I.M.

Pie
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Ieoh Ming Pei was born in Suzhou, in China on April 26, 1917. His father, a prominent banker, was later the director of the Bank of China and the governor of the Central Bank of China. His first education was at St. Paul's College, Hong Kong and then at Saint John's University, Shanghai before moving to the United States to study architecture at MIT and Harvard in 1935. He started at the University of Pennsylvania before going on to receive his Bachelor of Architecture degree from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1940.

I.M. Pie

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He enrolled at the Harvard Graduate School of Design two years later; shortly thereafter, he served at the National Defense Research Committee in Princeton, New Jersey In 1944 he returned to Harvard, received his master degree in Architecture in 1946 and stayed at Harvard as an assistant professor In 1948, William Zeckendorf hired Pei to work at the real estate development corporation Webb and Knapp as the Director of Architecture. While at Webb and Knapp, Pei worked on many large-scale architectural and planning projects across the country. Pei found his own architectural firm in 1955, which was known as I. M. Pei & Partners until 1989 when it became known as Pei Cobb Freed & Partners recognizing James Ingo Freed and Henry N. Cobb. Recipient of the Pritzker Architecture Prize, 1983. Recipient of the American Institute of Architects Gold

I.M. Pie

Due to his reliance on abstract form and materials such as stone, concrete, glass, and steel, Pei has been considered a disciple of Walter Gropius However, Pei shows little concern with theory. He does not believe that architecture must find forms to express the times or that it should remain isolated from commercial forces. Pei generally designs sophisticated glass clad buildings loosely related to the high-tech movement. However, many of his designs result from original design concepts. He frequently works on a large scale and is renowned for his sharp, geometric designs.

Pei Cobb Freed and Partners
The founders of the firm were I.M. Pie, Eason H. Leonard and Henry N. Cobb. The partners in the firm were Henry N. Cobb, Michael D. Flynn, George H. Miller, Ian Bader, Yvonne Szeto. Since the formation of the firm in 1955, Pie Cobb Freed and partners has completed more than 200 projects around the world. The clients have included major corporations, private developers and public authorities, as well as educational, cultural and religious institutions. Included in the great diversity of building types that the firm has explored is an extensive collection of tall buildings.

Some of the best known works are:
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John F. Kennedy Library John Hancock Tower John Joseph Moakley Courthouse Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Centre Fountain Palace: Dallas Bank Of China Tower: Hong Kong Jacob K. Javits Convention Centre: New York National Constitution Centre On Independence Mall: Philadelphia Rock and Roll Hall of Fame: Cleveland Expansion and modernization of Louvre Museum: Paris San Francisco Main Public Library East Building of the National Gallery of Art Ronald Reagan Building

Four Seasons Hote Meyerson Symphony New Yor Center Dallas United States Air Force Memorial, Arlington, VA

ational Gallery of Art, East U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, D.C.

Building, Washington, D.C.

ountain Place, Dallas

San Francisco Main Public Library

United rles Shipman Payson Building, States Courthouse and land Museum of Art, Portland Harbor park, Boston

Among the firm’s many works in progress:
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1000 Connecticut Avenue: Washington D.C. Butler College Dormitories/Masters’ Residences at Princeton University The Capital group Companies: Irvine 1700 K Street: Washington D.C. Bellevue Hospital Centre Ambulatory Care Facility: New York Edmund D. Bossone Research Enterprise Centre at Drexel University: Philadelphia

Recently completed works include:
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Pyramide du Louvre
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Architect: I.M. Pie Location: Paris, France (1989) Building Type: Art Museum entrance Construction System: glass and steel rods and cable Climate: Temperate Context: Urban Style: Modern

from inside The Louvre Pyramid

The large glass pyramid of le musée du Louvre

Exterior view Inside northeast wall

Louvre Pyramid

Louvre Pyramid is the large metal and glass pyramid which serves as the main entrance to the catacombs and has in the meantime become a landmark for Paris. It was built in 1989 by the architect I.M. Pie from New York. The structure was constructed entirely with glass segments, reaches a height of 20.6 meters (about 70 feet); its square base has side of 35 meters (115 feet). It consists of 603 rhombus-shaped and 70 triangular glass segments.

The construction of the pyramid triggered considerable controversy, many people feeling that this futuristic edifice looks quite out of place in front of the Louvre Museum with its classical architecture. Some of the people appreciated the contrasting architectural styles as a successful merger of the old and the new, the classical and the ultra-modern. The main pyramid is actually only the largest of several glass pyramids that were constructed near the museum, including the downward- pointing La Pyramide Inversee that functions as a skylight in an underground mall in front of the museum.

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Of all the grand projects in Paris, none created such a stir as the Pie Pyramids in the courtyard of the famous Louvre Museum. Spectacular in concept and form, they provide a startling remainder of the audacious ability of modern architects to invigorate and re-circulate traditional architectural forms. The main pyramid is basically a complex interlinked steel structure sheathed in reflective glass. It is an entrance doorway providing a long entrance portico to the main galleries of the Louvre. As one descends into the interior entrance foyer, the dramatic nature of the intervention becomes apparent. The main pyramid, which disturbs the balance of the old Louvre courtyard, is countered by two smaller pyramids, which provide further light and ventilation to the subterranean spaces.

Exterior view

Pyramide through a Louvre passageway

ooking in through he pyramid

Detail of north wes wall from inside

Bank of China Tower
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Architect: I.M. Pie Location: Hong Kong (1982-1990) Building Type: Skyscraper, commercial office tower Construction System: steel frame, glass curtain wall Climate: Tropical Context: Urban Style: Modern Planning: Graceful, concise and structurally expressive, triangular stepped-back plan. Height: Antenna/Spire=369 meters, Roof=315 meters, Floor count=70.

Bank of China Tower

The Bank of China Tower is one of the most recognized skyscrapers in Central, Hong Kong. It houses the headquarters for the Bank of China Limited. The building is 315 meters high with two masts reaching 369 meters (1200 feet) high. This 70 storey building was the tallest building in Hong Kong and Asia from 1989 to 1992, and first building outside US to break the 1000 foot mark. It is now the third tallest skyscraper in Hong Kong.

Bank of China Tower

The structural expressionism adopted in the design of this building resembles growing bamboo shoots, symbolizing livelihood and prosperity. The whole structure is supported by the five steel columns at the corners of the building, with the triangular frameworks transferring the weight of the structure onto these five columns. The building has been criticized by some practitioners of Feng Shui for its sharp edges and its negative symbolism by the numerous ‘X’ shapes in its original design. The building’s profile from some angles resembles that of a clever.

View of the Bank of China Tower from various angles

The Bank of China Towe in Hong Kong's skyline

Hancock Palace
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Architect: I.M. Pie Location: Boston, Massachusetts (1977) Building type: skyscraper, commercial office tower Construction system: steel frame and glass curtain wall Climate: Temperate Context: Urban Style: Corporate Modern

John Hancock Tower

The building is a 60-storey, 790 feet tall (241 meters) skyscraper. Like all large, heavily glazed buildings, the tower requires substantial air conditioning year round– even with its reflective walls. The design of this tower took the glass monolith skyscraper concept to new heights. The tower is an achievement in minimalist, modernist skyscraper design.

Minimalism was the design principal behind the tower. The largest panes of glass possible were used. There are no spandrels panels, and the mullions are minimal. Pie added a geometric modernist twist by using a parallelogram shape for the tower floor plan. From the most common views, this design makes the corners of the tower appear very sharp. The highly reflective window glass is tinted slightly blue, which results in the tower having only a slight contrast with the sky on a clear day. As a final modernist touch, the short sides of the parallelogram are marked with a deep vertical notch, breaking the tower’s mass and emphasizing its verticality.

Falling glass panes
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The building's most dangerous and conspicuous flaw was its faulty glass windows. Entire 227 kg windowpanes detached from the building and crashed to the sidewalk hundreds of feet below. The surrounding streets whenever winds reached 72 km/h were closed. The problem was a combination of the doublepaned glass construction method, and the pressure differentials between the inside and outside air. All panes were replaced by a different heattreated variety and plywood replaced the building's windows.

Looking straight up at ohn Hancock Tower, View of the Hancock Palac viewing a broad corner from various angles

Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
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Architect: I.M. Pie Location: Cleveland, Ohio (1998) Building type: museum, hall of fame Climate: temperate Style: electic modern Main feature are the glazed pyramidoids combined with various solids.

Rock and Roll Hall of Fame

This museum is dedicated to recording the history of some of the best known and most influential artists, producers, and other people who have in some major way influenced the music industry, particularly in the area of rock and roll. The museum documents the entire history of rock and roll, regardless of induction status. Hall of Fame inductees are honored in a special exhibit inside the museum’s spire. While the museum is located in Cleveland, the induction ceremony is held in New

The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at sunset

Guitar sculptures Outside of the Rock Hall Interior of the Rock Hall

AIA National Honor Awards
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College Conservatory of Music University of Cincinnati United States Holocaust Memorial Museum The Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Centre Fountain Place Jacob K. Javits Convention Centre IBM Corporate Office Building Charles Shipman Payson Building, Portland Museum of Art Fragrant Hill Hotel National Gallery of Art, East Building John Hancock Tower Everson Museum of Art

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Laura Spelman Rockefeller Halls, Princeton University 88 Pine Street (Wall Street Plaza) Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University Paul Mellon Centre for the Arts, The Choate School Des Moines Art Centre Addition Hoffman Hall, Graduate School of Business Administration, University of Southern California University Plaza, New York University School of Journalism-S.I. Newhouse Communications Centre Society Hill East West Centre, University of Hawaii Denver Hilton Hotel Court House Square

Firm Awards
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The American Institute of Architects Architectural Firm Award :June 24,1968 Poses Creative Arts Award for Architecture :April 1,1981 Chicago Architectural Award :June 14,1985 Construction Specifications Institute The Metropolitan New York Chapter Honor Award :May 9,1990 New York Society of Architects Lifetime Achievement Award :November 19,1992

Bibliography
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International Style : Modern Architecture from 1925 to 1965--- Hasan Uddin Khan New Forms : Architecture in the 1990’s --- Philip Jodido Sky High Living : Contemporary High Rise Apartments and Mixed Use Buildings --- Georges Binder/Donald J. Trump Glass in Architecture : Michael Wigginton New Vernacular Architecture : Vicky Richardson Modern Architecture Since 1900 : William J.R. Curns New Building Today : Architecture of the 1990’s

Webliography
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en.wikipedia.org architecture.about.com France.archiseek.com www.greatbuildingsonline.com www.designboom.com www.pcfandp.com www.pritzkerprize.com www.noogenesis.com www.earchitect.co.uk www.answers.com www.archiplant.org www.encyclopedia.com www.designcommunity.com

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