Prokaryotes and Viruses Diversity of Prokaryotes Reproduction and Classification Ecological Roles and Disease A. Prokaryotes 1.

Formerly Kingdom Monera held all Prokaryotes a. No nucleus or membrane bound organelles b. Unicellular c. Now broken into Domain Archaea and Domain Bacteria


Diversity of Prokaryotes A. Prokaryotes B. Domain Archaea

C. Domain Bacteria

B. Domain Archaea

(Kingdom Archaebacteria)
1. First found in extreme environments (now found everywhere) Over 3.5 billion years old Cell walls usually lack peptidoglycan Unusual lipid membranes Introns (like eukaryotes)


There are four major groups of Archaea
a. Methanogens - produce methane gas (found in bogs, swamps, and digestive tracts) (CO2 +H2 CH4 +H2O) b. Hyperthermoacidophileslive in hot, acidic springs (up to 113OC, pH 2) c. Extreme Halophiles tolerate very salty conditions (use salt to generate ATP)_

2. 3. 4. 5.

C. Domain Bacteria
(Kingdom Eubacteria) 1. Structures a. Cell membrane – similar to eukaryotic lipid bilayer (membrane creates proton gradient for cellular respiration) (Photoautotrophs have folds similar to thylakoids in chloroplasts) b. Cytoplasm – contains ribosomes and DNA (Main DNA is single loop. Some have selfreplicating plasmids)_ c. Cell wall composed of peptidoglycan (gram + stain purple)

(gram – stain light red)
d. Capsule – polysaccharide slime (Protects against drying, chemicals, white blood cells) e. Glycocalyx – capsule consists of a sticky, fuzzy coat of sugars for attachment to host cells f. Pili – hairlike protein structures for adhering and transfer of genetic material_

2. Movement a. flagellum, flagella or tufts of flagella b. Wave contractions of outer membrane c. Spirilla use corkscrew rotations_ 3. Endospores a. dormant, protective structure consisting of thick covering and DNA b. Gram + only c. -250OC  >100OC d. Chemical resistant >50 years_

4. Nutrition a. Saprophytes – obtain nutrients from dead organic matter b. Photoautotrophs photosynthesis c. Chemoautotrophs – remove electrons from inorganic molecules 5. Respiration a. Obligate anaerobes – O2 poison (clostridium tetani) b. Facultative anaerobes – (Escherichia coli of digestive tract) c. Obligate aerobes – (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)_

6. Shapes and Sizes
a. about 1-10 um b. bacilli (rod) c. cocci (sphere) d. spirilla (spiral) e. strepto = chain f. staphylo = cluster g. diplo = 2_

Reproduction and Classification A. Reproduction B. Classification

A. Reproduction 1. Binary fission- 1 cell divides into 2 daughter cells a. divide every 20 minutes

2. Genetic recombination: a. transformation- DNA introduced by environment b. transduction- DNA introduced by a virus c. conjugationdonor has specialized plasmid and pilus pilus attaches to mate and becomes conjugation bridge

B. Classification 1. Bacteria can be divided into about 12 major phyla a. proteobacteria

b. cyanobacteria
c. spirochetes d. gram + bacteria e. prochlorophyta_

Plasmid replicates and one crosses over followed by fission_

2. Proteobacteria - Largest, most diverse group (Gram -) a. Enteric Bacteria Heterotrophs Aerobic or anaerobic E.coli (Vitamin K) Salmonella (Wide use of antibiotics?) b. Chemoautotrophs Extract energy from minerals (remove electrons) c. Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria N2  NO3 in root nodules of legumes (crop rotation)

3. Cyanobacteria – Formerly Schizophyta a. Jelly-like Encasements b. Colonies c. Produced much of the atmosphere’s oxygen d. heterocysts e. fossilized cyanobacteria formed stromatolites f. eutrophication g. endosymbiosis

4. Spirochetes
a. Gram – b. Spiral Shape c. Corkscrew rotation d. Aerobic or anaerobic e. Free, symbiotic, parastic f. Syphillis 5. Prochlorophyta a. Photosynthetic

6. Gram + Phylum (No lipopolysaccharide outer membrane)
a. Not all Gram + b. Lactobacilli – tooth decay via lactic acid c. Streptococci – strep throat d. Actinobacteria – (Formerly actinomycota) branching filaments in soil many produce antibiotics

b. Live symbiotically with tunicates
c. Genus Prochloron contains chlorophyl a and b pigments similar to those in eukaryotes

Ecological Roles and Disease A. Beneficial Bacteria B. Pathogenic Bacteria A. Beneficial Bacteria 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Decomposers recycle Flavor food

(cheese, sauerkraut, pickles)
Convert alcohol to vinegar Break down cellulose Leather industry Antibiotics Nitrogen fixers Insulin production


Bioremediation (sewage, oil, sulfur)

10. Produce vitamins

B. Pathogenic Bacteria 1. Endotoxins a. Lipids and carbohydrates in certain Gram membranes b. Released upon bacterial death causing fever, body aches, weakness, and blood vessel damage 2. Exotoxins a. Proteins constantly released from certain Gram + or Gram bacteria b. Ex. Tetanus

3. Tissue Destruction a. Bacteria adhere to cells and digest membranes

b. Some streptococci produce blood clot dissolving enzymes that cause infection to spread 4. Antibiotics
a. Penicillin – interferes with cell wall synthesis b. Tetracycline – interferes with protein synthesis c. Broad spectrum d. Sulfa Drugs

5. Bacterial Diseases a. Bubonic plague b. Diptheria c. Botulism d. Tetanus e. Tuberculosis

6. Prevention a. Antiseptics

c. d. e.

Freezing Pasteurization Hygiene

f. Anthrax
g. Pneumonia h. Whooping Cough i. Syphilis j. Gonorrhea k. Typhoid