KULIAH 1

PENGENALAN KONSEP TINGKAH LAKU

DAN MODIFIKASI TINGKAH LAKU

Definisi tingkah laku

- apa yang orang kata dan lakukan (Actions)

- mempunyai satu atau lebih dimensi (Dimensios)
- boleh diperhati, dihurai dan direkod (Observable and Measurable)

- dalam bentuk overt or covert.

Examples of behavior Martha sits at her computer and types a letter to her mother Action Dimension : pressing the keys on the keyboard : frequency of pressing keys, duration of typing Is observable and measurable Overt behavior

Aminah (usia 1 tahun) tidur dalam buaian dan menangis dengan kuatnya. Ibunya kemudian mengangkatnya dan memberinya susu. Action : Dimension: Is it observable? Is it overt or covert behavior?

Kecerdasan .Kreativiti .Sikap .Adakah ini tingkah laku? .Motivasi -------------.Marah .lebel tingkah laku .

with the goal of improving some aspect of the person’s life} * An alternative term for behavior medification is applied behavior analysis .Definisi Modifikasi tingkah laku Behavior modification is the field of psychology concerned with analyzing and modifying human behavior Analyzing: identifying the functional relationship between the environment and a particular behavior to understand the reason for behavior or to determine why a person behaved as he or she did. Modifying: developing and implementing procedures to help people change their behavior. It involves altering environmental events so as to influence behavior. { Behavior Modification Procedures : instruments that are used to help a person change socially significant behaviors.

Common Misconceptions About Behavior Modification • • • • Relies on punishment Uses bribes Simplistic Ignores the real causes of behavior. just treats the symptoms Leads to people controlling each other Ruins intrinsic motivation Makes people dependent on external incentives Dehumanizes people Behavior modification only works with kids and retarded people • • • • • .

Bagaimana tingkah laku berkembang Pembelajaran: Tingkah laku dipelajari Perkaitan antara rangsangan dgn rangsangan Ganjaran dan hukuman Pemerhatian / permodelan Proses kognitif Secara tidak sengaja Adakah t/laku terhasil dari baka?? .

Bagaimana tingkah laku berkembang Kaedah pembelajaran: Pembelajaran Klasik (Pembelajaran berlaku secara perkaitan antara rangsangan tak terlazim dengan rangsangan terlazim) Pembelajaran operan (Pembelajaran berlaku secara perkaitan antara rangsangan dan tindak balas) Pembelajaran Kognitif (pembelajaran berlaku dari aktiviti proses mental) .

laku sasaran) ….Ciri-ciri Modifikasi Tingkah laku -Fokus kepada tingkah laku T/Laku yang boleh diubah (T.. T/Laku excess atau t/laku deficit (**) -Berasaskan prinsisp-prinsip tingkah laku Berdasarkan kajian eksperimen dalam makmal – eksperimen analisis tingkah laku / Analisis tingkah laku gunaan -Menekankan kepada peristiwa dalam persekitaran masa kini T/laku dikawal oleh peristiwa (p/ubah kawalan) di persekitaran– MTL digunakan mengawal peristiwa tersebut -Menghuraikan prosedur modifikasi dengan tepat Prosedur MTL perlu digunakan dgn betul .

Jgn buat andaian kerana tidak saintifik . Biasanya orang ini telah terlatih -Mengukur perubahan tingkah laku Perlu direkod/ dinilai secara berterusan utk ketahui adakah perubahan itu kekal dlm masa yang panjang -Menekankan semula peristiwa-peristiwa lalu yang menyebabkan sesuatu tingkah laku berlaku. pensyarah yang bertujuan utk mengubah t/laku. Dptkan rekod/maklumat berguna yg berkaitan dengan tingkah laku yang hendak diubah -Menolak ramalan yang berkaitan dengan penyebab sesuatu tingkah laku.Rawatan yang diamalkan oleh manusia dalam kehidupan seharian.Ciri-ciri Modifikasi Tingkah laku .penyelia. MTL diamalkan oleh guru-guru.

.Individu yang suka menyampuk perbualan orang lain. Tingkah laku berkurangan (deficit) Kurang dimensi bagi sesuatu tingkah laku tertentu Cth.Tingkah laku bermasalah Tingkah laku yang boleh dimotivasikan 1.Pelajar yang tidak siapkan esei/ malas belajar .Individu yang tidak beri perhati kepada peraturan .malas Tingkah laku berlebihan (Excesses) Terlalu banyak dimensi bagi sesuatu tingkah laku tertentu Cth: . -Merokok secara berlebihan 2.Pekerja yang suka ponteng kerja. .

Contoh-contoh tingkah laku yang memerlukan prosedur modifikasi tingkah laku. 2. 3.Membuang sampah: Individu yang tidak ada inisiatif membersihkan semula tempat perkelahannya selepas digunakan atau individu yang suka membuang sampah bukannya di tempat pembuangan sampah. sedangkan rakan-rakan lain berseronok dan berinteraksi antara satu sama lain. .Tingkah laku menyendiri diri: Seseorang yang suka bersendirian sama ada dalam kerja atau pergaulan. 1. belajar sambil berbual.Belajar secara tidak berkesan: Belajar disaat akhir.

tempat tinggi atau geli dengan lipas.Contoh-contoh tingkah laku yang memerlukan prosedur modifikasi tingkah laku. tikus. 6. Pengurusan pekerja: tingkah laku ponteng kerja. Fobia: Takut (gayat) menaiki kapal terbang. kurang bermotivasi. 7 . Memandu dengan laju: Memandu tanpa mengambil kira tahap kelajuan yang dibenarkan ketika di lebuh raya. Merokok secara berlebihan: menghisap rokok sebanyak 1 kotak dalam masa 1 jam. 5. Samb 4.

Industry. and Human Services (Modifikasi t/laku organisasi/mengurus t/laku organisasi) Self Management Child management Prevention Sports Psychology Health Related Behavior Gerontology .Bidang-bidang yang mengamalkan MTL Developmental Disablities Mental Illness Education and Special education Rehabilitation Community Psychology Clinical Psychology Business.

Kuliah 2: Analisis tingkah laku: Memerhati dan Merekod Tingkah laku * How do you define a target behavior in a behavior modification programme * What different methods can you use to record a target behavior? * How does continuous recording differ from interval and time sample recording * What is reactivity of behavior recording and how can you minimize it? * What is interobserver reliability and why it is important? .

Can provide information that helps you choose the best treatment. Why behavior assessment is important? .Allows you determine weather the behavior changed after the treatment was implement. . pengkaji perlu tentukan secara tepat sama ada apa yang dikatakan atau dilakukan itu tingkah laku sasaran yang hendak diubah itu jenis berkurangan atau berlebihan. . How do you know that you will fails this subjects?---Peringatan!!!! @ Apabila mendifinisikan tingkah laku sasaran.Can help to determine weather treatment is necessary . @ Definisi tingkah laku sasaran itu mesti objektif dan tidak kabur.What is target behavior? # behavior that you want to modify # It also called behavior assessment.

How to define of target behavior: 1. Look at the characteristics of target behavior to be record Topography: Form of a particular response Amount: Frequency – The number of instances of the behavior that occur in a given period time Duration – The length of time that occurs within some period Intensity: Force of response (utilized instrumentation) . Eg: Voice meter to measure the loudness of voice. Stimulus control: The conditions under which behavior might be observed to occur Latency: The time between the occurrence of a stimulus and the beginning of a response. Quality: .

Look at the types of target behavior .Is it an operant behavior .Determine the alternative behavior .2.Is it a respondent behavior .

biting). Any time Ah Seng finger is in his mouth and his teeth are closed together on the fingernail. cuticle. . Asertif (Assertiveness) When Ali says no to someone who ask him to do something that is not a part of her job / When he asks co-worker not to smoke in her office. When Ahmad cries an sobs / lies on the floor and kicks then floor or walls / pounds toys or other objects on the floor Mengigit jari (Nail. or skin around the nail’. Belajar ? ……….Mendefinisi tingkah laku sasaran Panas baran (Tantrum).

( Menggunakan instrument – soalselidik. temuduga. skala pengkadaran). Penilaian yang mana lebih tepat? .Jenis penilaian tingkah laku -Penilaian langsung ( Pemerhatian semulajadi) -Penilaian tidak secara langsung .

Merekod tingkah laku Perkara-perkara diperlukan ketika merekod * Pemerhati a professional / routinely assosiated with the client / must have proximity to the client / must have time to observe and record / willing to function as observer * Bila dan di mana kerja-kerja merekod hendak dijalankan When - in a specific observation period ( at the time that target behavior In naturals setting / contrived setting whre the target behavior typically occurs Where- .

MEMILIH KAEDAH MEREKOD Lain aspek tingkah laku sasaran yang hendak diukur. Merekod secara berterusan (Identify onset and offset (beginning and end) of instance of the behavior) Method : frequency(amount) / duration / intensity / latency Merekod hasil: atau merekod hasil tetap Record the tangible outcome or permanent product of the occurrence of the behavior indirect assessment method ( using instrument like units product / record number) . kaedah lain digunakan untuk merekod.

(Type of interval recording – partial interval recording / whole interval recording) Merekod contoh masa Record the occurrence or nonoccurrent of behavior in discontinuous interval time (time samples) during an observation period.MEMILIH KAEDAH MEREKOD Merekod secara interval Record the occurrence or nonoccurrent of behavior in consecutive intervals of time during an observations period. .

Data sheet – most effectively .Others instrument Rekabentuk kajian .A-B-A-B design .Stop-watch .Memilih Instrumen merekod: .A – B design ( A = baseline) / (B = treatment) .Multiple design .

Kad Data kekerapan Kad Data kekerapan Nama: Pemerhati: Definisi tingkah laku sasaran: Tarikh 1 2 3 4 5 Kekerapan 6 7 8 9 10 11 Jumlah .

60 Jumlah 3 jam 35 minit .30 9.Kad Data Duration Kad Data Duration Nama: Pemerhati: Definisi tingkah laku sasaran: Tarikh Date 1 /1/07 Onset 8.00 1 Offset 8.10 Duration 2 3 Onset Offset Onset Offset 9.40 10.45 10.

Rekabentuk A-B Sesi Baseline 1 2 3 S T Sesi Treatment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 S T S T S Min T/Laku T .

Kad Data Interval Kad Data Interval Nama: Pemerhati: Definisi tingkah laku sasaran: 10 saat interval 10 20 30 40 50 Jumlah .

Graf A–B design Jumlah hadir cepat Data Dasar (A) Data rawatan (B) 1 2 3 4 Sesi 5 6 7 8 .

Graf A-B-A-B design Jumlah hadir cepat Data Dasar (A) Data Rawatan (B) Data Dasar (A) Data Rawatan (B) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Sesi 8 9 10 11 12 .

Perancangan program modifikasi Cth: Tingkah laku : Menghisap rokok Tingkah laku sasaran: Melenyapkan tingkah laku menghisap rokok semasa waktu bekerja ( 8 pagi – 5 ptg). Baseline data: Hari 1 2 3 4 5 Jumlah Bil rokok 8 7 7 5 6 33 (min : 7 batang seminggu) .

Perancangan rawatan (Treatment) Minggu I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 S Hari R K J 6 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 0 0 Sasaran Result .

.Kuliah 3 Peneguhan Tajuk yang akan dibincang meliputi: Prinsip peneguhan Peneguhan positif dan negatif Peneguhan tidak terlazim dan terlazim Faktor yang mempengaruhi keberkesanan peneguhan Jadual peneguhan.

Dua Kaedah pelaziman tingkah laku dalam proses pembelajaran Pelaziman klasik (Classical Conditioning) Pavlov’s discovery of conditioning : Conditioning through association Model asas : Stimulus Respond Food (US) salivation (UR) Semasa Pelaziman: Bell (CS) Selepas pelaziman: Bell (CS) Salivation(CR) .PRINSIP PENEGUHAN Peneguhan perlu dalam pelaziman tingkah laku.

F Skinner Model asas : Law of effect R (RESPOND) Model operan S (STIMULUS) discriminative stimulus Sd Respond Sr Reinforcing Stimulus Sr Sd . B.Pelaziman operan/ instrumental (Instrumental conditioning) Major Theorists – Edward Thorndike. John Watwon.

Apabila tingkah laku itu telah diperkuatkan. ia semakin kerap berlaku pada masa hadapan.Proses Peneguhan Proses memperkuatkan sesuatu tingkah laku menerusi pemberian kesan segera selepas tingkah laku yang dikehendaki itu berlaku. * Tingkah laku yang diperkuatkan itu dinamakan sebagai tingkah laku operan * Kesan segera yang digunakan untuk memperkuatkan tingkah laku itu dinamakan sebagai peneguh. .

4. When she can’t figure out an answer to a question. As a results. 3. she ask her friend who already took the class./t know. As a result. A teacher smiles at Johnny and praise him when he stays in his seat and pays attention in the classroom……………………… . Her friend tells her the correct answers. A woman waiting for a bus opens up her umbrella when its rains………………………………. the child now cries more often at bedtimes. •A college student is answering study guide questions for her behavior modification class.. she is more likely to ask her friend for answer to questions she does.Contoh penggunaan peneguhan dan kesan kepada tingkah laku sasaran •A child cries at night after being put to bed and her parents come to her room to comfort her and calm her down.

Kesan Peneguhan 10 Baseline Treatment 8 6 4 5 0 5 Days 10 20 .

Peneguhan Positif dan Peneguhan Negatif Keperluan – To increase the probability that the behavior will occur in the future Peneguhan Positif: . The stimulus is called Reinforcer Stimulus .which result in the strengthening of the behavior .The occurance of a behavior .is followed by the addition of stimulus or an increase in the intensity of a stimulus.Eg: Response Child tentrums in the store And immediately Consequence Mum gives him candy .

yang menjadi pergantungan tingkah laku laku yang rendah kemungkinan (tingkah laku yang bukan sasaran) bagi meningkatkan tingkah laku yang rendah kemungkinan tersebut.Prinsip PREMACK Sejenis peneguhan positif. Kaedah: Menghubungkan tingkah laku yang tinggi kemungkinan (tingkah laku sasaran). Cth: Ibubapa mahu anak lelaki(remaja) menyiapkan kerja sekolah (kurang sasaran) sebelum dia boleh pergi bermain bola (tingkah laku sasaran) .

Peneguhan Negatif: . The stimulus is called aversive stimulus) .which result in the strengthening of the behavior eg: Respond Mun buys he child candy when he tantrums in the store And immediately The child stops the tantrum Consequence .The occurance of a behavior .is followed by the removal of stimulus or the decrease in the intensity of a stimulus.

Tingkah laku mengelak (Escape) dan menafikan (Avoidance)) Tingkah yang berlaku kerana hendak mengelak dan menafikan peneguhan negatif T/laku mengelak (Escape Behavior ) = The behavior results in the termination of an aversive stimulus that was already present when the behavior occurred Tingkah laku menafikan (Aviodence Behavior) = The occurrence of the behavior prevent the presentation of an aversive stimulus. Wearing shoes results in avoidance of the heat from the hot asphalt . Cth Avoidance Behavior: A persons put on the shoes the next time she walks on the hot asphalt. Cth Escape behavior: A person steps barefoot on the hot asphalt and immediately steps on the grass. Steeping onto the grass result in escape from the heat of the hot asphalt.

Backup reinforcers can be either unconditioned reinforcers or conditioned reinforcers . They have biological importance. television programs Peneguh sokongan = backup reinforcers (A stimulus becomes a reinforcers through associated with other reinforcers. the other reinforcers are called backup reinforcers. (or called as primary reinforcers / unlearned reinforcers) Eg: food for a hungry persons / water for a thirsty person Peneguh terlazim = conditioned reinforcers ( a stimulus that was once neutral but became established as a reinforcer by being paired with an unconditioned reinforcer OR an already established conditioned reinforcers ( Its called as secondary reinforcer / learned reinforcers) Eg: praise.Peneguh Benda/peristiwa/perkara yang digunakan dalam proses peneguhan Peneguh tak terlazim = unconditioned reinforcers The natural reinforcement.

Klasifikasi peneguh Consumable .items that can eat or drink ( cookies. candy. enjoy some other item that one can posses Social – affectionate pats and hugs. surt the internet / play with favorite things possessional – private room. praise.fruit) activity – opportunities to watch televisyen. look at the picture book Manipulative – ride a bicycle. nod smiles … ( A considerable amount of trial and error may be involved in finding an appropriate reinforcers for particular individual ) .

Monetrary Promotions / paid days off / company car / pay for sicks day not taken / gift certificates / business cards / tickets for special events……. Participant Voice in policy decision / more responsibility / opportunity to learn new skills /……. Company time Extra break time / choice working hours or days off / Extra meal time/ ….Peneguh kepada pekerja Special Attention Praise (praise in front of others) / Reserved parking park / flexible job duties / choice of work partner / ….... .

a type of establishing operation that makes a stimulus less potent as a reinforcer. Instructions / rules – function as a establishing operation.Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi keberkesanan peneguhan Immediacy – It should occurred immediately after the behavior occurs. Characteristics of the consequence – the person / amount or intensity of stimulus . The establishing operations can influence by: Deprivation – a type of establishing operation that increase the effectiveness of most unconditioned and some conditioned reinforcers Satiation . Contingency – when a behavior occur consistently followed by reinforcer Establishing operations – The events or actions that change the value of a stimulus as a reinforcer ( food is more powerful reinforcer for a person who hasn’t eaten).

Produces high and steady rate of behavior. Jenis-jenis Jadual Fixed ratio (FR) = Reinforcer delivered after a certain number of responses. Produces high rate of behavior.Jadual Peneguhan Pemberian peneguhan lebih berkesan jika diberi secara bersistematik/ berjadual Klasifikasi Jadual Peneguhan Jadual Peneguhan Berterusan (CRF) – one in which each occurrence of response is reinforced Jadual Peneguhan Intermiten (IRF) – responses are occisonally / intermittently reinforced. (Fixed ratio 5 (5FR) = the reinforcer follow every fifth response) Variable ratio (VR) = Reinforcer delivered after an average of X responses. with a pause after reinforcement. with no pause after reinforcement (Variable ratio 10 (VR 10) = the ratio provided after an average of 10 responses) .

with no On and Off pattern Variable interval 20 second (VI 20 second) = sometimes the interval is more than 20 seconds and other times is less than 20 seconds. . Fixed interval 20 (FI20) = the first response that occurs after 20 seconds has elapsed results in the reinforcer. with an On-0ff pattern The response rate increases near the end of the interval. low to moderate rate of behavior. Produces a steady. Variable interval (VI) = Reinforcer delivered for the first response that occurs after a variable interval of time.Fixes interval (FI) = Reinforcer delivered for the first response that occurs after a fixed interval of time. Produces a low rate of behavior.