MySQL Embedded Getting started with libmysqld

Anders Karlsson Principal Sales Engineer, MySQL

• Who am I? (Good question!) • Why libmysqld? • What is libmysqld?
> What is MySQL Emmbedded? And is it

different from libmysqld?

• Programming with libmysqld
> API, Samples etc.

• Limitations of libmysqld • Questions? Answers?

• Sales Engineer with Sun / MySQL for 5+ years • I have been in the RDBMS business for 20+ years • I have worked for many of the major vendors and with most of the vendor products • I’ve been in roles as
> > > > >

About Anders Karlsson

Sales Engineer Consultant Porting engineer Support engineer Etc.

• Outside MySQL I build websites (, develop Open Source software (MyQuery, ndbtop etc), am a keen photographer and drives sub-

Why libmysqld?
• Libmysqld is compact and fast • Libmysqld is easily integrated into an application • Application installation is MUCH easier
> No separate server to install or run > No need to run as service or daemon

• Low hardware requirements • Zero maintenance • MySQL hidden from end user

• Only ONE application can connect at the time! • No server means less flexibility • Application itself has larger footprint
> Includes both the server and the

And why NOT libmysqld?


• • • • •

Certain limitations exist No Replication No Client / Server connection No authentication / security More functions must be implemented in the application
restore, check etc.

> Any mysql Client operations such as dump,

What is libmysqld and why is it different?
• “Normal” MySQL is a classic client/server based RDBMS
> The database server is a separate

process from the client application > The client and the sever communicates using standard networking (typically sockets or TCP/IP) > The Server may, and again may not, run in a separate hardware environment from the client > The client talks to the server using a MySQL defined protocol, typically implemented in a client interface or

What is libmysqld and why is it different?
• MySQL in Client / Server configuration
> MySQL Server runs on
Clients using MySQL Protocol

machine on the network > Clients communicate with Server using the MySQL Protocol > Many clients talk to the same server



What is libmysqld and why is it different?
• Libmysqld is a SQL database layer tightly integrated with the application or “client”
> The database and the application runs in

the same process space > No special means of communication is needed as both the application and the database are in the same process, calling MySQL is similar to calling any other library function > The interface between the Application or client is different, but the exposed component, the API, is the same as with Client / Server MySQL > Although the API looks the same, the

What is libmysqld and why is it different?
• Libmysqld configuration
> The Application IS the

server! > There is just 1 process > Data is stored on the local disk > NOTE: The API for the application is the same, but the implementation is different! There is just one implementation: In C

libmysqld Applicati on process Client system

So where do I find libmysqld?
• Libmysqld is part of the usual MySQL distribution • Just download the MySQL Server and you find
> On Windows: libmysqld is in the

Embedded subdirectory, both debug and release versions are available, and in DLL and static builds > On Linux: libmysqld.a is in the lib subdirectory where MySQL is installed

• Includefiles:
> Use the normal MySQL C API includefiles

Building libmysqld applications
• Develop applications in C
> Add calls to mysql_library_init() etc.

• Compile as usual • Link with libmysqld
> Can be linked dynamically or statically > A dynamic link is easier, just as a

dynamic link with the MySQL C Client library is easier

• Set up an option file • Ship application, possibly the libmysqld shared library and option

The libmysqld API
• VERY similar to the MySQL C API
> Does NOT implement the MySQL

Protocol! > Only looks the same, implementation is different!

• Key functions that are different
> mysql_library_init() – Starts the internal

“MySQL Server” > mysql_library_end() – Shuts down the internal “MySQL Server” gracefully > mysql_thread_init() / mysql_thread_end() > mysql_options() – Set

The mysql_library_init() function
• Initializes the MySQL internal server • Passes parameters to the server in that process • Must be passed information on initialization files and sections in those
> No server is already running! > This means all necessary server

parameters needs to be specified!

• This means that this call is mostly different from when NOT using libmysqld!

The mysql_library_init() parameters
• Argument count (argc) • Arguments (argv) – Like the parameters to mysqld, the first argument (as in argv[0] beging name of the program) being ignored. • A list of option file sections to read
> If a --defaults-file or any other argument

with an option file is passed, the config files section specifies whicg sections in this file to read > The last section name is NULL > If no option file is passed, this argument

Initializing a libmysqld application
static char *server_options[] = { "mysql_test", "--datadir=C:/mydata", NULL}; static char *server_groups[] = { "libmysqld_server", NULL}; int main(argc, argv) { MYSQL mysql; mysql_library_init(sizeof(server_options)/ sizeof(char *) – 1, server_options, (char **) server_gropus); mysql = mysql_init(NULL); mysql_options(mysql, MYSQL_OPT_USE_EMBEDDED_CONNECTION, NULL); mysql_real_connect(mysql, NULL, NULL, NULL, "test", 0, NULL, 0);

Configuring a libmysqld application
• Use a my.cnf file
> Set server_options as per the previous

slide, to include --defaults-file=my.cnf > Note that you must be careful with the path here! > Set up the my.cnf file

• Or set all options in the application itself
> Set all options in the server_options


Dynamic linking of a libmysqld application
Applicatio n Libmysqld Import Library Libmysqld shared library

• As a shared object / DLL
> An import library is

provided to be linked with your application > Your application will need to be distributed with the libmysqld shared object / DLL > Not available on all

Static linking of a libmysqld application

• As a static library

> The libmysqld library

is linked directly into the application > No additional files needs to be distributed with the application > The only option on some platforms > Has a slight

Applicatio n Libmysqld Library

Linking a libmysqld application
• Note that dynamic linking does NOT necessarily allow you to update libmysqld by just changing the DLL / Shared object
> Typically, an application linked with

MySQL version X needs libmysqld version X, even with dynamic linking

• For Windows, I recommed dynamic linking
static library depends on a particular version of Visual C++ is used

> Windows static linking is complex, as the

• For Linux, I recommend static linking
> Not the least because that is the only

Managing libmysqld data
• Data format are the same for libmysqld as it is for the MySQL Server mysqld
> Hence: Data that can be freely copied

with mysqld can be freely copied with libmysqld > This relates to most storage engines, but in some cases with limitations

• MyISAM may use compression (which is common) and other MyISAM variations • Starting a libmysqld application with

Managing libmysqld data
• Offline tools for mysqld data may be used on libmysqld data
> myisampack > myisamchk > etc

• Online tools need to be implemented as part of the application
> mysqldump > mysqlshow > etc.

Libmysqld demo!
• The following demo application is available
> On sourceforge: demo/ > On MySQL Forge: hp?id=323

• The application is Windows dialogbased and written in C using the Win32 API • Should be self contained, except for

Limitations of libmysqld
• • • • No replication No events InnoDB is single threaded No authentication / authorization • Single application access
> But that is the whole point

of libmysqld

• Only C / C++

Libmysqld performance
libmysqld mysqld INSERT SELECT 6.82 s 6.92 s 20.91 s 21.59 s 21.73 s

100.000 operations each, time in average after several runs

UPDATE 6.54 s

Note: This is very far from a scientific benchmark! The operations executed are simple single-row operations, searching on the PRIMARY KEY

Libmysqld performance
• So does this mean that libmysqld is faster than mysqld?
> No, it means that libmysqld has less

overhead, that performance is better is a side-effect of that

• So why is this useful data then
> As it means that I need less OS and

Hardware resources to achieve the same level of performance!

Resources and contacts
• Email me at: • Read my blog at: http://karlssonondatabases.blogspot. com/ • MySQL Forum for Embedded systems: • Contribute to the community with samples and ideas, we need more of those for libmysqld