CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH

ANKIT SHARMA III YEAR (B.ARCH.) AAYOJAN SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE

CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH SCOTISH

1.0 LIFE & TIME
1.1 Born: 70, Parson Street, Glasgow June, 7, 1868 1.2 Died: Porchestor Square, Paddington December, 10, 1928 1.3 Family: Parents-William Mackintosh, Margaret Rennie Mackintosh Wife- Margaret Macdonald.

1.4 Education : Attended Reid’s public school – 1875 -77 Attended Allan Glen’s institute which specializes in vocational training – 1877 Attended Glasgow school of art winning many prizes in local examination and competition- 1883-94 Begins a five year pupilage with John Hutchison in Glasgow – 1884 1.5 Profession : Joins the firm of Honeyman and Keppie, Architects, as draughtsman - 1889 Becomes a partner in Honeyman and Keppie –1901 Mackintosh’s partnership in the firm is formally dissolved – 1914 Handled some small commissions on his own but mostly worked as an artist – 1915-1925

1.6 Influences : People: Pattrick Geddes John Ruskin John Honeyman Macgibbon & Ross John James Burnet Sellars Places (Travel): March 21, 1891 tour of Italy 17 sketching tours of various parts of England, from 1894-1911 Art and Architectural movements: Vienna Secession The aesthetic movement coming from England The refinement and revival of Scottish tradition The influence of French Beaux Arts tradition

2.0 PHILOSOPHY :
2.1 Beliefs: ---He believed that architecture was the supreme discipline, for it uniquely brought all arts together. ---He aimed to connect individuals with his work both functionally and spiritually. ---He believed that all the great and living architecture has been the direct expression of the needs and beliefs man at the time of creation. ---He believed that the quality of mass in a building was essential to its success . ---The expression of beauty was of equal importance to a building’s physical function and that utility alone could only be realized and would not be wholly justified if it did not consider the context of its environment .

3.0 WORKS:
3.1 Major Architectural works: MARTYR”S PUBLC SCHOOL 1895-1896 ----- Roof trusses and striking roof supporting brackets are oriental in flavour and jut out from the wall by nearly a meter. ------The three white octagonal and ogee crowned elements on the roof visually lightens the built mass and hides the ventilation system. ------- The design is restrained, relying on the Scottish precedent.

QUEEN’S CROSS CHRUCH, GLASGOW 1898 -Building gives a modern look due to its use of huge exposed steel roof ties. -The church imparts sense of space and tranquility.

SCOTLAND STREET SCHOOL 1903-1906 -Totally utilitarian with barest of ornamentation. -the twin stairwell towers provide the building with a verticality which contrast with its otherwise strong horizontal emphasis. -The most innovative elements of this school are the two stepped banks of horizontal windows which flank each stairwell tower. -The use of glass in these towers was outstandingly modern and their conical roofs harked back to the staircase bay

Glasgow school of art(1896-1909).  . - It was built in two phases the directness of main elevations, apart from some delightful play with curved and twisted forms in wrought iron, is the simple outcome of putting rooms and studios in the most functional way. -Inside it is another experience .The main studios, main exhibitions spaces and staircases demonstrate his mastery of the NATUREOF different materials. -Mackintosh used verticals horizontals and gentle curves in timber to work out a richly decorative space, defined and shaped by columns, beams, cover plates and hanging frets.

Hill house (1902-04). -The stark,UNORNAMENTATED wall surfaces,received much attention. Straight forward in functional ORGANISATION. -Notable are circular stairs that notch into inside corner and stairs project outside in the form of semicircular landings. -Mackintosh designed hill house to have both regimented ORTHOGONALS and art nouveau curves.

3.2 Architectural Details

Rear elevation of Glasgow school of art

West and east elevation: Glasgow school of art 1910

Perspective drawing of the north façade: Hill house 1902-1903

Alternative design for the concert hall, 1898 Competition for the 1901 Glasgow International Exhibition Buildings 1898

3.3 Chronology of works:
1890 Awarded the Alexander Thomson scholarship for his design for “A Public Hall”. Awarded a National Silver Medal at South Kensington for his design for “A Science and Art Museum”. His first building commission: Redclyffe, a pair of semidetached houses in Glasgow for his uncle. 1891 Delivers Scottish Baronial Architecture paper to the Glasgow Architectural Association. 1892 Enters Soane Medallion Competition with his design for “A Chapter House” which is subsequently awarded the national gold medal at South Kensington. 1893 Delivers Architecture paper to the Glasgow institute. Starts on designs for the Glasgow Herald Building (completed in 1895) 1894 Begins designs for Queen Margaret’s Medical collage (completed in 1896) 1895 Commences design for Martyr’s Public School (completed in 1896). 1896 Begins design s for the Glasgow school of art competition.

1897 Building of the Glasgow School of art commences (first stage completed in 1899). Designs St. Matthew’s Free Church (later to become Queen Cross church). Designs furniture for the Argyle street tea rooms. 1898 Designs an Industrial Hall for the Glasgow International Exhibition of 1901. Receives first foreign commission – a dinning room for H. Bruckmann, Munich. 1899 The new Glasgow school of art opens. Designs Windyhill for the Davidson family. Begins interior design of his flat at 120 Mains street (completed in 1900). 1900 Designs furniture and interior decorations for the Ingram street tea rooms (with further additions in 1902). 1901 Designs Daily Record building, Glasgow. Enters “Hauus eines Kunstfreundes”(House for an Art Lover) competition; awarded special prize. Commissioned by Mrs. Rowat to design interior of 14 Kingsborough Gardens(completed in 1902). Designs the Gate Lodge, Auchenbothie, Kilmacolm.

1902 Exhibits at the International Exhibition of modern decorative art,Turin. Commissioned by Fritz Warndorfer to design a music salon, Vienna. Commissioned by Walter Balkie to design Hill House (completed in 1905). Prepares plans for the Liverpool Anglican Cathedral competition. Delivers Seemliness paper, most probably to the Northern Art Worker’s Guild, Manchester. 1903 Designs the willow Tea Rooms (completed and opened in 1904). Exhibits a bedroom at the “Dresdener Werkstatten fur Handwerkskunst” Exhibition, Dresden. 1904 Designs Scotland Street School for the Govan school board (completed in 1906). Commissioned by Mrs. Catherine Cranston and her husband, Major John Cochrane, to design the interior of their home Hous’hill. Commissioned by F. J. Shand to design Auchenbert,near Killearn. (completed in 1906). 1905 Commissioned by A.S Ball to design a dining-room, Berlin.

1906 Designs new boardroom for the Glasgow School of Art. Redesigns the second phase of building work for the school of art (finishes designs in 1907). Designs the “Dutch Kitchen” for the Argyle Street Tea rooms. Commissioned by H. B. Collins to design Mosside, (later cloak), Kilmacolm (with alterations undertaken in 1912) Elected a Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects. 1907 Designs the Oak room for the Ingram street tea room. 1909 Second phase of building work at the Glasgow school of art completed. 1911 Designs the Cloister room and the Chinese room for the Ingram street tea rooms. 1916 Commissioned by W. J. Bassett- Lowke to remodel the exterior and interior of 78 Derngate, Northampton. 1917 Designs “The Dug-Out” for the Willow tea rooms. 1920 Designs three Chelsea studios (only one was built for Harold Squire). Designs a block of studios for the Arts League of service in Ch

4.0 BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Charles Rennie Mackintosh Fiell Charles Rennie Mackintosh edited by: -Charlotte and Peter -Glasgow museums Kaplan

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