green House Gas Emission Profile

1994 had total 952,200 Gg CO2 emissions. 42% removed. 548,353 Gg left in atmosphere. 4,687 Gg methane. 61 Gg nitrous oxide. 3,545 Gg CO and 110 Gg Nox.

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Carbon Dioxide
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Industry, energy production, and transportation at about 50,000 Gg each. Forest and land use change at about 560,000 Gg.

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Energy sector is large emitter at 360 Gg, mostly from residential/commercial. Fuel combustion. Largest emitter agriculture at 3,200 Gg. Forest/land use change and waste both at about 400 Gg.

Wallacea Region of Indonesia

Nitrogen Dioxide
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Agriculture is largest at 52.86 Gg. Energy follows behind with 5.8 Gg, again with residential/ commercial as top emitters. Increasing urbanization.

CO and NOx
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CO total emissions 3,500 Gg. NOx total at 110 Gg. Mainly from forestry and agriculture.

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Agricultural influence. 44% of work-force employed in agricultural businesses. Destruction of crops and deforestation are leading to a drop in the economy.

Health Impacts
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Climate change affects human health in Indonesia. Drop in the economy means less medical abilities. Less medical assistance for the population More people dying from disease, illnesses, and injuries.

Other Health Issues
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Deadly monsoons claim lives. Increase spread and transmission of “vector-borne” diseases. Health impacts in Indonesia can cause problems for the rest of the world…

Physical Impacts of Climate Change

Indonesia is an island country comprised of nearly 17,508 small islands with the fourth highest population in the world. These small islands are extremely vulnerable to the negative physical impacts brought on as a result of climate change.

Sea Level Rise

Sea level has risen by 2 mm a year in recent years and ocean temperatures have been increasing by about 0.1 °C per decade. If humans continue to emit green house gases and practice activities that lead to global warming, thermal expansion and decrease in glacial and icecap size will cause the sea level to rise by as much as 2.9 feet in the next 90 years.

A rise in sea level will literally submerge many of the small Island that make up Indonesia.

Coral Reefs

51 percent of the region's coral reefs and 18 percent of the world's coral reefs are found in Indonesian waters. 70% of Indonesian coral reefs are in poor to fair condition and 33% of reef-building coral species were placed in categories with elevated risk of extinction

• Coral reefs are an indicator of climate change since extended periods of increased seawater temperature and UV radiation results in coral bleaching that is often irreversible.

Coral Bleaching • Coral bleaching is the loss of pigmentation within the symbiotic algae that live on the coral and is the stress-induced expulsion of algae. • Global climate change has resulted in coral bleaching.

Increase climate variability

Climate variability has lead to a large increase in extreme weather events such as such cyclones, floods and droughts. Warming events such as El Niño are becoming more and more common due to our changing climate.

The small island towns will be destroyed if climate variability continues to increase.

Indirect physical impacts of climate change on ecosystems
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Increase in mosquitoes. These mosquitoes are deadly because they carry and transmit Dengue virus. Causes severe flu-like illness. Dengue fever epidemics have increased dramatically since 1970. The number of these mosquitoes and the transmission dynamics is strongly regulated by temperature and rainfall.


El Niño events, such as the one in 1997, cause drought conditions to develop across Indonesia and delay early monsoon rainfall. Drought conditions allow the fires to burn out of control, which cause severe air pollution.


These conditions lead to decreased rice planting, which prolong the hungry season, and increase the risk of annual rice deficits. In the 1997 drought, the water in streams and lakes became so stagnant and polluted that 550 “droughtrelated” deaths occurred in just 10 weeks.

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Signed Kyoto. Plans of action in energy, waste, agriculture, forestry, waste, coastal resources, and public health to reduce emissions. Promote efficient electricity and vehicles, public transport, water management, research, forest management.

Indonesia needs to…  Develop adaptation strategies, policies and measures to reduce potential impacts.  Early warning systems and other preventive strategies  Long-term adaptive strategies for sealevel rise.