Business Research Process

Dr. Sasmita Mishra

Research Process Flow Chart
Define research problem Review concepts and theories Review previous Research Findings Formulate hypothesis Design research Data collection Analyze data
Interpretation and report writing

Define Research Problem
A research problem in general refers to some difficulty which a researcher experiences in the context of either a theoratical or practical situation and wants a solution for the same.  Research problem may be of two types: Relates to states of nature Related to relationship of variables

Selecting the problem
The following points must be taken into account while selecting a problem
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Subject which is overdone must not be selected. Controversial subject should not be chosen by an average researcher. Too narrow or too vague problems should not be chosen. The problem should be chosen in such a way that the ingredients required for the study should be within the reach of a researcher. The importance of the subject, time ,efficiency of the researchers is also an essential requisite factor. Selection of problem must be preceded by a preliminary study.

What is Research Objective?
The objective of a research is like a torch bearer for the researcher. Formulation of objectives is of basic importance because it determines the data which are to be collected, the characteristics of data which are relevant, relations which are to be explored, the choice of techniques to be used in these explorations and the form of final report….. W.A.Neiswanger.

Problem vs. Objectives
Problem is the difficulty faced by the researcher or a gap in the literature.  Objective is the mission statement to solve that difficulty or fill the gap in the literature. Ex. – Prob: Why apple is falling from the tree? Objective: To examine why apple is falling from the tree. Or to find out the possible cause (s) of this phenomena.

Types of Objectives pg.1
Quantitative: It aims to optimize certain measures of performances of the system of study. Ex. _ A study on advertising budget aims to plan allocation of advertising fund in relation to other expenditure so that the incremental sales revenue is maximized.

Types of Objectives pg.2
Qualitative:It aims to test the significance of hypotheses of a study of importance Ex. – A study on testing the effect of the level of education of sales force of a company on its sales revenue.

Research Questions
Research questions are the problems not solved till date. One should ask question relating to the  Purpose: What is the purpose of the study  Place: Where does the study take place?  Present state: What is the present state of the research issue?  Means: How is the purpose achieved? Why that particular method? These questions helps in crystallizing the

Extensive literature survey

Review the concept: what is the meaning and definitions of the the particular concept. Review earlier findings: what has already been researched in that area.

Formulating hypotheses
Hypothesis are intelligent or educated guess which can be put to test to determine its validity.  It is a tentative supposition about the outcomes of a research. Ex. Age has no influence over achieving sales target of a sales person.

Preparing Research Design
It is the blue print of a research.It may be experimental or non experimental. While preparing research design the following points are taken into consideration:
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The means of obtaining the information The availability of skills of the researchers and his staff

Explanation of the what method to adopt to collect information and why this way not anything else.

Data collection

It is based upon the research design and problem It may be by experimentation, interview, questionnaire etc.

Analyze Data

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To analyze data different statistical techniques are used such as ANOVA Regression Analysis Correlation, etc.

Interpretation and report writing
Analysis of data ends with a number (Ex. .06)  While interpreting we should ask the question what finding we have got from the analysis of the data and why we have got this type of result. At the end of the research the entire process are documented in a written form. Report has Four broad sections: Introduction and review of literature,