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AP Psychology Mr. Holland
is no “normal” person per se Psychological Disorders are defined as “Harmful dysfunctions.” They need to be judged atypical, maladaptive, disturbing and unjustifiable. The medical model is a way of understanding disorders that includes the notion that disorders are diagnosable and “curable” through therapy.
Bio-Psycho-Social model – The current understanding of behavior and disorders that states that they are a combination of both nature (genetics) and nurture (environment or past experiences). Specifically, biology, psychology, and sociocultural factors combine to produce disorders
– the official guidebook of diagnosing disorders, important for psychologists and important financially for insurance companies Neurotic disorders – disorder that still allows rational thinking and social interaction Psychotic disorders – disorder where person loses contact with reality
Anxiety Disorder – A disorder where a person is constantly tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic arousal. Panic Disorder – an anxiety disorder marked by minutes long episodes of intense dread, chest pain, choking, or other scary sensations.
focus anxiety on a specific object, activity or situation. For example, Arachnophobia is the irrational fear of spiders. Phobias are marked not only by fear but by physical symptoms, sweating, tension, diarrhea, etc.
Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (OCD)
disorder marked by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and or actions (compulsions).
Conditioning and Stimulus Generalization Reinforcement – compulsive acts reducing tension Observational Learning Natural Selection Genes/Physiology
Major Depressive Disorder – occurs when signs of depression (lethargy, feeling worthless, loss of interest in family, friends, and activities) last over two weeks without any notable cause Bipolar Disorder – A disorder where a person alternates between depression and mania or an overexcited state.
aspects – Many mood disorders can be linked to physiology mostly having to do with neurotransmitters. Norepinephrine – is a neurotransmitter that uplifts mood and causes arousal. It is over abundant in manic episodes and scarce during depression. Serotonin is also scare in depression
modern drugs that help depression work by blocking the reuptake or breakdown of serotonin (Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil). Most people who suffer depression are smokers, nicotine is known to help release norepinephrine the mood booster
Social Cognitive Perspective
perspective focuses on the fact that depression can often feed itself. For example thinking negative thoughts can cause depressive moods, and depressive moods also feed negative thoughts. Either of these can cause cognitive and behavioral changes that can reinforce the behavior all over again
literally means “split mind.” Symptoms include – disorganized thinking, a breakdown in selective attention, delusions (often of persecution or grandeur), hallucinations (usually auditory), inappropriate emotional responses
symptoms – people have flat emotional responses or are catatonic Positive symptoms – people who act out their delusions or speak of their hallucinations etc.
– Persecution with delusions or hallucinations Disorganized – disorganized speech or behavior Undifferentiated – many varied symptoms Residual – withdraw, after hallucinations and delusions have disappeared
overactivity – Most Schizophrenia patients have at least a 6 fold increase over normal amounts of dopamine receptors this probably underlies people overreacting to irrelevant external stimuli. Many theories think that a prenatal virus might affect one’s chances of having Schizophrenia
factors – twin and adoption studies indicate that there is a genetic connection
that are marked by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning. Avoidant Personality Disorder – withdrawn behavior due to fear of rejection Schizoid Personality Disorder – Social disengagement, inability to show or feel emotion toward people
Histrionic Personality Disorder - characterized by a pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking, including an excessive need for approval and inappropriate seductiveness, usually beginning in early adulthood. Narcissistic Personality Disorder – Person greatly exaggerates their own importance, aided by success fantasies. Can’t take criticism often reacting with great shame or rage.
Borderline Personality Disorder – Person is completely unstable, unstable relationships, unstable identity, unstable emotions. Antisocial Personality Disorder – (psychopath) Typically a male with a total lack of conscious. They lie, cheat, steal, fight, display unrestrained sexual behavior. Most criminals do not fit this disorder because they do care about someone, family, friends etc.