Contraceptions

Contraceptions

Reversible contraceptions Permanent contraceptions

Permanent contraceptions

Vasectomy Tubal sterilization

Reversible contraceptions
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Male condom Female condom Spermicides Sponge Diaphragms Cervical cap Vaginal ring Contraception implant

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Intrauterine device (IUD) Oral contraception เพิ่มของผู้ชาย Emergency contraception Non-appliance Methods

Vasectomy
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sterilization technique for men minor surgery to cut the vas deferens without sperm, fertilization of an egg cannot occur 99.9% effective

Vasectomy

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Vasectomy
Advantages  Permanent birth control  Allows sexual spontaneity  Requires no daily attention  Does not affect pleasure Disadvantages  Does not protect against STDs, includin g HIV/AIDS  Not immediately effective  Requires minor surgery in a clinic  Possible rejoining of the vas deferens

Tubal Sterilization

surgical sterilization technique for women blocks the tubes carrying a woman's egg to her uterus in a tubal ligation, fallopian tubes are cut, burned, or blocked with rings, bands or clips 99.5% effective

Tubal Sterilization
Advantages  Permanent birth control  Immediately effective  Allows sexual spontaneity  Requires no daily attention Disadvantages  Does not protect against STDs, includin g HIV/AIDS  Requires surgery  Possible regret  Possibililty of Post Tubal Ligation Syndrome

Male condom

Most condoms are made from latex rubber. It works by providing a barrier between partners(bodily fluids, like semen, blood, and saliva). Male condoms are 8598% effective.

Male condom
Advantages  Prevents the spread of STDs, including HIV and AIDS.  Available without a prescription.  No hormonal side effects.  Easy to use.  Does not affect future fertility.  May decrease women's risk for developing precancerous cells on the cervix.

Disadvantages  Must be readily available.  Can interrupt sex play.  Can break or leak.  Possible allergic reaction.  Decreased sensation for some people.

Female condom

Polyurethane sheath with one flexible polyurethane ring at each end. A female condom provides a barrier between partners to prevent sharing bodily fluids like semen, blood, or saliva. Female condoms are 79-95% effective.

Female condom
Advantages  Prevents the spread of STDs, including HIV and AIDS.  Does not reduce a male partner's stimulation.  No need prescription.  No hormonal side effects.  Can be used by people with latex sensitivities.  Can be used with oil and water-based lubricants.  Can be inserted before sex play begins.  Does not affect future fertility. Disadvantages  Noticeable during sex.  Sometimes difficult to insert or use.  Does not contain spermicide.  Can break or leak.  About three times more expensive than male condoms.

Spermicides

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Spermicides come in many different forms: foam, jelly, cream, film, and suppositories. Toxic effect on sperm, act as a mechanical barrier to entry of sperm into the cervical canal. Most use the chemical nonoxynol-9 against sperm. They are most effective when used consistently and correctly with a barrier method of birth control, like a condom. Spermicides are 71-82% effective as birth control.

Spermicides
Advantages

Disadvantages

Available without a prescription. Lubrication may increase pleasure. Use can be part of sex play. Does not affect future fertility.

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Does not protect against HIV/AIDS. Must be readily available and used prior to penetration. Can be messy. Possible genital irritation. may irritate the vagina making it easier to catch HIV/STDs

Sponge

placed into the woman's vagina contains a spermicide blocks, absorbs and kills sperm 80 - 91% effective

Sponge
Advantages  Safe, no hormones, immediately reversible  Lubrication may increase pleasure  Does not affect future fertility

Disadvantages  Irritating to the vagina  Does not protect against HIV/AIDS  Can be messy

Diaphragms
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a rubber domeshaped device holds spermicide in place over the cervix (opening to the uteru s) Spermicide kills sperm, preventing fertilization. 86-94% effective

Diaphragms
Advantages  Can be inserted 2 hours before sex.  Easy to carry around, comfortable.  Does not alter menstrual cycles.  Does not affect future fertility.
Disadvantages  Does not protect against HIV/AIDS.  Requires a fitting in a clinic.  Needs occasional refitting.  Possible allergic reaction.  May increase risk of bladder infections.  Can be messy.

Cervical Cap
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thimble-shaped latex rubber barrier device block sperm from entering the uterus and prevents fertilization. inserted into the vagina and fits snugly over the cervix. used with spermicidal jellies or creams that kill sperm 84-91% effective (not yet conceived a child) 68-74% effective (already given birth )

Cervical Cap
Advantages  Can be inserted many hours before sex play.  Easy to carry around, comfortable.  Does not alter the menstrual cycle.  Does not affect future fertility.  May help you better know your body.
Disadvantages  Does not protect against HIV/AIDS  Requires a fitting in a clinic.  Some women cannot be fitted.  Can be difficult to insert or remove.  Can be dislodged during intercourse.  Possible allergic reactions.

Vaginal Ring
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a thin, transparent, flexible ring insert into the vagina yourself leaving in for 3 weeks, slowly releases estrogen and progestin stop ovulation and thicken the cervical mucus, creating a barrier to prevent sperm from fertilizing an egg

Vaginal Ring
Advantages  Once every 3 weeks vs once every day  1 ring provides 1 month of birth control.  92-99.7% effective Disadvantages  Does not protect against any STDs  Some minor side effects from hormonal changes  Gallbladder disease  Increased vaginal discharge or irritation  Upper respiratory tract infection

Transdermal Patch

one-and-three-quarter inch square patch consists of three layers, with hormones in the adhesive layer applied to the skin (lower abdomen, buttocks or upper body, but not breasts) must be replaced every week after three weeks (three patches), have one week patch-free (get period)

Transdermal Patch
Disadvantages Advantages   99% effective in Less effective if weighing preventing pregnancy >198 pounds  Requires no daily  Reaction at the application attention site  No need to insert a device before intercourse  Some minor side effects from hormonal changes  Upper respiratory infection  Increased menstrual cramps  Increased risk of blood clots, heart attack and stroke

Intrauterine Device (IUD)

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a small object inserted through the cervix and placed in the uterus a small string hangs down from the IUD into the upper part of the vagina can last 1-10 years inhibited sperm transport diminished sperm survival capacitation

Intrauterine Device (IUD)
Advantages  Allows sexual spontaneity  Requires no daily attention  Immediately effective

Not noticeable during intercourse

Disadvantages  Does not protect against STDs  Insertion and removal require clinic visits  Can be expelled  Can cause more difficult menstrual periods  Possible risk to future fertility  Pain, bleeding  Perforation of uterus  Can cause inflammation

Contraception Implant

one or six match-sized rods inserted underneath the skin (on the inner aspect of the upper arm) release a steady dose of progestogen (stops ovulation) the rods cervical mucus becomes thicker to block sperm from entering the uterus lining of uterus becomes thinner to reduce chances of pregnancy can last 5 years

Contraception Implant
Advantages  Can be used during lactation  Discreet, virtually invisible  Extended protection  Contain no estrogen  Minimal requirement for medical follow-up  Rapid reversibility  Low, stable serum hormone levels minimizing metabolic effects Disadvantages  Headache  Menstrual Bleeding Irregularities  Weight Change  Depression,  Ovarian Cysts  Breast Tenderness

Oral Contraception
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based on dose and type of hormone the first-generation birth control pills contained ethinyl estradiol or mestranol and progestin 2 type
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combination progestin only

Ethinyl Estradiol

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helps prevent the selection of a dominant follicle by suppressing pituitary FSH provides stability to the endometrium decreasing breakthrough bleeding

Progestin

inhibit ovulation by suppressing GnRH pulsatility possibly inhibiting release of gonadotropin hormone impair implantation and produce thickness scanty cervical mucus that retards sperm penetration

Combined Oral Contraceptives (COCs)
Prevent ovulation
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Progestin effects Estrogenic effects

www.cvmbs.colostate.edu/bms/640_BS_oralcontsld.ppt

Progestin Only

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for administration of progestin-only contraception includes women with contraindications to estrogen, breastfeeding mothers, and older women inhibition of ovulation and more impact of thickening cervical mucus ("hostile environment") inhibiting sperm penetration can be used for emergency contraception

Oral Contraception
Advantages  Periods may be lighter or more regular.  Easy to use.  Does not harm future fertility.  May protect against uterine and ovarian cancers.  May reduce acne.
Disadvantages  Does not protect against STDs including HIV/ AIDS.  Must be taken every day.  Less effective when taken with some drugs.  Raised risk of heart attack and stroke.

Emergency Contraception
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“the morning after pill” prevents pregnancy after sex 2 types

Progestin-only pills - reducing pregnancy risk by 89% Combined Pill Regimens (progestin & estrogen) - - reducing pregnancy risk by 75%

Non-appliance Methods
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Coitus interruptus Coitus reservatus Prolonged lactation Calendar method Temperature method Cervical mucous method

Coitus Interruptus
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“withdrawal” “being careful” “taking care” take penis out of vagina before orgasm (out side secretion)

Coitus Interruptus
Advantages  instant  need no device  no cost Disadvantages  both worry when making love  reduce chance of orgasm in women  prostatic hypertrophy

Coitus Reservatus
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“withholding” men control himself not to orgasm more difficult than coitus interruptus advantages & disadvantages same as coitus interruptus

Prolonged lactation
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prolactin inhibit FSH & LH prolonged postpartum amenorrhea anovulation

Prolonged lactation
Advantages  natural (no harm)  need no device  no cost Disadvantages  only postpartum  ovulation even if amenorrhea

Calendar Method

Temperature Method

basal body temperature (BBT)
- in the morning before get up

woman thermometer

Cervical Mucous Method