453 Telecommunication For Business

To: Prof Rachna Gupta A Managerial Orientation ver 1.0 By: Bhisham Padha 45 MBA 07

• The very first device that had fundamentally the same functionality as a router does today, i.e a packet switch, was the Interface Message Processor (IMP); IMPs were the devices that made up the ARPANET, the first packet switching network. • The idea for a router (although they were called "gateways" at the time) initially came about through an international group of computer networking researchers called the International Network Working Group (INWG). Set up in 1972 as an informal group to consider the technical issues involved in connecting different networks, later that year it became a subcommittee of the International Federation

"Basically, what I did for my PhD research in 1961–1962 was to establish a mathematical theory of packet networks."
Leonard Kleinrock, Ph.D. (born June 13, 1934 in New York) is a computer scientist, and a professor of computer science at UCLA

Made fundamental contributions to the mathematical theory of modern data networks, for the functional specification of packet switching which is the foundation of the Internet

made several important contributions to the field of computer networking, in particular to the theoretical side of computer networking. He also played an important role in the development of the ARPANET at UCLA. His most well-known and significant work is his early work on queueing theory, which has applications in many fields, among them as a key mathematical background to packet switching, the basic technology behind the Internet. His initial contribution to this field was his doctoral thesis in 1962, published in book form in 1964; he later

Packet Switching & ARPA
• In 1969, ARPANET, the world's first packet switched computer network, was established on October 29 between nodes at Kleinrock's lab at UCLA and Douglas Engelbart's lab at SRI. Interface Message Processors (IMP) at both sites served as the backbone of the first Internet. • In addition to SRI and UCLA, the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah were part of the original four network nodes. By December 5, 1969, the initial 4-node network was connected. • In 1988, Kleinrock was the chairman of a group that presented the report Toward a National Research Network to the U.S. Congress . This report was highly influential upon then-Senator Al Gore who used it to develop the Gore Bill or the High Performance Computing Act of 1991, which was influential in the development of the Internet as it is known today. In particular, it led indirectly to the development of the 1993 web browser MOSAIC, which was created at National Center for Supercomputing

Packet switching is a network communications method that groups all transmitted data, irrespective of content, type, or structure into suitably-sized blocks, called packets. The network over which packets are transmitted is a shared network which routes each packet independently from all others and allocates transmission resources as needed. The principal goals of packet switching are to optimize utilization of available link capacity and to increase the robustness of communication. When traversing network adapters, switches and other network nodes, packets are buffered and queued, resulting in variable delay and throughput, depending on the traffic load in the

• As signals travel along a network cable or any other medium of transmission), they degrade and become distorted in a process that is called attenuation. If a cable is long enough, the attenuation will finally make a signal unrecognizable by the receiver. • A Repeater enables signals to travel longer distances over a network. Repeaters work at the OSI's Physical layer. A repeater regenerates the received signals and then retransmits the regenerated (or conditioned) signals on other segments.

To pass data through the repeater in a usable fashion from one segment to the next, the packets and the Logical Link Control (LLC) protocols must be the same on the each segment. This means that a repeater will not enable communication, for example, between an 802.3 segment (Ethernet) and an 802.5 segment (Token Ring). That is, they cannot translate an Ethernet packet into a Token Ring packet. In

Like a repeater, a bridge can join segments or workgroup LANs. However, a bridge can also divide a network to isolate traffic or problems. For example, if the volume of traffic from one or two computers or a single department is flooding the network with data and slowing down entire operation, a bridge can isolate those computers or

Bridges can be used to:
• Expand the distance of a segment. • Provide for an increased number of computers on the network. • Reduce traffic bottlenecks resulting from an excessive number of attached computers.

• Bridges work at the Data Link Layer of the OSI model. Because they work at this layer, all information contained in the higher levels of the OSI model is unavailable to them. Therefore, they do not distinguish between one protocol and another. • Bridges simply pass all protocols along the network. Because all protocols pass across the bridges, it is up to the individual computers to determine which protocols they can recognize. • A bridge works on the principle that each network node has its own address. A bridge forwards the packets based on the address of the particular destination node. • As traffic passes through the bridge, information about the computer addresses is then stored in the bridge's RAM. The bridge will then use this RAM to build a

In an environment consisting of several network segments with different protocols and architecture, a bridge may not be adequate for ensuring fast communication among all of the segments. A complex network needs a device, which not only knows the address of each segment, but also can determine the best path for sending data and filtering broadcast traffic to the local

is a networking device whose software and hardware are usually tailored to the tasks
Routing Routing is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send network traffic. Routing is performed for many kinds of networks, including the telephone network, electronic data networks (such as the Internet), and transportation networks. This article is concerned primarily with routing in electronic data networks using packet switching technology. In packet switching networks, routing directs packet

Forwarding is the relaying of packets from one network segment to another by nodes in a computer network. The simplest forwarding model - unicasting involves a packet being relayed from link to link along a chain leading from the packet's source to its destination. However, other forwarding strategies are commonly used. Broadcasting requires a packet to be duplicated and copies sent on multiple links with the goal of delivering a copy to every device on the network. In practice, broadcast packets are not forwarded everywhere on a network, but only to devices within a broadcast domain, making broadcast a relative term. Less common than broadcasting, but perhaps of greater utility and theoretical significance is multicasting, where a packet is selectively duplicated and copies

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Networking technologies tend to naturally support certain forwarding models. For example, fiber optics and copper cables run directly from one machine to another form natural unicast media - data transmitted at one end is received by only one machine at the other end. However, as illustrated in the diagrams, nodes can forward packets to create multicast or broadcast distributions from naturally unicast media. Likewise, traditional Ethernet (10BASE5 and 10BASE2, but not the more modern 10BASE-T) are natural broadcast media - all the nodes are attached to a single, long cable and a packet transmitted by one device is seen by every other device attached to the cable. Ethernet nodes implement unicast by ignoring packets not directly addressed to them. A wireless network is naturally multicast - all devices within a reception radius of a transmitter can receive its

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The forwarding decision is generally made using one of two processes: routing, which uses information encoded in a device's address to infer its location on the network, or bridging, which makes no assumptions about where addresses are located and depends heavily on broadcasting to locate unknown addresses. The heavy overhead of broadcasting has led to the dominance of routing in large networks, particularly the Internet; bridging is largely relegated to small networks where the overhead of broadcasting is tolerable. However, since large networks are usually composed of many smaller networks linked together, it would be inaccurate to state that bridging has no use

At nodes where multiple outgoing links are available, the choice of which, all, or any to use for forwarding a given packet requires a decision making process that, while simple in concept, is of sometimes bewildering complexity. Since a forwarding decision must be made for every packet handled by a node, the total time required for this can become a major limiting factor in overall network performance. Much of the design effort of highspeed routers and switches has been focused on

Routers work at the Network layer of the OSI model meaning that the Routers can switch and route packets across multiple networks. They do this by exchanging protocol-specific information between separate networks. Routers have access to more information in packets than bridges, and use this information to improve packet deliveries. Routers are usually used in a complex network situation because they provide better traffic management than bridges and do not

Routers operate in two different planes [2]: Control plane, in which the router learns the outgoing interface that is most appropriate for forwarding specific packets to specific destinations, Forwarding plane, which is responsible for the actual process of sending a packet received on a logical interface

Control plane
Control plane processing leads to the construction of what is variously called a routing table or routing information base (RIB). The RIB may be used by the Forwarding Plane to look up the outbound interface for a given packet, or, depending on the router implementation, the Control Plane may populate a separate forwarding information base (FIB) with destination information. RIBs are optimized for efficient updating with control mechanisms such as routing protocols, while FIBs are optimized for the fastest possible lookup of the information needed to select the outbound

Forwarding a.k.a data plane
For the pure Internet Protocol (IP) forwarding function, router design tries to minimize the state information kept on individual packets. Once a packet is forwarded, the router should no longer retain statistical information about it. It is the sending and receiving endpoints that keeps information about such things as errored or missing packets. Forwarding decisions can involve decisions at layers other than the IP internetwork layer or OSI layer 3. Again, the marketing term switch can be applied to devices that have these capabilities. A function that forwards based on data link layer, or OSI layer 2, information, is properly called a bridge. Marketing literature

• Routers can share status and routing information with one another and use this information to bypass slow or malfunctioning connections. • Routers do not look at the destination node address; they only look at the network address. Routers will only pass the information if the network address is known. This ability to control the data passing through the router reduces the amount of traffic between networks and allows routers to use these links more

• Routers for Internet connectivity and internal use • Small Office Home Office (SOHO) connectivity • Enterprise routers

Gateways make communication possible between different architectures and environments. They repackage and convert data going from one environment to another so that each environment can understand the other's environment data.

A gateway repackages information to match the requirements of the destination system. Gateways can change the format of a message so that it will conform to the application program at the receiving end of the transfer. A gateway links two systems that do not use the same: Communication protocols  Data formatting structures Languages Architecture

A firewall is a part of a computer system or network that is designed to block unauthorized access while permitting outward communication. It is also a device or set of devices configured to permit, deny, encrypt, decrypt, or proxy all computer traffic between different security domains based upon a set of rules and other criteria.

Firewalls can be implemented in both hardware and software, or a combination of both. Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private networks connected to the Internet, especially intranets. All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which examines each message and blocks those that do

Firewall technique
Packet filter: Looks at each packet entering or leaving the network and accepts or rejects it based on userdefined rules. Packet filtering is fairly effective and transparent to users, but it is difficult to configure. In addition, it is susceptible to IP spoofing. Application gateway: Applies security mechanisms to specific applications, such as FTP and Telnet servers. This is very effective, but can impose a performance degradation. Circuit-level gateway: Applies security mechanisms when a TCP or UDP connection is established. Once the connection has been made, packets can flow between the hosts without further checking. Proxy server: Intercepts all messages entering and leaving the network. The proxy server effectively hides the true network addresses.

A firewall's basic task is to regulate some of the flow of traffic between computer networks of different trust levels. Typical examples are the Internet which is a zone with no trust and an internal network which is a zone of higher trust. A zone with an intermediate trust level, situated between the Internet and a trusted internal network, is often referred to

Without proper configuration, a firewall can often become worthless. Standard security practices dictate a "default-deny" firewall ruleset, in which the only network connections which are allowed are the ones that have been explicitly allowed. Unfortunately, such a configuration requires detailed understanding of the network applications and endpoints required for the organization's day-to-day operation. Many businesses lack such understanding, and therefore implement a "default-allow" ruleset, in which all traffic is allowed unless it has been specifically blocked. This

Firewall History
Firewall technology emerged in the late 1980s when the Internet was a fairly new technology in terms of its global use and connectivity. The predecessors to firewalls for network security were the routers used in the late 1980s to separate networks from one another. The view of the Internet as a relatively small community of compatible users who valued openness for sharing and collaboration was ended by a

First generation - packet filters The first paper published on firewall technology was in 1988, when engineers from Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) developed filter systems known as packet filter firewalls. This fairly basic system was the first generation of what would become a highly evolved and technical internet security feature. At AT&T Bell Labs, Bill Cheswick and Steve Bellovin were continuing their research in packet filtering and developed a working model for their own company based upon their original first generation architecture. Packet filters act by inspecting the "packets" which represent the basic unit of data transfer between computers on the Internet. If a packet matches the packet filter's set of rules, the packet filter will drop (silently discard) the packet, or reject it (discard it, and send "error responses" to the source). This type of packet filtering pays no attention to whether a packet is part of an existing stream of traffic (it stores no information on connection "state"). Instead, it filters each packet based only on information contained in the packet itself (most commonly using a combination of the packet's source and destination address, its protocol, and, for TCP and UDP traffic, the port number). TCP and UDP protocols comprise most communication over the Internet, and because TCP and UDP traffic by convention uses well known ports for particular types of traffic, a "stateless" packet filter can distinguish between, and thus control, those types of traffic (such as web browsing, remote printing, email transmission, file transfer), unless the machines on each side of the packet filter are both using the same non-standard ports.

Second generation - "stateful" filters Main article: Stateful firewall From 1989-1990 three colleagues from AT&T Bell Laboratories, Dave Presetto, Janardan Sharma, and Kshitij Nigam developed the second generation of firewalls, calling them circuit level firewalls. Second(2nd) Generation firewalls in addition regard placement of each individual packet within the packet series. This technology is generally referred to as a stateful packet inspection as it maintains records of all connections passing through the firewall and is able to determine whether a packet is either the start of a new connection, a part of an existing connection, or is an invalid packet. Though there is still a set of static rules in such a firewall, the state of a connection can in itself be one of the criteria which trigger specific rules. This type of firewall can help prevent attacks which exploit

Third generation - application layer Main article: Application layer firewall Publications by Gene Spafford of Purdue University, Bill Cheswick at AT&T Laboratories, and Marcus Ranum described a third generation firewall known as an application layer firewall, also known as a proxy-based firewall. Marcus Ranum's work on the technology spearheaded the creation of the first commercial product. The product was released by DEC who named it the DEC SEAL product. DEC’s first major sale was on June 13, 1991 to a chemical company based on the East Coast of the USA. TIS, under a broader DARPA contract, developed the Firewall Toolkit (FWTK), and made it freely available under license on October 1, 1993. The purposes for releasing the freely-available, not for commercial use, FWTK were: to demonstrate, via the software, documentation, and methods used, how a company with (at the time) 11 years' experience in formal security methods, and individuals with firewall experience, developed firewall software; to create a common base of very good firewall software for others to build on (so people did not have to continue to "roll their own" from scratch); and to "raise the bar" of firewall software being used. The key benefit of application layer filtering is that it can "understand" certain applications and protocols (such as File Transfer Protocol, DNS, or web browsing), and it can detect whether an unwanted protocol is being sneaked through on a non-standard port or whether a protocol is being abused in any harmful way.

There are several classifications of firewalls depending on where the communication is taking place, where the communication is intercepted and the state that is being traced.

Network layer and packet filters
Network layer firewalls, also called packet filters, operate at a relatively low level of the TCP/IP protocol stack, not allowing packets to pass through the firewall unless they match the established rule set. The firewall administrator may define the rules; or default rules may apply. The term "packet filter" originated in the context of BSD operating systems. Network layer firewalls generally fall into two sub-categories, stateful and stateless. Stateful firewalls maintain context about active sessions, and use that "state information" to speed packet processing. Any existing network connection can be described by several properties, including source and destination IP address, UDP or TCP ports, and the current stage of the connection's lifetime (including session initiation, handshaking, data transfer, or completion connection). If a packet does not match an existing connection, it will be evaluated according to the ruleset for new connections. If a packet matches an existing connection based on comparison with the firewall's state table, it will be allowed to pass without further processing. Stateless firewalls require less memory, and can be faster for simple filters that require less time to filter than to look up a session. They may also be necessary for filtering stateless network protocols that have no concept of a session. However, they cannot make more complex decisions based on what stage communications between hosts have reached. Modern firewalls can filter traffic based on many packet attributes like source IP address, source port, destination IP address or port, destination service like WWW or FTP. They can filter based on protocols, TTL values, netblock of originator, domain name of the source, and many other attributes.

Application layer
Application-layer firewalls work on the application level of the TCP/IP stack (i.e., all browser traffic, or all telnet or ftp traffic), and may intercept all packets traveling to or from an application. They block other packets (usually dropping them without acknowledgment to the sender). In principle, application firewalls can prevent all unwanted outside traffic from reaching protected machines. On inspecting all packets for improper content, firewalls can restrict or prevent outright the spread of networked computer worms and trojans. In practice, however, this becomes so complex and so difficult to attempt (given the variety of applications and the diversity of content each may allow in its packet traffic) that comprehensive firewall design does not generally attempt this approach. The XML firewall exemplifies a more recent kind of

A proxy device (running either on dedicated hardware or as software on a general-purpose machine) may act as a firewall by responding to input packets (connection requests, for example) in the manner of an application, whilst blocking other packets. Proxies make tampering with an internal system from the external network more difficult and misuse of one internal system would not necessarily cause a security breach exploitable from outside the firewall (as long as the application proxy remains intact and properly configured). Conversely, intruders may hijack a publicly-reachable system and use it as a proxy for their own purposes; the proxy then masquerades as that system to other internal machines. While use of internal address spaces enhances security, crackers may still employ methods such as IP spoofing to attempt to pass packets to a target network.