PERCEPTION AND .

PERSONALITY IN ORGANIZATIONS

FOUNDATIONS OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR

“ WE DON’T SEE THINGS AS THEY ARE, WE SEE THINGS AS WE ARE.”

PERCEPTION
“ The study of perception is concerned with identifying the process through which we interpret and organize sensory information to produce our conscious experience of objects and object relationship.” “ Perception is the process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us. It involves deciding which information to notice, how to categorize this information and how to interpret it within the framework of existing knowledge.

PERCEPTION
“ A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment ”.

PERCEPTUAL PROCESS MODEL
Environmental Stimuli Feeling Hearing Seeing Smelling Tasting

Selective Attention
Organization and Interpretation Attitudes and Behaviours

THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS
1.

Sensation

3.

Organization

An individual’s ability to detect stimuli in the immediate environment. The process a person uses to eliminate some of the stimuli that have been sensed and to retain others for further processing.
4.

2.

Selection

The process of placing selected perceptual stimuli into a framework for “storage.”
The stage of the perceptual process at which stimuli are interpreted and given meaning.

Interpretation

SELECTIVE ATTENTION

Characteristics of the object

size, intensity, motion, repetition, novelty

 

Perceptual context Characteristics of the perceiver
attitudes  perceptual defense  expectations -- condition us to expect events

Factors in the perceiver • Attitudes • Motives • Interests • Experience • Expectations

Factors in the Target • Motion • Novelty • Sounds • Size • Background • Proximity • Similarity Perception

Factors in the situation • Time • Work Setting • Social Setting

FIGURE-GROUND ILLUSTRATION
Field-ground

differentiation

The tendency to distinguish and focus on a stimulus that is classified as figure as opposed to background.

PERCEPTUAL GROUPING
Our tendency to group several individual stimuli into a meaningful and recognizable pattern.  It is very basic in nature and largely it seems to be inborn.  Some factors underlying grouping are -continuity -closure -proximity -similarity

ATTRIBUTION THEORY
IS THE CAUSE OF THE BEHAVIOR SEEN AS INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL? WE LOOK FOR THREE TYPES OF INFORMATION TO DECIDE:

DISTINCTIVENESS : Is this person’s performance different on other tasks and in other situations? CONSISTENCY : Over time, is there a change in behavior or results on this task by this person? CONSENSUS : Do others perform or behave similarly when in a similar position?
“YES” answers lead to EXTERNAL attributions (Environmental causes) “NO” answers lead to INTERNAL attributions (Personal causes)

ATTRIBUTION THEORY
When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused.

observation

Interpretation
Distictinctiveness

Attribution of cause

H L

External Internal External Internal

H
Individual behavior

Consensus

L H

Consistency
H –high L- Low

Internal L External

Distinctiveness Does this person behave in this manner in other situation

Consensus Do other person Behave in the Same manner?

Consistency Does this person behave in this same manner at other times ?
Internal Attribution

YES Low Distinctiveness NO High Distinctiveness

No Low Consensus Yes High Consensus

Yes High Consistency No Low Consistency

External Attribution

20

PERCEPTUAL ERRORS & ATTRIBUTIONS
      

STEREOTYPES : Based on appearance HALO (HORN) EFFECTS : One outstanding characteristic noted CONTRAST EFFECT : Ordering RECENCY EFFECT : Limited recall PROJECTION : “Similar to me” Error SKEWING ERRORS : Central tendency, leniency, strictness bias SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY : People respond the way you “expected” they would SELECTIVE PERCEPTION (MIND SETS) : Filtering, selection,

ATTRIBUTION ERRORS

THE FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR

the cause of poor performance (by others) is due to personal factors (lazy…didn’t try very hard)

SELF-SERVING BIAS

the cause of poor performance (by myself) is due to situational factors (poor support), not because of a lack of effort

IMPROVING PERCEPTUAL ACCURACY
Diversity Management Know Yourself Empathize With Others

Improving Perceptual Accuracy

Compare Perceptions With Others

Postpone Impression Formation

KNOW YOURSELF (JOHARI WINDOW)
Feedback Known to Self Known to Others Disclosure Unknown to Self

Open Area Open Area Hidden Area Hidden

Blind Area Blind Area

Unknown to Others

Area

Unknown Unknown Area Area

DEFINING PERSONALITY
Relatively

stable pattern of behaviours and consistent internal states that explain a person's behavioural tendencies total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others and environment

Sum

DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY

BIG FIVE PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS
Conscientiousness
Emotional Stability Openness to Experience Agreeableness Extraversion

Caring, dependable

Poised, secure
Sensitive, flexible

Courteous, empathic
Outgoing, talkative

MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR
Extroversion versus introversion  Sensing versus intuition  Thinking versus feeling  Judging versus perceiving

Courtesy of Thompson Doyle Hennessey & Everest

LOCUS OF CONTROL AND SELFMONITORING

Locus of control

Internals believe in their effort and ability Externals believe events are mainly due to external causes

Self-monitoring personality

Sensitivity to situational cues, and ability to adapt your behaviour to that situation

PERSONALITY TRAITS

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.